Paul Sharkey
The Friends of Durruti --- A Chronology
J 6 rnl.ulIo flUe cl 1.9 de Julio 10' fie, .....
contra. el fallcienlo ne:glo. el 9 de rfayo I ... hicleron 148 c:onJura,()ione.
c 1;.."lq .... de 109 partido. PC'l"ci\oNblrquele. ",lIad.,. con
cl capU all .. no Inlernadonal
Editorial Crisol, Tokyo, Japan
May 1984, the first impression of the first edition
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Editorial Crisol, Tokyo, Japan, is a one-man publishing
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( ) t ublish Paul Sharkey, The Friends of Durrut1 ---
a A 1984, in English. ,
(b) to publish the version of HaC1a una nueva
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has been putting Hacia into Japanese: He takfes
. t from materials about the Fr1ends 0
much encouragernen ,
D rruti which are sent to h1m.
u B the way during the Revolution, some Jananese
wereYinvolved'in the actual battles . Only one ,
ized He was Jac 1ral
identity has already been rec)gn • 'st who died at the
(aliaS
t
next matter.
Brune e ron, ' .', 1 N York 1953
(a) The Volunteers by Steve Ne son' ,ew , •
(b) The Book of the XV Brigade, ,193
8
• 'sited
According to a certain Japanese
S ain those days, several more But as
b
Poth the Republican camps and, the Nat10nallst camps
h
• b
, th ' ames nor d01ngs ave een
a matter of regx'et, ne1 ther elr n
known down to date., t '
If a body has informat10n, documents or tes 1monles
the above mentioned Japanese,
to him. They, even though trivial or uncerta1n, wou
appreciated invaluably. many tidings in not distant
Hopefully, he could get
future.
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211 JAPAN
Preface
My hope is that the chronology I'lhich follows may go some of the
way towards shedding some light upon the facts about the FoD group.
Because the fact is that, although nearly every textbook on the
Spanish Revolution feels obliged to mention the group in connection
with the May Events of 1937, the scrupulous reader will be confused
rather than informed by the wide variety of assertions encountered.
Even historians who mieht be expected to be scrupulously dili"ent in
their research have penned remarks that can easily be refuted or
can't be sustained by evidence. One of the earliest misrepresentations
of the FoD group Came in a pamphlet on the subject of the !.In.y Days
which was published by Ediciones Ebro. In reply, the FoD (in El Amigo
del Pueblo, no.7, 31 August 1937) accused the authors of ' ••• slipshod
worlc, poor documentation or an attempt to ex cuse the I'larped attitude
adopted by the committees concerning our intervention in those days
of fighting.' 'rhose features are readily dis covered even in more
recent authors.
The principal allegation against the PoD croup is that, with its
talk of a 'Revolutionary Junta' it was flirting with Bolshevism, Lenin
ism, Marxism. Some n.cwe seen presumption in the eetablislunent of
s uch a Junta. Yet, it was never set up, and a readin/,: of the Fon
manifesto 'Tol'lards a Fresh Revolution' will show why. The Junta was
to be elected by and accountable to the union rank and file.
[<'unctions were to be rotated and member s hip if limited duration.
Repeatedly authors refer to manifestos C),nnouncing the formi'\tion of
the Junta. According to the FoD newspaner and to Jaime Balius, it WM',
never formed. This fact alone makes nonsense of the further cl8im
the FoD wanted a Junta to which the FOUM Vlould be admitted. One
author* has sugeested that ' ••• the Junta aElsuredly have had to
comprise the POUM and the "Friends of Durruti"', though he f,oes on to
admit ' ••• though this is not stated; it cannot be otherwise.' A
of the final, lengthy s:l;atement from the FoD might have explained to
him that it could indeed have been otherwise.
Others.* have perceived in the statements of Jaime Dalius and the
FoD group the impact of Marxist activists, such as Hans Freud-!·oulin.
Yet one has only to compare the record of such as rablo TIui ,' , J:dme
Balius and Francisco Carreno with that of the youthful Moulin, or to
read the admission by those very same authors that they themselves
needed an interpreter in Spain and that :0 oulin had despaired of the
Bolshevik-Leninists' factionalism, and review Balius's consistent
outlook from 1936 onwards to realise that such as were
influenced by the FoD and not vice versa.
Hh.,'lt of the propriety of anarchists Cill) inl': for a revolutionary
Junta? Some of the harshest criticisms hC'.ve come from the leading
lights of the CN'r-FAI,and their apologists. Before entering the
republican goverment in November 1936, the CN'r .had been callinl;. for
a National Defence Council. May 1937 on the FoD were cnlling for
Revolutionary Junta. In their brochure of mid-1938 the FoD described
this as ' ••. a Revolutionary Junta or National Defence vouncil.' So
1
had departed from CN'i' policy? The FoD spoke of seizing power and
have been condemned for it. Yet Solidaridad Obrera (13 July 1937)
approvingly quotes Camillo Berneri as saying; 'Anarchists accept the
use of political-power by the proletariat, but they take that
political power to be the ensemble of communist management systems,
corporative organisms, communal, regional and national institutions,
freely constituted outside of and against the political monopoly of
one pE.rty and vIi th a view to minimal concentration of administration.'
Read the FoD brochure and Balius's articles in 1936 - 37 and spot
the difference between what he advocated and the words of Berneri.
Where, the,n, did the FoD err? Not in departing from accepted
libertarian objectives and practices but in clinging stubbornly to
them, in refusing to be seduced by They believed,
with Evelio G. Fontaura that 'To invoke the CN'r or even the FAI is
not enough, if actions turn out to be equidistant from the
revolutionary trajectory which the letters in question stand for' (
Ideas, 14 January 1937). Even in the matter of their expulsion the 'FoD
ha'dOccasion to remind the CN'l'-FAl 'leadership' of the accepted norms
of their organisations and that sovereignty resided with the rank and
file. Andre Prudhommeaux regarded the FoD's policies as approximate
to the views advanced by Bakunin after the battle of Sedan in 1670***.
'rhe chief fault of the Foll. appears to have been their too stead-
fast revolutionism. They refused to yield to the argument of
'circumstance'. They refused to be bullied by their own organisation.
'rhey were not deceived by the Stalin of the Populc>,r Front era, nor by
the Moscow trials. Nor were they afraid to acknowledge the
revolutionary credentials of Marxists. Yet they sorely resented the
description marxist when applied to themselves. In short, they were
unlucky enough to have held that anarchism was and had been and still
would be their goal. In El Amigo del Pueblo, no.3 (12 June 1937) Ada
Marti paid tribute to a POUM member, Francisco Jorda Montana, who had
nroven her revolutionary credentials by her actions. l"ittingly, it
was Ada writing elsewhere who encapsulated what the FoD were so
painfully to discover throughout their existence and in their dealings
with the CNT's 'circumstancialists'. 'And I tell you thisj there are
no friends in high places. Fear of losing their "dignity" makes them
strike majestic poses which distance them from remembrance of their
friends.' (Esfuerzo, Baroelona, 7 October 1937)
Paul Sharkey
April 1984
* Helmut Ruediger, El Anarcosindicalismo en la Revolucion
Espanola, Barcelona 1938, p.32. Elsewhere (p.29) Ruediger attempts
to explain away the emergence of a disaffected libertarian press
(including El Amigo del Pueblo) py alluding to the ' ••• unduly bland
nature of certain official organs.' For Ruediger's own adherence to
the precepts of anarchism, . see Manuel Azaretto, Las Pendientes
Resbaladizas (105 Anarquistas en Espana), Montevideo, 1939·
2
** Pavel and Clara Thalmann Combats pour la _L_i berte; cou-
Madrid-Paris, Quimperle, 1983. '
KU Letter Union (;ommuniste, dated 17 November 1937 (quoted in H.
ChrgnlQue de la Revolution Espanole, Ed. Srartacus, Paris
,979). In esar M. Lorenzo's Los Anarquistas y el
Inris, 1972, 1orenzo speaks of Union vommuniste speaking on behalf of
the FoD, the POUM and some elements of the Libertarian Youth d
f?r the formation' of these groUP!! . into a unit for_the
an
lab)oratlon 0: progamme of the proletarian revolution.' (p.219
lS mlsleading here. He ought to know that Union '
,(;Ommunlste ,a small group which had grown out of the Ligue
vrance and was urging this amalgamation rather than
It, and also that the manifesto he quoted was a handbill
at a meeting in the Velodrome d'Hiver, Paris, 18 June
1937! lts purpose ° beinG to expose and embar o, ss the speakers, Garcia
Oliv1er Feder1ca Montseny, who had 'pacified' the anarchists in
Barcelona 1n May i937.
*** *** *** *** ***
The Friends of Durruti --- A Chronology
8.9.36.
that 'The Obrer:,Jaime Baliuq gives his opinion
B en war mus be borne by the bou °
ut in addition to moneys seized from the enemy we must imrgeo1S •••
charge every township. No one is' to be
15 c rge. In thlS grave hour ';e u t
so that social
no e forgotten that the comrades on the front are .
conduct of the workers left behind in the upon the
3
October 1936.
'rhe War Committee of the Durruti Column decides to
send a delegate to the celebrations on the anniversary of the October
Revolution in Moscow. Scepti cal as to the purpose of the invitation
received from the Soviet consul in Barcelona, Antonov-Ovsenko .
Durruti nonetheless dravlS up an oren letter add.ressed to soviet
workers. Francisco Carreno, the former teacher who belongs to the
Column's i'lar Committee and has special responsibility for propaganda
is ohosen as the delegate. 'rhe open letter says 'We have no confidence
in politics even if it e;o es by the name demo cratic or antifascist. We
trust in our class brothers ( ••• ) not for anythi ng in the world are
we going to renounce our principles, the principl es of the working
struggle for liberation.' Carreno vi s its the Soviet Union
I-li th riJartin Gudel!. Carreno Ivill be a FoD member.
Balius who , in 1935 had publ i s hed a book ( Octubre Catala n! I)
on the s ubject of t he Oct ober 1934 upri s inf, in catalonia 1,rites in an
a rt i cle in solidaridad Obrera entitled cannot f orget; 6 October '
a pr ouos of Cat a lani s t attempt s to mark the s econd a nnivers ary of the
r evolt. 'ori the s e cond a nniversary of t he October event VIe have t.o
uree al l \-!Orkers to ensure tha t the revolution permeates every aspect
of life . 'l'he consequences \"1 i ll be deplorable i f the t r a nsformation
ina u[,ura ted on 19 July s hould be nothing more than an outward s how •••
6 October deserves to be pas sed ove r in s ilence. a longside the :
feat s of July, there i s no comparison pos s ible.'
10.10.36.
A government de cree establishes the popular Army and makes
provi s ion for milit arisation of the volunteer militias.
15. 10.36•
In solidaridad Obrera, Jaime Balius compl a ins of the
counter-revolutionary undertones of the pe t it-bourgeo i s press a nd
warns against apnlying a brake to the revolut ion. ' The Revoluti on has
t o be s erved 'l'Ii thout s elfi s hne ss ••• Let a ny who fee l unable to folIo
us step aside and leave us a clear path.'
In Solidaridad Obrera, Balius urges decentralisation and
devolution to district level. 'Let us not forget that there must be
decentralisation. Let us remember that should any centralising organ
come into existence, the creative opportunities which have cost so
much blood and for which so much blood has yet to be shed ••• will
largely be lost to us.'
4
November 1936.
Interviewea by L'E .
government decrees relative Durruti says
• •• This decision ' b the 0 regurallsation of the militias
i 1j,:alJsolutel;r de1}oid hae had a deplorable effect. It
't -b y There an
m lit1I:1B' ' We and 'that of the militia:;:
rll e of the other one.' one of these attitudes h!il:a to vanish in the
') . 11.36.
Solidaridad Obrera 't '
over the CN'r-FAI radio stat.. prln s a radlo broadcast made by Durruti
Oatalonia. 'The time ha 1. cm , and addressed to the workers of
1 I s come to dem d i
ving in the cities 'rh an sacr fices also from those
workers in the rear 'fO ere be effective mobilisation of all
what sort of men we' w 0 already on the front want to know
lho mi litarisation decreed 1.n our rear ••• If the object of
r i
' e Generalidad it· t· .
o st a n lron discl' pll'ne u s 0 In lmldate us and
pon that' . .
rlttthors of the decree to come t 1.S a mIstake and we invite the
moral e and discipline. The h the front to get a taste of our
rmd dis cipline in the rear
n
wedS a go and compare those with morale
ntrust the management of tguh
ar
••• He who have left Catalonia
I • e economy to you Y 1
.0 your responsibilitie d d' .. • ou a so mtta' live up
s an lsclpllne yours elves .'
?O. 11.36.
milli on Durruti was killed on the front. (Over half a
people attend his funeral in Barcelona.)
Por 108 fucro8 de la "Verdad
No 80lIl08 agente8
provocadore8
por JAIME BALIUS
Hall transcurrido muy· pocas horas de las j d
oidos el fra,or del combate Pa orn!, as de mayo. Aun perdura en nueslros
que, auroleados de una ten,aOlos a nuestro lado aquellos camaradn!
N t n , e saron con .u frente el pavimento barcelones
ues ro cuerpo y nuestro. nervlos e.tan t d . .
Nos sentlmos maltrechos y fatlrad 0 aVla
l
presos de aquella a,ltacion lilantina.
conceptos que se han vertldo cont os'1 pero nos scnt mos dolorldos, en Irado sumo, por 105
., a la revoluclon, qulslthos q:: de amor a las Ideas
ment o y a cada Instante por los s to e· as ve am os rasladas a cada 010·
I\quellos hombres que saivaron ;c que deberian tencr un poco de conslderaclon a
a spana, en las jornadas de julio del predomlnlo fasclsta.
5
2.12.36.
Jaime Balius writes in Solidaridad Obrera , 'The so-called
Catalan question as such has been resolved ••• Let us be equal to the
demands of the present moment.'
6.12.36.
Hriting in Solidaridad Obi'era on the subject of 'Durruti's
testament', Balius asserts, 'Durruti roundly stated that we anarchists
require that the revolution be of an all pervasive (totalitario)
nature, and that the comrades so steadfastly resisting fascism on the
fields of battle not tolerate anyone tampering with
revolutionary and liberating content of the present moment.'
December 1936.
'l'he German volunteers in the Durruti Golumn's
International Group express their objections to militarisation imposed
from I'li thout and list a number of factors they insist should be
incorporated into any military code; they want the delegate system
to be re tained along I·d th egalitarian features and want soldiers'
Councils to represent the army as a I"hole.
17.12.36.
In Solidaridad Obrera, Jaime Balius says of opportunists
and upstarts that "rhe revolution must be harsh, we might even say
brutal ••• 'l'he time has come to purify the cadres of the revolution.
Unless do this, Vie risk making, a superficial revolution, a
revolution in name ·o!lly. 'rhe parvenus must be stopped.'
Issue number 1 of Ideas the mouthpiece of the libertarian
movement in the Bajo Llobregat area, an area notorious for its
intransigent revolutioniam. A list of contributors to its columns
names Jaime Balius and Francisco Carreno, both of whom will be
members of the FoD.
6
El descenso de la revoluci6n de julio ha sido Ninguna.
de las revoluciones que se consideran como el arquetipo de las
conmociones sociales sufri6 un declive tan vertiginoso.
No puede teorizarse en torno de la sucesi6n.escalonada de hechos
porque la revoluci6n ya no existe. Es forzoso abrir nuevamente
brecha en la cantera inagotable de la Espafia pro1etaria. Hay que
volver a empezar.
I 37.
. After the new year the government will issue no pay and no
qU1pment except to regularised (i.e. militarised) combat units.
On behalf of the Durruti Column, the following units •••
I, h . no.4 Gelsa detachment, the'Accion y Alegria' Group, the Inter
Group, the artillery batteries,. the machine-gunner secti"ns
Itld 0 ther centuries ••• issue a statement "1'0 the comrades, to the
! onf deral columns' protesting at militarisation and offerinc' a
pnoific structure acceptable to the fighting men They to
p(n.k 'On behalf of everyone of the centuries of'the Durruti Column'
the government is making the provision of equipment
(onditlonal upon our militarisation ••• According to what the
themselves say, they cannot give us any as "urances that the
Mnd :nd government will supply us with the equipment even if we do
Illllitar ise. That being the case, the trespalls against our principles
be rewarded with nothing more than an empty promise.' rhis
ITlIJnU es to is published in the paper Acracia of Lerid.a. In the FoD
11 wopaper (El Amigo del PUeblo, no.5, 20 July IJ37) this m1'J.nifesto is
J'( printed and it is stated ••• 'On the date given at the foot of thE'
lII11nifesto, the Friends of Durruti group, composed for the most part of
from Aragon Front, Durruti Column (Gelsa section)
pnbllshed opinlons rec;ard:ing militarisation which the passage of time
III V endorsed against the 'majority' \-Iho opposed it' ••• 'Even from
III front line, amid the mud of the trenches, amid the cold and the
lhlrst , watching our comrades fall day in day out, we opposed the
\n'ti-revolutionary suicidal course followed b', those l'lho were the
III ntors of our organisation.'
11l.1.37.
'rhe General idad government of Ga talonia passes 58 de crees
verelY ' curtailing the revoluti on.
'1
No .. queda ot!O camina que el de una nueva revoluci6n. Vayamos a
su .Ilreparac16n. Y en e1 fragor de la nueva gesta nos vo1veremos
a en la cal1e 105 camaradas que hoy batallan en 105
105 .camaradas que yacentras rejas y camaradas que
en la hora actual adn no han perdido la esperanza de una revo-
luci6n que rinda justicia a la clase •
A la consecuci6n de una nUeva revoluci6n que satisfacci6n
a 10s obreros de la,ciudad y del campo. A la consecu-
c16n.de una sociedad anar4uista que satisfacci6n alas aspi-
raci ones humanas,
IIAdelante, camaradas!(
11
[I
li
5 - 8. 2 .31.
Delegates from the anar chist mi l it i "" IIIIH1t hl ooneres s
in Valencia to diRcuss the question of mi li t nr-hml. i (1 11 . 'I' hn oh,I ectors
from the Durruti Column (Gelsa sector) a r e rf'pro""o tlL nd It,Y i' ll lllo fl.uiz,
who helped Durruti storm the Ataraza nas barro.okll ,in IIII I'rn lcm:' on 20
July 1936. 'rhe Gelsa o.bjectors were sever a.l ,l nd "\lf1 \. lld to ' adhere
to the decision taken reearding milit a ri SCl. t ion. ]n.lll l1 o l,I"' 111 1. 0 this
effect from the Reeional Committees of the 11. 1111 1"/\ I w" ,." I " nored.
So Was the order that the refractories s h.-, ulcl 1 a,V \' 1, ,, 1 I'
and quit the front. Hos tility between the compli(1.nL ,,,,d \' 11 " "I) f" 'uctory
sections of the Durruti Column was so ser i OUG thnL n "I/lII IIII"n lon from
the column, headed by Jose Man;o;ana spoke wit h th(' ) '1)/'.1111111 .) 1'"l11rn i ttees
on the SUbject. As a result, the militiamen at GC]I"l Wil l '" I "v l Lod to
resolve the situation one way (by militari s inp;) or 1. 11" p l. II'J I' (hy
quitting the front). 'l'hey af:reed t o quit the f r ont II l1d 1Ip their
"ea pons within 15 days. Later the FoD would explain (Ill ISI
E..ueblo, no.5, 21 July 1931) ' Our l·Jithdrawa l 'from th" " ""1 1. Will' clue to
the f a ct that had no de s ire to assulDe reponsibilll v ,1'0 " It
attitude whose failure we foresaw. Now, back in the 1'!)/II'/U"II 'II, wo
remain combatants.'
8
c. N. T.
Agrupadon IILos
F".A.I.
omigos de Durruti
'
f
iTRABAJADORES .. i
Una Junta revolucionaria, Fusilamiento de los cul pnbles,
Desarme de todos Ics Cuerpos armados.
Socializaci6n de la economia.
Disoluci6n de los Partidos politicos que hayan agredldo Cl la
c!ase trabajadora.
No cedamcs la caile. La revoluci6n ante todo.
Saludamos a nuestros , Camaradas del P. O. U. M. que tHIn
contraternizado en la calle con nosotros.
VIVA lA REVOlUelON SOCIAL... jABAJO lA CONTRAREVOlUCIONI
4.3.31.
A decree from the Generalidad dissolves the control patrols.
In the POUM paper La Batalla, Andres Nin reprints large extracts from
an article by Jaime Balius published in the CN'r eveninr,- paper La Noche.
(Balius was director of La Noche which, along \'Iith Catalunya sold
around 45,000 copies daily ••• figures from SOlidaridad Obrera, 2 April
1931). In that article, welcomed by Nin, Baiius had written
anarchists have arrived at the limits of our concessiong •••• Not
another step backward. It is the hour of action. Save the
and 'If we continue to give up our positions there is no doubt that in
a short time we shall be overwhelmed and the revolution will simply be
another souvenir. It i s for this fundamental reason that it is
necessary to develop a new orientation in our movement.' Dalius also
wrote that he was eratified to find tha t 'Our anxiety is now shared by
the evening paper of an organisation ,Ii th which we are in fundnmenta.l
agreement concerning the present r evolutionary epoch and the role of
the working class.' Clearly that organisation was the pourn.
5-3.31.
Solidaridad Obrera carries an announcement of the f ormati on
of the FoD group. "rhe Friends of Durruti is not just another club. We
aim to see the Spanish Revoluti on per va ded by the revoluti onary
of our DurrutL 'rhe FoD remain f a ithful to the l ast words uttered by
our comrade in the heart of Barcelona in denunciation of the work of
the counter-revolution •••• To enrol in our association, it is vital
that one belong to the CNT and evidence of a record of struggle
a love of ideas and the revolution. On a temporary basis, a pplications
may be made at Rambla de Cataluna , 15,principa l ( CNT Journalis t s'
Section) between 5.00 pm a nd 1.00 pm.'
8.3.31.
The forma tion of the PoD is .announced in the paees of Frente,
the organ of the Durruti Column, printed in Pina de Ebro, Aragon.
11.3&31.
A FoD meeting scheduled for 9.30 pm that day in wha t i s
described as the group's 'social Pr emises' at Rambla de las Flores, 1,
1 is announced in ?olidaridad Obrera. The purpose of the meeting is to
elect a new steering committee and lay down the statutes governing the
group. 'At the same time we appeal to militants of some standing
and various organisms with a view to forming a group that will live up
entirely to the precepts bequeathed to us by the martyr of .the ideal,
the idol of the People.'
20.3.31.
Solideridad Obrera notice of a FoD meeting
for 11.00 am, 21 March 1931. This notice i " repeated on the folJowing
day.
9
Issue no.6, vol.I! of the FOUlil's language organ,
The Spanish Revolution (31.3.37.) notes a move by the CNT to -
centralise authority in its regional committe es. Those committees only
are emnowered to decree mobilisations, issue orders and watchwords,
etc. ' All who do not act accordinG to these rules and agreements
be publicly expelled from the organisation.'
The paper The Spanish Revolution from which the autho::
quotes here was the POUM's English-language o::gan publlshed
in Barcelona under the editorship of the Amerlcan Charles.
Orr. And besides, there was another paper ?alled.The
Revolution published in New York by Unlted Llbe::tarlan
_ Organisations. Each of them was reprlnted.
Dolgoff (pseud. Sam Weiner), who an edlt?r of the.
anarchist The Spanish and wrltes
to the reprint of the an8Tchlst paper, says ln S011 of
Liberty, vol.8 no.2, that Russell Blackwell, who writes the
introduction to the reprint of P?UIVlist paper, was . a
member of the Friends of Durrutl durlng the May Days ln
Barcelona in 1937. (publisher)
10
Programa
de la

rlo
(/I Allligo§

Agrupa£ion
de Durruti·.
U oa J nota ReTolncionaria.
El Poder econ6mico a 108 Sio ...
dicdtoll.
LOll Mtinicipi08 IibIell.
Queremoll lIenar una etapa.
SOIDOI Ana. quilltall.
1.4.37.
Ruta, the organ of the Libertarian Youth in Catalonia
carries an article by the FoD entitled ' On behalf of _the' anarchist
concept of the revolution.' It says 'l'le point the finger at no one. We
feel a burning love for our precepts and our organisations. Bilt- as
militants of them, we have an indisputable right to speak out. 'l'here
is still time for us rescue the revolution and revitalise our precepts
but must press on with the revolution.'
Balius article 'Let's make the r evolution' appears in Ideas,
no.15. Speaking of- the presumption of Companys, Balius says
intolerable that an individual without the support in the
workplaces should try to arrogate to himself the power which rightly
belongs only to the working people •••• But the bourgeois politi cians
are not to blame for this, for after all t his i !?, their stock in trade.
No. To apportion the blame for the revolution's not having swept as ide
the foes of the working class, one has to look to the workers' ranks
•.• to those whose inde cision in the early stages allowed:_the ' forces,
of counter-revolution to erow to the extent that now it will be a
costly business to cut them down to size.'
As the birthday celebrations of the Second Republic
a pproach, the FoD issues a leaflet addres s ed 'To the working people'.
It records the dangers posed to the revolution by the State,
parliamentary' socialism, government-controlled security -forces oand- an
a ttempt to shift attention away from July 1936 to April 1931. 'A wave
of reaction is fed by those segments of the middle class which
u pon the praetorian corps spawned by the bourgeois stage for backing.'
• •• 'If we retreat in the face of our enemies we will be ousted from
t he whole Let us not waver.' ••• 'We possess the organs
which must replace the s tate which is in ruins. 'rhe unions and the _,
municipalities must take charge of the economic and social life of
the Peninsula . THE CLEAR AND OBVIOUS SOLlfrI ON ••• FREE UNIONS Arm FREE
••• 'parliamentary socialism ••• has a content more
bourgeois than worker. ' ••• 'We are not prepared to tolerate the shame-
f ul situation fascists stroll throup;h the streets and a ne s t
of place-seekers is respected - while our comrades linger in j a il
a wai ting their a ppears, nee in the dock.' •.• ' Ive want no part of 14
April. Its memory is obnoxious. Only the parasites of politics can
commemorate it.' ••• '14 April is not a day for demonstrations . We
know the meaning of the April masquerade. And because we do not
July to end up like the hopeless early days of the Republic we
resolutely oppose those who espouse the April anniversD.ry and the
f igure of a lawyer raised to the heights of presidential office.' (a
reference to Companys)
11
Solidaridad Obrera carries a notice concerning the funeral
arranr,ements for one Francisco Garcia, which, it says, will be
of especial interest to the "Friends of Durruti.'"
19.4.37.
The FoD hold a public meeting in Barcelona in the Foliorama
rheatre. It is attended by Jaime Balius, Pablo Huiz, I"rancisco Pellice
(of the Iron Column) and l"rancisco Carreno (of the Durruti Column's
\'/ar Committee). Balius, Ruiz and Pellicer belonged, along with Bruno
Llado,to the same anarchist group, the 'Renacer'group of the FAI.
12
Al pueblo
EL MOMENTO ACTUAL
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J.ORUP.4CIOH .LOa AIOGO' D. DUUun.
See note 1.
The FoD hold a public meetine; in the Goya Theatre, Barcelona .
They warn that an attack upon the Norkers is imminent, pointing to the
funeral of Roldan Cortada , the revolt by the carabineers in Ripoll.
and other provocations as part of a series of incidents planned in
eovernment circles by representatives of so-called antifascist groups.
Rodriguez Sala of the PSUC sei z es the 'relephone F,xc hanp:e in
Barcelona. 'l'his signals the start of the May Events which pit the eN I' ,
leAI, 1i'IJL and POUM e,gainst the PSUC, the re publicans and
and the official security forces. 'rile revoluti onary f orces had soon
secured the city, all except the city centre. Just as GN'r-FAI f)efence
Committee had resolved to make a final a ssault on the Generalidad
buildine, Police Headqunrters and the Hotel Colon' there came radio
appeals by Garcia Oliver and Marano Va 7quez of the CNT , for a - ceasefire
May). The reformist forces availed of this chance to renel-l their
attacks. The conflict broke out again •
The FoD issue leaflets, 'CNT, FAI, The Priends of
Durruti Group., Workers! A Revolutionary Junta. Shoot the culprits.
Disarm all of the armed corps. Socialise the economy. Dissolve the
political parties which have turned a[ainst the 'wrkinp: class. Let us
not surrender the streets. '.l'he revolution above everything. :'Ie ['",Jute
our comrades of the POUr.! who have sided NUh us on the streets. Lone;
live the Social Revolution! DOI-ID with the Counter-Revolution" See
note 2. 'This leaflet was approvinely r e printed in La Batalla on 6 MRY.
As the fighting continued, Solidaridad Obrera carried 13,
notice from the Regional Committees of the CN'!, a nd FAI, the li'AI's
Peninsular Committee, the Local jcederc>.tion of (;Wr unions, the He{;ion<t l
Committee of the Libertarian youth and the local Vederation of
anarchist groups complaining of apocryphal leCl,flets circulating,
allee;edly signed by the POml, en'r and [eAI. l'heir content:,; are f " unoc n
objectionable by the above committees. 'Hhat ",e wish to h:we clci'rly
understood is tha,t neither the eN'!' nor the FA! has sic:nerl any s ort of
lcC'.flet, h", ndbill, manifesto or d"> cument of any other descripti on
alone; the Horkers' P<'.rty of j,larxist I' nificati " n (I'l>lm).'
Solidaridad Obrera carries a note from the Regional
commi ttees of the CNT and the FAI dated 5 1937.
\'/e are taken aback by some leaflets circulatinF, in the city and
endorsed by an enti1iy called '''rhe [i'riends of Tlurruti". Its cnntents
are utterly intolerable and contrary to the decision made by the
13
libertarian movement; this obliges us to disown it in full and in
public.
Let this be noted by all comrades and by the public in general. lie
categorically disol·m this leaflet and point out that yesterday l'Ie
found ourselves obliged to disol1n another by that very same body.
He of the regional committees of the CN'r and FAI are not disposed to
let anyone speculate with our organisations, nor may anyone flirt with
dubious attitudes or maybe the intrigues of outright agents
provocateurs. .
Let everyone adhere to the specific watchl'lOrd of these comml tte:s.
'rhe Generalidad Council havinG been formed, everyone must accept Its
decisions for we all are represented in it. Get the guns off the
stt'eets. '
Also on 6 May, the FaD issues a larger manifesto headed with the
'.ords '''NT FAI Friends of Durruti Group, It reviews the
. v, , )" l' 1 t·
the fighting, (then still in progress and the FoD sear ler a er Ing
of the Norkers to the imminent attack. It names the provocateurs as
the P})uC, Estat Catala, the Esquerra and the Generalidad-controlled
security forces with the Valencia government and Generalidad
governm'ent in the background. 'lfe have VIon the stre:ts l'fhich we ha,:,e
no vlish to surrender, for they belong to us, \'Ie havlng taken them In
an open and resolute battle.' ;i peaking of the May. fighting, the FoD
explain that ".'le have not taken to the streets slmply to request that
the armed corps be disarmed. No. Ife want the recompense for
blood which has been spilled.' ••• "rhe Generalldad represents nothlng.
Its continued existence is a bolster to the counter-revolution.' •••
'It is inconceivable, that the CNT's committees should have acted so
cravenly as to order a ce<.l.se-fire and indeed have imposed a return to
rk J'ust vlhen we were on the very brink of total victory.' ••• ' Such
wo 1 t·
conduct must be described as a betrayal of the revo u lone ••• one
that no one ought to commit or encourage in the 0: anything. We
not f
ind words to describe the harm done by Solldarldad Obrera and
, .
the most outstandingmilitarits'of1the·CN'r.' ••• "['he dis'a"irol-Ial'from'
the CNT's so-called committees has come as no to
us. ';le kne't/ in advance that those committees could not do,
t
h than retard the proletariat's advance. l-1e knoVI the rREINTISrAS
o er th "F' d f
on the Regional Gommittee only too well. He e s.o
Durruti" who have moral a uthority enough to dlsown these Indlviduals,
who have betrayed the revolution and the working class, as being
incompetents and cowards.' ••• "rhere was no of how to mount
a thoroughgoing .. attacK nor wO's there any 6f effort as ·far·
as the insurrection was concerned. Time and were wasted on
mere sniping instead of a speedy and di.'.ring attack belng
Understanding and leadership were missing.' ••• "rhe cessatIon 0: _
fiehting doesn't presuppose defeat. 'rhough we may not have achleved
ou; ob.iective,s we have increased our l-leap.onry .' ••• 'Let us be on
alert for comipg events. Let us not be dlsmayed, let us keep up
solid revolutionary' morale. Let us not forget that we a re playing a
trump card. Let us not be deluded by the alleged threat of an attack
from with ships of the English fleet, when in point of fact the
14
democratic powers are blatantly supportine fascism.' ••• 'Let us not
abandon the streets.' ••• 'Comrades. On a wa r footine. Do not lose heart.
Be on the alert for the first summons issued to you. Long live the
social revolution! iJO';/fl with the counter-revolution! All nraise to our
fallen comrades.'
This manifesto is reported in Solidaridad Obrera with the
words "rhe body called the "Friends of Durru-ti" has issued a new
manifesto which a fresh display of adorned with demarogy.
'l'he CN'r and the FAI must excise this intolerable demagogy and
provocation by the roots and immediately.'
The regional of the UGT, meeting in BRrcelona
demands that members of the POm.! be expelled from the UG'r, the party
be disbanded, out la.Hed , its press shut down and its printine; C1. nd
radio facilities confiscated ••• 'acting in the same ae;ainst
orr,anisations of the type of the "l"riends of Tlurruti" disOl·men by the
CNT's regional cnmmittee.'
The first issue of thel"oJ) paper El Amigo del Pueblo
appears. It has been printed at the Impremta Laietana, Bou de Sant
Pere, 9. The FoD have attempted 2) to prese nt -their publicationp.
(the- manifesto of 61 May i937) alongside the datement iSf'ued by the
regional committees of the CNT and Libertari2.n and the Liaison
Committee of the FAI groups in Catalonia on 11 May 1937 spelling out
their attitude to the May Events. 'rhe purpose was to enable readers
to make up their own minde which Vie\i was the most correct. No less
than 109 lines of the FoD document have been obliterated by the
censor. The FoD note that their manifesto has received the endorsement
of a group of wounded comrades in the Humania hospital and another
group of comrades from Hijar. Repe".tedly the FoD insist (as <Taime
Balius entitles his article on page 4) 'We are no ae;ents provoc"tcurs.'
A regional Plenum of CNT Local and l.omarcal Federations
meets in Barcelona. On the agenda is the "CoD question. This followed
the sUmmoning of the FoD before the Loca.l Ji'ederation of CNT union,-;,
When, according to the F'oD(El Amigo del Pueblo, no.5, 20 July 1937)
it was agreed ' ••. and not on our instigation that our case should be
debated in the union assemblies. But this was not done. Thnse with
an interest in our attitude's being sanctioned found it more
convenient to raise the matter before a Plenum of Locals and Comarcals.'
The meeting on 22 May 1937 gave the F'o ') period. of erace in which to
SUbstantiate their charges of "betrayal' by the Hegional Committees.
That period of was 48 hours. 'Our answer was that we st d b
what had been at the audience \·/e had had Id th the ;rom
the Local Federation, namely that our case be debated in the union
15
p-ssemblies, insofar as these alone were empowered to judge in such
instances and to prescribe what should be done. t (El Amigo del Pueblo,
no.5)
26.5.37.
Issue no.2 of. El Amigo del Pueblo appears. It
contribution towards the paper's cost from Group X on the Aragon front,
from Miguel Chueca, Gregorio Jover, the committee at Bellver de Cinca
and comrades at Pina de Ebro. It records also the death of FoD member
Manuel Sanchez of Sallent,a mining town 'l'he paper also notes the
formation of branches of the FoD and the imminent opening of new
FoD locals in Sans,Tarrasa,Gracia and Sabadell. Issue no.2 is not
censored and there is an announcement of the 'El Amigo del Pueblo
Graphics Workshop at the disposal of revolutionaries.' On the front
paGe it is Elnnounced "rhe absurd treatment meted out to us by the
censors obliges us to give them the slip.' In the face of threats to
that effect, the 1"oD warn 'Plenums of Locals and Comarcals are not
empowered to expel any comrade. We invite the committees to raise the
"Friends of Durruti" case in the union assemblies, the seat of the
organisation's sovereignty.'
In Solidaridad Obrera, the Regional "ommi ttees of the CN'r
and FAI and Local Federation of CN1' unions note the decision 'on 22 May
by the Plenum of Locals and Comarcals and state 'Over double the
period of grace given ••• for the .substantive proof to be produced •••
now having elap?ed ••• we notify both organisations, confederai -and
anarchist that they should proceed to expel from their midst all
members of the "Friends of llurruti" association who do not publicly
dissociate themselves from the stance adopted by said grouping.' (See
note 3)
11 Grido del Popolo, the paper of the Italian Uommunist
Party in France refers to Camillo Berneri ' ••. one of the leaders of
the "ii'riends of Durruti" group which •.• provoked the bloody uprising
against the Popular Front government in Catalonia ••• got his just
deserts during that revolt from the Democratic Revolution vlhose right
of self-defence no antifascist can deny.'
In Solidaridad Obrera, Joaquin Aubi and Rosa Munoz write a.n open
letter to the paper's director stating ' ••• having learned of the
dispute that has arisen between the CN'l' and FAI and the "}i'riends of
Durruti" group, to I belonged, I find myself obliged publicly
to quit that association,being against the power strugp:le which it is
waging aeainst the specific and confederal bodies ••• I continue to
look upon the comr2.des belonging to the "[i'riends of Durruti" as
comrades ••. but ••• "'rhe CN'r was my womb and it shall also be my
tomb". '
16
1.6.37.
A report from the CN'r National Committee (dD.ted 29 May' 37)
appears in the Boletin de Informa.cion CN'l'-F'AI relatine the proceedinp:s
of a National Plenum of CNT Regionals at which 'Catalonia reported the
decision reached with regard to the "Friends of Durruti" and the
Plenum unanimously resolved to remove from the organisation the
leading lights of the "Friends of Durruti" group and that, come what
may, the fomenting of any split as a result, must be averted.' In El
Amigo del Pueblo, no.5, the FoD dispute that the aereement to expel
them was unanimous ' ••• there wa.s no una.nimity for the Andalusi" .n
Regional voted aeainst.'
1l.6.37.
A joint circular from the regional cOrlmi ttees of the CN'r
and the FAI endorses the order for the expulsion of members of the
FoD from their organisations.
12.6.37.
El Amigo del Pueblo, no,) appears. On page one it carrie"
a retraction ( 'as agreed at the Plenum of FAI groups and in
anticipation of the .. CNT and. FAI committees doine: likel·Jise') ••• 'We did
not use the word "betrayal" in the sense of sell-out or bad faith but.
rather to signify incompetence and ••• we retract to day in
expectation that the committees will also retract the label of "aGent s
provocateurs" they used aGa ins t us .' TiE papeI' also carries a note or
support from the anarchi s t e;roup 'Marg2. 1ef', siehed by (former l''Urruti
Column member?) Antonio Bonilla expressing solidarity with the FoD
despite the disavowals by the committ ees. It also notes that, in a
memo sent to the CNT and FAI Regiona l committees as well as to the
Local of CNT unions, the Local Federation of the
Libertarian youth and the youth Defence Gomr,d ttee had both endorsed
the FoD interuretation of the May Events. It notes, too, that the
organ, Treball . ha.d . .reported the FoD to the police for issuing El A.!!1ie;o
del Pueblo clandestinely. On page 4 there i, a reprint of a report
from Castilla Libre, the GN'r daily paper in Madrid, allegine that 'The
"Friends of Durruti", originally set up as a cultural body whose
purpose was to propagate the ideas of the people's caudillo, h!'1.8 been
led astray by provocateur elements formerly active in the Communist
Party.' The FoD comment 'This is not worthy of a reply. Members of
this group are CN'r and FAlmembers of long standine;. Their lives are
a rosary of sufferings and deprivation.'
In the paper Ideas, a Dr' Ludovici writes on behalf of the
'Errico Malatesta' group to refute the claims made by Il Grido del
Popolo on 29 May 1937 regardinf, Berneri. Ee states that t ... comrade
Berneri did not belong to the "[cri ends of 1)urruti" group, not that
there ",ould h,"we been anythinG wrong in that ••• '
17
22.6.37.
El Amigo del Pueblo no.4 appears. It reports the arrest of
Jaime Balius (as a result of the information given by 'rreball?).
Replyinp; to an article in Las Noticias (18. 6. 37.), the FoD deny that
they and the Libertarian Youth spearheaded the May fighting ••• 'Had
the Groups named been behind the revolt, \oIe should not in <"ny way>hs,ve
given up control of the streets.' An article from Balius ane;rily
insists that the allegation (by Fragua ;)ocial, et CNT paper in Valencia)
that he is a Marxist, be SUbstantiated or withdrawn. Like the
no.4 carries an article by Juan, Santana Galero, the press and
propoganda secretary of the Catalan Regional Committee of the
Libertarian Youth. See note 4.
El Amigo del Pueblo no.5 appears. It contains a review
of the dispute between the FoD and the 'superior committees' and
the text of the document 'To the comrades, to the confederal Columns'
(Gelsa, 16 January 1937).
12.B.37.
El Amigo del Pueblo no.6. It is indicated that this issue
has been printed by the Imp. Libertaria, Perpignan, France. Much of
the content deals \o1i th the prisons, probably the result of the
observations of the jailed Jaime Balius who continued to write from
confinement.
31.B.37.
El Amigo del Pueblo no.7 contains a oritique of a pamphlet
on the Events published by Edi ciones Ebro. 'rhe pamphlet had the
FoD announcing 'A revolutionary Junta has been formed in Barcelona',
and adding 'T1E POUM must be admitted to the Revolutionary Junta
because it stood by the workers.' 'rhe move on in this critique
to make the fol101ving points 'One; We could not speak of a
Revolutionary Junta having been set up because in point of fact none
had been formed. Two; The said Junta not having been set up we could
not have invited a place in it for the P(1U]11 comrades. 'rhree; We salute
the POUM because we saw them on the streets defending the working
class's interests.'
IB
21.'1. 1(.
T' ; I Amigo. del Prieblo no.8. Reports a raid by 'armed po] ice
l'ri I,ll I /11 rInd artillery 6n the premises of the GIlT Food Union, a
uni"" 11\ which the FoD had much supnort. 23 individuals on the premiser"
wor III r r, trd,. The FoD state 'Once again, for the hundredth time, the
commlLLr t opted to compromise, on the basis of who knows what
compllrllLI()no at national level. ... ["or tactical reasons we are
a((n I flrt L nonfrontat ions 1-li th the security forces. These receive the ir
orc! r"1I I'rom s omeone and carry them out. In this specific instance we
must d I noover who gave the order. No matter who he may bC', he must be
hunt rI dOlm at gunpoint in the streets as a threat to public peace,
even l r he is in government.'
?
Amigo del Pueblo no.').
B.11.37.
El Amigo del l'uct)lo no.lO. Criticif'es the collaboration-
ists of the GNT for the to creep back and to
consolidate its hold "l'o think that for six months all of the
interests of the or/;otnlnlllion hn.ve played second fiddle to thiE'
bagatelle • ... 'rhe "I"rlnndo of Durruti" maintain, that only a
congress can chnnr,r lh CNJ"s tactioB". Anyone so unscrupulous as to
sidestep this makes himself a likely candidate for the
label "traitor" .. . '
20.11.37.
"miC,Cl_dol Pueblo no.ll. A commemorative issue on
the anniveroar,Y of lJurruti's death. On page 2, it is noted' Durruti
told the politlolnrln and his own comrades; You demand discipline. Bul
"That are you doinr: in the rearguard? And on more than onE' occasion,
he gave aAGUrnnOI'f] thn.t once lk'wing triumphed on the fields of battle
the militian wonl(] turn their gunsights upon the reargua,rd.' ••• 'The
temperament of our lost leaders is the same as that which moves the
"Friends of f)urruLi" group. Durruti knew that, unless the enemy was
cru8hed, tho of revolution could not be foU owed.' On page 3
'Durruti wnn It 100 proletarian. Had he lived until May, he would
not have elldorncd the "ceasefire" but swept aside every compact,
every compromino behind the scenes and 110uld have placed himself at
the head of thnt class revolt.'
mid-193B.
Appearance of 'Towards a Fresh Revolution', a fuller
exposition of the views and aims of the The decision to issue the
brochure was taken in mid-1938 at what Jaime Balius deflcribed in 197R
as 'the group's last session'.
19
Notes
1. According to Pavel and Clara 'rhalm<tnn (Combats pour la LibeC'tC'J
.l40scou-I,ladrid-Paris, Editions La Digitale, Quimper, 1983), '(Hans
Freund)-Houlin, some Friends of Durruti and ourselves drew up a
leaflet tha,t 11e aimed to distribute outside the building where the
(/.lay Day) festivities were taking place. ';/e denounced the Stalinists'
policy as well as the hesitancy of the an<trchists and of the POUM.'
(p.196)
2. Ae:ain according to Pavel and Clara 'rhalmann (op. cit. p.190),
They met .. with Moulin at the headquarters of the 'rhere was a
heated argument involving Jaime Balius, JIIoulin and some of Balius's
friends. 'I' hat evening (4 May 1937) they agreed on the text of a
handbill which 'l'halmann reconstructs from memory as approximately
'Immediate formation of a Defence Junta, a defence council made up of
all revolutionary elements from the CN'I', and the Libertarian
Youth, whatever revolutionary committees remain and the control
patrols. All pOl"er to the workers' and peasants' committees and
unions; withdrawal of the anarchist ministers from the Valencia
f,overnment. Disarm the Communist Party organisations in the rearguard.
Greater pressure on the central government to secure recognition of a
new, revolutionary autonomous e:overnment in Catalonia ••••• Signed
the Friends of Jlurruti.' The 'rhal manns speak of 40'JO - 5000 such
handbills having been printed at gunpoint in the Barrio Chino around
midnight on 4 May 1937. In none of their publications did the FoD ever
acknowledge the above text or anything close to it. Given Balius's
newspaper connections (he had been an editorial statf member on
Solidaridad Obrera amd Tierra y Libertad and the Barcelona corres-
pondent for the Madrid-based CNT.) it seems odd that coercion should
have been vlhen it to the printing of the first bsue
of the FoD newspaper El Amigo del Pueblo (20 May 1937) this was done
in a regular way by the Impremt<t Laietana, Bou de Sant Pere, 9. The
Th<tlmanns claim (op.cit. p.191) to have persuaded the FoD 'henceforth
to operate from the undergr.mnd', yet the first issue of El Amigo del
Pueblo (20 May 1937) was mutilated by censorship so it had clearly
been published overground. See also (on p.3) the announcement that
'Overall director is comrade Jaime Balius, while the editorial staff
includes comrades Roig, Ruiz and Domingo Paniagua.' The same issue '
notes that the <" oD premises in Rambla de las )<'lo re s , 1,1 are still
functioninr: .rhat address, with telephone number (18721) was given On
every masthead as the administrative and editorial offices of El Amigo
del Pueblo.
3. 'rhe 1<'oD claim (El Amigo del no.5, 20 July 1937) that 'the
Secretariat of the Local of Croups and the Committee and
the Local of the Libertarian youth refused to endorse this
note ••• indeed, the Libertarian youth made an official protest about
it in a note sent to the Regional Committee,while also intimating that
they sympathised whole-heartedly Hith our stand.' 'l'he FoD also speak
/
20
of a Local Plenum of Groups at which the matter was raised again.
' ••• certain elements asked unsucces s fully that we a.bsent ourselves
from the premises before the debates began.' At that group meetinr,
the FoD explained what they understood the 110rd 'betrayal' to sir,nify
and ' ••• it was agreed that both parties would retract the terms they
had used in the published note and manifesto.' 'l'his was done in F.l
Amigo del Pueblo, no.3 (12 June 1937), but ' ••• has yet to be done by
those who unhesitatingly, unfairly and improperly endorsed our
expUlsion from the organi sation for which we have sacrificed so much.'
In El Amigo del Pueblo, no.4 ( 22 June 1937) Jaime Balius stated
'In our last issue, we of the Friends of Durruti withdrew the charge
of betrayal for the sake of anarchist rp,volutionary unity. And we
hope that the committees will retract the charge of tlap.;ents
provocateurs".' 'i'he FoD clai ms of grassroots support seem to be
. confirmed by Grandizo Munis, leader of the Bolshevik-Leninists,
the Spanish Section of 'rrotsky ' s Fo urth Interned ional, who writes
(Jalones de Derrota, Promesa de Victoria, Editorial Lucha Ubrera,
Mexico DP, 1948, p. 2)O- 291)' ••• the local committees refused to
implement a resolution from the superior committees expelling the
chief (FoD) leaders.'
4. Grandizo Munio (op. r it. p.3S5) notes that 'El Amico del Pueblo
the organ of the "J"rl ondo of JJurruti" and La VO;", J eninista the
Trotskyists' orgnn aaoily distributed t ens of thousands of copies',
and he adds ' ••• evon thoueh an;yone arrested \>Iith one of those papers
in his pocket have receivod a sentence of between 10 and 30
years'.
21
-Los imilos de Durruli-
A Inlclatlv8. de unos cuanOO5 Cama.-
radlUl del lUlart]ttisUl Buen .. ventun.
Dum.t!. Que .upo !lnalizar att de
acueroo oon 105 t.nheloo de llberael6il
qllol mAtI.Mon toda IU eJecutorla per-
oonal. M ha pens ado en 1& oonvenJen-
cl& de eonstltulr Ulla agrupscl6n Que
pe.rpetu.. 1 .. memoria del Que
1IlmbolI%6. por au honradrz y' por su
nJer. la etaPI' revoluclon .. rl .. comen·
""d.. a me<ll.doo de Ju1!o.
Invltamos .. todos la5 camaradaa
que en Yids Quisleron al ca.mar&ci&
Dnrrutl Y Que si desaparecer el RI·
pnt. de nuestra revolucl6n oolUervLII
at recueroo del gran luchador, a que
mrresen Cl cLoe OJnlga5 de Durrulli.
"Loe AmlgOlO de Durrtttl" no ee unA
pet\IL nu\.>, Nowtr", pretendemos Que
I .. espRlio:a se compeDetre
d. la 8&vla revoluclonarl. de Ilue!!tro
Durrutl. Loo a.mlgos de Durrutl per·
ln1I1eaIl rlele!! a la. lilim..., pal ..
pronunciad&a por Due.tra C.a.rn.rada
en eI oara.%l>n de .. '} denun.
c1ando la Jabor conlrarrtvoluclonarla
l' a<:\l,!anda con trazoo • Irllea el .,....
mloo que de stif\llr.
Para incrlbtr.1e en nue.5tra &!ocl ....
cl6n ... Ind!;pensable pertenecer a
O. N. T. '1 oomprobar un po&.do de
IItOb:. 1 de aInOO" a lAa Id.... 1 a la
Do ana IIlAn.r& 1n",,1.
rtt., M reclben I ... lneorIpcloD .. c
Rambla de Ca t"lulla. 11, prtnclf*l
(a.ocl6n de d. la O.N,T.>'
dolt pto a .,. la to,rda.
lA 00mfJd6D
c. N. T. P. A. I.
Adrapaclon 101 Amldol de DurruU
TRABAJ"DORE.
La proyoucion 4. la contrarrewoiucion
El aullo .. I. r.t,".",. tv' ,I loque d. d.d" d, tltl lu,r.
131 tonlr.rnvoludonariu. Fu' ,t (oml"u. d, un :l1.que
;! fondo (onlr. I, ,I .. , !.lIb.J.dor ••
la fnc:rutiJada hi.t6riu qUI h.m'l Itnat,d. d, un" 01;'1_
",ra'tI.r. y rotund. d,:d, dl .. ha, .tab .. de IUr!;, la h,
Ivpnrlf;:i, utal,", con r;us •• d. tr."d;:!. El dL1 3 d .. Ma.,..
u conlum6 I, a"uI6" d. 101 partido. y
d', h .• lu.nu dl .,d,n J.lublico, qUI sinlit"dO£t imp.>hnlU
ante .1 IVlnn d, I .. IUlrtu r,,,,,lod.nll.i .. u di'pu,;uon ;'I.
:111'1.' tn un,r. nuul", ;lnIL .. JlJtlU }" d, un (o"I"lIi10
alla""nlt human •.
No '101 .quivoc.mol. cuando d,clJmo' rn .t att, pulll;co
ctl,l,r,do por 101 _Amill't d, Durruli. en :,f !ealro Goy/\, en
j" propi. dl I. In!:ablad,', qUt III ."rl.i';.n
contr" la, trab.j:adaru Ib, • praducirll :a{:o usui"'o. I ,,11 ••
qUf' 11 tntltrro dt Roldjn Corladll, 1;'1 subltllllti6n dt
10' carabintros tn RiJ'lotl, y Oltu ptollocadones ftSisl."d.a,
dilllrt.OI .. I,bon .. dt un, cadena qve u utaba f"r.
jando ." 101 propiOl olid,lu tn dpndt rHide" ''JI
r.prlltnh"h. de los ueloru .ptllid.dol /<"lil .. cilll1' en tl
terrsno d, 1o. denomln,lillol.
tlla prov(.c.cl6n h.n inhf'venldo primer \bmino • el
P.5.U.C., En:ro! C.!aU, Elquerr. Republ.r.lllnll, p"rl,do 50r "-
li,t" UnHiudo de C.hlu'h y 10. cverpOI :rormndol qve ,'.!:l.
b,n 1\ 1".ldo de I. Otntr.lid,d. Ton .. ulu IUUI;\I conl ... ..,lIn
con ,I 'poyo oUdolo, par no d.dt olid.l, de la Oener,lid:ad
de Calalulla y d,1 Gobl,rno dl V.I.nda.
£1 prolehriado en la ull.
A ta .srui6n dl I. T.I.f6nica, qUI enubu6 el propio Ra·
drlsuu S.I", "lpondi6 d. un. m.ne •• un£nimt el I".olrl:ari.·
d, pe •• onjndon I. c.lI •• rma "I brluo. C,,"IrO dlas h:a
dut.do I. luc"" b.llh .. do .. 10, Ir,b.j.dortl con una bra.
vuta In,n.r.abll. L. unl" h. h"ido, da nu.vo, 11 palll·
menlo c",lItj,ro.
H,mo. rtll.lorludo aqulllol dl,. m.mor"blu dl I .. Jor.
n.d .. d. Jurio. Hemol I,n,do I, c,I1" que no qlltremO' u-
d .. pot ',r nuutr. y pOt h.berl. conquiltado In I"ch. fronc;'!.
y d,ddid •.
11 ,du,l movlmlento
Se h •• liTlnado QUI , .. Jorn.d" de Jullo !!Hron un. ru·
pUefh • la prOlloc.ci6n luel.la, pero 101 ,A",isol dl Du.rUlb
hem",. uthnido public.menlt qve I. utncill de los drll' "'e·
morllbln de Julio r ... die,b. en I ... anli ... b.olut .. de Im.n·
cipation dtl
Nos h.alhtmol en un UIO Identico
En lu ilclu.I" jorn.d:al de Mayo. ;'!. petar de t.,.ber exit·
tido un;'! prollocad6n no h,mOI ulido 11 la ca'le. I,n 101", par:ro
ptdi. tl dnormt d. 101 cuerpOI arm"dol ,ino ql.e qut.emn
que I .... nSrt que re h. det1'.m.'\do h.lle I. dtbid. compen-
11Id6ro,
Edamol lIilliendo un inttanlt de tuperncl6n d. un •• lap"
p,quei'lo-bu,su"a El com:,.h librldo I"or el prolel,ri.do ea-
latin .. pola.iu en un /\nhelo d, que ha d, consiltir
,n'..!' pl .. maci6n d. un predominlo obnro, den por den.
Nud,tr. Asruplci6n qUI ha fllado e" la calle, .n lu
b.rtic.d .. , d.lendilndo tu conquill" del prolflari.do pro·
puS" .. par I1 !riunfo 101111 dl la "volvei6" .0cl.,1. No pode.
mal .ctpl,r I, t:td6n, 'I el hfCno COo'llr(lrr'lIolucion"rlo. de
conlliluit un nUtlla ).bl.rno con 101 mimos plllrlido., ptn,
con di.linl .. t.prtnnt.nh., 1£110 .. un ,nl:rol'lo dt tal uli_
bre qUi "0 "";IImOI • .. ci. .no It.t (omilh I.
C N.T. Y .Isun d, I. F.A.I, II'! prerlado • I.
rnliud6n d. tll 1I1I'.nr. •
".xi!!f' I. Imn".l!ula <It' UII/\
ill.,1:. ,p\'nlurj"u:llin, cl fnIlJJ:ulJil'nln lIe 1<, el
nrml' ell' cu"l'l";J\ la ii.n :" In ('rnIF,mlll
\. la ,1(' ,"d"lI [l1l.rlidoF '1li , "1111 A.e"·
,'i·t .. 11 ,.·L.(' Irnt.njllrlnrn
L. G'ntralid3d no •• p.u.nh nlld,. S" conlirou1Icl6n
I:ro conl.arrevolucl6n. l:ro b.t,,,;'!. I. htmos Ipn3do 10' Ira.
h;'!.;.,dor,*, E. inconubiblt qUI 101 comilh de la C.N.T. "lIy"n
aclu:ldo con tal limidu que IIls,"n ord.nar 1:l1t0 ,I lu"n
'I qUI Indu,o h.y.n j'"pultlo la ... u,lIa .1 trllb.jo cv.ndo ".
l:ib.mo •• n 101 find .. inm,dialol d, I .. viCloria lolal. No It "1
Irnido fn CUtnl. dl d6ndl h. plllido I. a,rui,n, no .. tu
prnl3do altnd6n .1 yrrd:rotlu(/ dl las o(.lu.lu
jern .. das. '1'.1 conduct. h3 dl caliliurn ltalti6n , 10 re-
lIolucitn qUI nlldie tn n'Hn"r, de nar.a debe comlt't ni p ••
trotinll;. I 11'. ';JI"·,,, .. ,·,,111" I. lobo' ntl"ta qll.
1101 ,,,,Iiudo Solid;llridad Obrt; .. y I .... mililantlt mh dull·
udo. de I. C.N.T.
Ei comite de la C,N.T, no. deuuto,iu
No nOI h, .orprend.do I. d ... ulorirad6n dl 101 H,m.dot
comilh rupltnsabltl d. I., C.N.T. S.b'.m"., d, ,nlt.TI.no, qUI
utOt tomiltl no podl,n h.ur olra co. a 'quI e!'>iorpec.t .1
....... nu d,1 prohl.ri.d". Conoc.emo, lobr,damlnll I 19'
1 HEINTl5TAS qUi tll'" ,n .1 comit4 R.sion;'!.I,
Sc.mo. 101 1Ami,O' d. Durruti, quienll IlnunOI autarld.d
nlo.,1 luliciente P"" de!")utoriut • ulol individuol qUI h,n
traictoro:rodo I I. r'lIolucbn y • I. d ... Ir.b.j.do,., In-
capaUI y cob.rd". Cu."do no Itn.mo. Intmlso enlrlnle, .n·
Irts.n d, nu.yo ,I pod .. • CompanYI 'I ' la p'qu.". bur,l ... ·
.1. 'f • • demh. Inlre8,n Publico ;Ill sobi ... ,o conlr.-
rrellolution.rio dl y lA cc..nltj,ri;, d. Dtl ... :) al lene·
r,l POUI.
l. Iraid6n n de un lIolumen .norme, L •• do. SAr.nU,.
ulndatn d. I. cl .... I.a)uj.dor" Hsurid,d y deftnu. tOn
o'recid ... bandej •• nuulro. ,n.rni,o •.
h"c:err
A ptl.r d, I. lresua conurhda .1 upldlu d, III jorn,d ..
:lcab,mo. dt lIiv;r contint' .. tn pit, S, h. ccmetido .1
er.or ,r .. ndiolo d. d.r !iempo .1 adllerurio r,lorur .UI
pOlicionu. Se .... po.ihili!ado que .1 sobl,.no d. Vafend.
onandt lu.rlat • I. conlr.rr.voluci6n.
No n ha ubida .Iacar • londo nl ha IlCi.lido un. coor-
d;nllclon d •• en el lerreno inlurrecdon.1. S, h. p.r_
(;,Ilo el titmpo y lal munition'", con ,i"'plu p.queol, .n
vu de p'anllr un ;'!.taque rapido y .udlll. H. hlhdo Inl.lisen·
cb y di .. cci6n.
El ,lto I. luch, no pruupon. un. derrota. A puar d,
que no hly.mol dlda clm. a nuult .. obl,tlllol hemo •• 1,.1.
m,nlado nunl.o .rm.m ...... o,
El' ... ,m .. conqui'ladu no I .. hlmOl dl ent,tSllr • I.
cot'l!rarrlvoluci6n, Son de la d::ne 1r.l)lIj .. oora, Subthle el pe·
lil!lro dt nunlrol en,mi&o, que manti,nen 'VI po.lcionu y
que pOtlun, 10d,III., abund"nh ,rm;'!mento.
ElllmOl .tanlOI • 101 aconhcimitnto. qVI " lllldn.n.
No dum'yemol. M.ntens.mo. un •• 6lid. mor.1 r'lIoludon._
ria. No olllidemo, qUI no ... bmo. u". carh d,cill.
11 .... No no. dej •. mos .Iudn.r por el ."punlo p,lIsro d. vna
:tgrui6n d, 101 b:arco. dl I. inSlua CUllndo In re.li_
dad I .. polencias democdticu utA" :opoyando 1111 lasci.mo
d .. un. man, •• ducar.dll.
Sep.mo. Interpretar el momenlo .dull!. NuulrOI ,dll.r-
uriol I""lendl.n dnlruir el prolttariado rellolucion.rio par.
Itnlar IlU prem"" d. lln armilllclo palrocin.do por 101 10·
·bierno. inSlh 'I f,.nc4., V .1 mismo liempo pa •. ") u'lu.at un
predominio del capihl en el perlmtlro de I. E,:I.I'I. prol,-
larl •.
No .bandonlmo. la callt. M:anlengi\mOI el Indl)-
mable 'lUt CArlclet;r6 11 Ourruli In I" Cllltr, r" 101 IUIJ""
tt, '/ In riondt no. Incontremo •• 'I m.1n'1ns'mono.
a terminar III s.andiu. obr. 'n'cI"d, en I ... memo·
jorn",dlll ql'e 1I1"II;,ron uturad .. d,l Hplt;tu d. 10.
can,,,r.,du del FRENTE que hlln hecho .. nil,' IU ·,01 .Ir.d.
cont.a 101 co"tr. III bvrllcraci. 110.;'11 Y conl.a lu
du;guald,des 'I 10$ comlldreo: que flun ptrdut.n 11 puar d.
derr.mildo I ••. a torrenlU.
CAMARADAS: £n pit! de ,uerra, No desfalln-
di" Estad atentol al primer que se 01
haga.
IViva la revolucion jAbajo la
'uei"nf
Loa a los cam.arad.as caldot.
"

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