You are on page 1of 14

Approval Standard

for
Liquid and Gas
Safety Shutoff Valves

Class Number 7400


April 1998

2002 FM Approvals LLC. All rights reserved.

Foreword
The FM Approvals certification mark is intended to verify that the products and services described
will meet FM Approvals stated conditions of performance, safety and quality useful to the ends of
property conservation. The purpose of Approval Standards is to present the criteria for FM Approval
of various types of products and services, as guidance for FM Approvals personnel, manufacturers,
users and authorities having jurisdiction.
Products submitted for certification by FM Approvals shall demonstrate that they meet the intent of
the Approval Standard, and that quality control in manufacturing shall ensure a consistently uniform
and reliable product. Approval Standards strive to be performance-oriented. They are intended to
facilitate technological development.
For examining equipment, materials and services, Approval Standards:
a)

must be useful to the ends of property conservation by preventing, limiting or not


causing damage under the conditions stated by the Approval listing; and

b) must be readily identifiable.


Continuance of Approval and listing depends on compliance with the Approval Agreement,
satisfactory performance in the field, on successful re-examinations of equipment, materials, and
services as appropriate, and on periodic follow-up audits of the manufacturing facility.
FM Approvals LLC reserves the right in its sole judgment to change or revise its standards, criteria,
methods, or procedures.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Purpose .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.2 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.3 Basis for Requirements ..................................................................................................................................................... 1
1.4 Basis for FM Approval ....................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.5 Basis for Continued Approval .......................................................................................................................................... 2
1.6 Effective Date .................................................................................................................................................................... 2
1.7 System of Units ................................................................................................................................................................. 2
1.8 Applicable Documents ...................................................................................................................................................... 3
2. GENERAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................................................................... 3
Approval Application Requirements ........................................................................................................................................ 3
3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................................................. 3
3.1 Drawings/plans/specifications ........................................................................................................................................... 3
3.2 Physical or Structural Features ......................................................................................................................................... 3
3.3 Markings ............................................................................................................................................................................ 4
3.4 Manufacturers Installation and Operation Instructions ................................................................................................... 4
3.5 Calibration ......................................................................................................................................................................... 4
4. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS ..................................................................................................................................... 5
4.1 Operating Characteristics .................................................................................................................................................. 5
4.2 Valve Leakage ................................................................................................................................................................... 5
4.3 Durability ........................................................................................................................................................................... 5
4.4 Pressure .............................................................................................................................................................................. 6
4.5 Electrical Insulation ........................................................................................................................................................... 6
4.6 Voltage Variation ............................................................................................................................................................... 7
4.7 Actuating Pressure ............................................................................................................................................................. 7
4.8 Ambient Temperature Effects ........................................................................................................................................... 7
4.9 Control Valves for Pneumatically-actuated Main Valves ................................................................................................ 7
5. OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................................................................................... 8
5.1 Demonstrated Quality Control Program ........................................................................................................................... 8
5.2 Facilities and Procedures Audit (F&PA) .......................................................................................................................... 9
APPENDIX A: UNITS OF MEASUREMENT ......................................................................................................................... 10
APPENDIX B: FM APPROVAL MARKS ................................................................................................................................. 11

7400

April 1998

1. INTRODUCTION
1.1 Purpose
1.1.1 This standard states FM Approval criteria for liquid and gas safety shutoff valves.
1.1.2 FM Approval criteria may include, but are not limited to, performance requirements, marking requirements, examination of manufacturing facility(ies), audit of quality assurance procedures, and a follow-up
program.

1.2 Scope
1.2.1 This Standard sets performance requirements for liquid and gas safety shutoff valves used in the supply
lines for commercial and industrial burners. Typical fluids are chlorine gas, hydrogen, fuel oil, LP Gas,
natural gas, and oxygen.
1.2.2 A safety shutoff valve is a device intended to provide positive shutoff of fuel and/or process fluid supplies
to burners during idle periods or if various unsafe operating conditions exist.
1.2.3 The valve may be opened electrically, manually, pneumatically, or a combination of electric and
pneumatic. The valve may be held open electrically, pneumatically, or in combination. The valve shall
close automatically upon loss of holding action due to normal shutdown or fault conditions. In general,
automatic closure is by means of a spring.
1.2.4 The Class Number for this standard is generic. Specific Class Numbers have been assigned for the
particular methods of opening and holding:
Class 7411

Electric Opening and Holding

Class 7412

Electric and Pressure Opening and Holding

Class 7413

Manual Opening, Electric Holding

1.2.5 The requirements of this Standard shall be used to measure and describe the performance of safety shutoff
valves (SSOV) in response to exposure from heat, pressure, etc., under controlled laboratory conditions.
The results of these controlled exposures shall not be used to describe or appraise actual exposure
conditions since such conditions will vary widely.

1.3 Basis for Requirements


1.3.1 The requirements of this Standard are based on experience, research and testing, or the standards of other
national and international organizations. The advice of manufacturers, users, trade associations, and loss
control specialists was also considered.
1.3.2 The requirements of this Standard reflect tests and practices used to examine characteristics of safety
shutoff valves for the purpose of obtaining FM Approval. Safety shutoff valves having characteristics not
anticipated by this Standard may be Approved if performance equal, or superior, to that required by this
Standard is demonstrated, or if the intent of the Standard is met. Alternatively, safety shutoff valves which
meet all of the requirements identified in this Standard may not be Approved if other conditions which
adversely affect performance exist or if the intent of this Standard is not met.

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

1.4 Basis for FM Approval


FM Approval is based upon satisfactory evaluation of the product and the manufacturer in the following major
areas:
1.4.1 Examination and tests on production samples shall be performed to evaluate
the suitability of the product
the performance of the product as specified by the manufacturer and required by FM Approvals; and as
far as practical,
the durability and reliability of the product.
1.4.2 An examination of the manufacturing facilities and audit of quality control procedures is made to evaluate
the manufacturers ability to produce the product which was examined and tested, and the marking
procedures used to identify the product. These examinations are repeated as part of FM Approvals product
follow-Up program.

1.5 Basis for Continued Approval


Continued Approval is based upon:
production or availability of the product as currently Approved;
the continued use of acceptable quality assurance procedures;

satisfactory field experience;


compliance with the terms stipulated in the Approval Agreement;
satisfactory re-examination of production samples for continued conformity to requirements; and
satisfactory Facilities and Procedures Audits (F&PAs) conducted as part of FM Approvals Approved product
follow-up program.

Also, as a condition of retaining Approval, manufacturers may not change a product or service without prior
authorization by FM Approvals.

1.6 Effective Date


The effective date of an Approval standard mandates that all products tested for Approval after the effective date
shall satisfy the requirements of that standard. Products Approved under a previous edition shall comply with the
new version by the effective date or forfeit Approval.
The effective date of this Standard is May 1, 1998 for full compliance with all requirements.

1.7 System of Units


Units of measurement used in this Standard are United States (U.S.) customary units. These are followed by their
arithmetic equivalents in International System (SI) units, enclosed in parentheses. The first value stated shall be
regarded as the requirement. The converted equivalent value may be approximate. Appendix A lists the selected
units and conversions to SI units for measures appearing in this standard. Conversion of U.S. customary units
is in accordance with ANSI/IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997, Standard for Use of the International System of Units (SI).

FM APPROVALS

April 1998

7400

1.8 Applicable Documents


When applicable, the valves shall be in compliance with Factory Mutual Research Class 3810 Approval Standard
for Electrical and Electronic Test, Measuring, and Process Control Equipment pertaining primarily to dielectric
strength and supply voltage variation. Depending upon specific valve construction, other requirements of this
standard may apply and shall be subject to special investigation.

2. GENERAL INFORMATION
Approval Application Requirements
To apply for an Approval examination the manufacturer, or its authorized representative, should submit a request
to the Electrical Group Manager at FM Approvals, 1151 Boston-Providence Turnpike, PO Box 9102, Norwood,
MA 02062, U.S.A.

3. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
3.1 Drawings/plans/specifications
The manufacturer shall provide assembly drawings, component drawings, materials lists, nameplate format,
brochures, sales literature, specification sheets, etc. for FM Approvals examination.

3.2 Physical or Structural Features


3.2.1 A safety shutoff valve shall be available as a complete and identifiable assembly. It shall perform in all
respects to the manufacturers specifications.
3.2.2 Process-wetted parts shall be compatible with the intended fluid service within the manufacturers
specified fluid pressure and temperature range.
3.2.3 Valves for fuel oil and fuel gas service shall be provided with some means of indicating valve position
(open or closed) visible from at least 5 ft (1.5 m). The indication means may be mechanical or electrical.
Electrical indication shall be such that its failure will not imply that the valve is closed. The requirement
for indication is waived for solenoid operated valves up to 34 NPT. If the electrical indication is intended
for use as an interlock in a combustion safety circuit, valve or actuator stem overtravel is required for
actuation.
3.2.4 Loss of actuating medium (media) shall result in automatic valve closure. The closure mechanism shall not
be readily by-passed nor shall the valve be capable of being blocked open.

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

3.2.5 Electrical contacts, terminals, and vulnerable operating members shall be adequately protected from
damage and expected atmospheric conditions.
3.2.6 Valve design shall be such that it will operate reliably and with no significant change in operating
characteristics during and after 20,000 operational cycles at maximum rated operating pressure.
3.2.7 Manually-opened valves shall not remain open unless the holding medium is above the trip point.
3.2.8 Actuator operating temperature range shall be at least 32F (0C) to 140F (60C).
3.2.9 Valves designed so that upstream (inlet) pressure tends to open the valve or keep it open are not
Approvable.

3.3 Markings
3.3.1 An Approved SSOV shall be marked by a securely attached, corrosion-resistant label that includes the
name of the manufacturer, distinctive type or model designation, type of fluid service, and fluid temperature and pressure rating.
3.3.2 All products tested and Approved to this standard shall bear the FM Approval Mark. Reproduction art
formats are shown in the Appendix. The location, material, and application method will be by mutual
agreement between FM Approvals and the manufacturer.
3.3.3 The actuator shall be marked to indicate all electrical ratings, operating temperature range, and pressure
ratings, as applicable.
3.3.4 The valve shall be provided with an indication of flow direction, if applicable.
3.3.5 All markings shall be legible and durable.

3.4 Manufacturers Installation and Operation Instructions


The manufacturer shall provide detailed instructions and illustrations showing the correct method of installing
the SSOV for proper function. In addition, the manufacturer shall provide detailed operating procedures for this
valve. A parts/repair list shall be included together with required maintenance instructions and instructions for
periodic testing of the valve.

3.5 Calibration
All examinations and tests performed in evaluation to this Standard shall use calibrated measuring instruments
traceable and certified to acceptable national standards.

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

4. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS
4.1 Operating Characteristics
4.1.1 Requirement
A. An SSOV shall close, without manual action, within 5 seconds or less, upon abrupt cutoff or slow
reduction to the trip point of the actuating medium under all pressure conditions within its rating.
B. The valve shall close consistently and reliably against pressures up to 150 percent of maximum rated
operating pressure.
Note: Maximum rated operating pressure ( also referred to as rated pressure) is defined as : The maximum difference between
the pressure at the inlet port and the pressure at the outlet port against which the valve is designed to operate or open,
whichever is greater.

4.1.2 Test/Verification
A. Valve closure time shall be measured for at least 10 operations at line pressures of 10, 50, and
100 percent of specified rated pressure. The average of the 10 measurements plus three standard
deviations shall not exceed 5 seconds.
Note: If a hand held stopwatch is used for timing, reaction time will add approximately 0.1 second to the actual valve response
time.

B. The valve shall be subjected to at least 10 successive operational cycles at 1.5 times rated pressure.
There shall be no failure to close.
Note: Some valves may not be capable of opening at 1.5 times rated pressure. In such instances, pressure can be reduced to not
less than 100 percent until the valve opens, and then increased to 150 percent prior to closure.

4.2 Valve Leakage


4.2.1 Requirement
Through-the-seat leakage, with the valve closed, shall not exceed 24 in.3/hr (400 cc/hr) air or 0.4 oz/hr
(11.8 ml/hr) water.
4.2.2 Test/Verification
Through-the-seat leakage shall be measured, at the valve outlet port, at 10 and 150 percent of rated
pressure and at one or more pressures in between.
A. by means of a rotameter or by water displacement in an inverted graduated cylinder using air,
or
B. by collection of leakage in a graduated cylinder using water.

4.3 Durability
4.3.1 Requirement
The valve shall operate reliably and with no significant change in operating characteristics during and after
20,000 operational cycles at rated pressure.

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

4.3.2 Test/Verification
A. The valve shall be cycled, from fully opened to fully closed, for not less than 20,000 operations, by
alternate application and removal of the actuating medium. Cycling shall be at rated pressure. There
shall be no operational failure during the test.
B. At the conclusion of the test, the seat leakage rate shall be measured as noted in Section 4.2 above. The
leak rate shall not have increased more than 25 percent, and shall not be greater than the limit noted
in 4.2. If there was zero initial leakage then leakage at the conclusion of the test shall not be greater
than 10 percent of the limit noted in 4.2.
C. If the leak rate has increased more than 25 percent, or is more than 10 percent for the zero leakage
valve, and is less than the stated limit, the valve shall be subjected to additional operational cycles until:
1) the leak rate stabilizes, or
2) 100,000 cycles are complete, or
3) leakage exceeds the stated limit.
Leakage may be measured after each 10,000 cycle interval, or at any other interval judged appropriate.

4.4 Pressure
4.4.1 Requirement
The valve shall be able to withstand a hydrostatic pressure equal to 200 percent of rated pressure without
external leakage or damage.
4.4.2 Test/Verification
A pressure equal to 200 percent of rated pressure shall be applied through the inlet port, with the valve
open, and maintained for 5 minutes. There shall be no external leakage or damage to the valve. There shall
be no permanent distortion after the pressure is released. Adjustment (tightening) of valve stem packing
or other aperture seals, to prevent external leakage, is permissible. However, such adjustments shall not
result in a closure time exceeding 5 seconds or failure to close at 150 percent of rated pressure as noted
in Section 4.1.

4.5 Electrical Insulation


4.5.1 Requirement
All electrical components of a valve, if so equipped, shall be capable of withstanding a high potential
between input terminals and ground, for one minute without arcing or breakdown.
4.5.2 Test/Verification
A. For an operating voltage of 60 V or less, a potential of 500 V,a.c. shall be applied between input
terminals and the enclosure ground for one minute.
B. For an operating voltage greater than 60 V, the potential shall be 1000 V,a.c. plus twice the rated
voltage.
C. No arcing or breakdown shall occur.

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

4.6 Voltage Variation


4.6.1 Requirement
Electrically operated valves shall operate properly over a range of 85 to 110 percent of rated voltage.
4.6.2 Test/Verification
The valve shall open reliably and consistently, at rated pressure, when input voltage is varied from 85 to
110 percent of the rated voltage. The valve shall not trip closed within this voltage range.

4.7 Actuating Pressure


4.7.1 Requirement
Pneumatically-opened valves shall operate properly over the specified actuator operating pressure range.
4.7.2 Test/Verification
The valve shall open reliably and consistently at rated valve pressure within the specified minimum and
maximum pressure range of the actuator. The valve shall not trip closed within this pressure range.

4.8 Ambient Temperature Effects


4.8.1 Requirement
The valve/actuator assembly shall be capable of operating reliably and consistently at the ambient temperature limits specified by the manufacturer. Actuator temperature limits shall govern over process fluid
limits. Actuator temperature operating range shall be at least 32F (0C) to 140F (60C).
4.8.2 Test/Verification
A. The valve shall be conditioned for a minimum of 4 hours at the temperature extremes of the operating
range for the actuator, or at 32F (0C) to 140F (60C), whichever is greater. All tests noted below
shall be conducted while the valve is at the temperature extremes.
B. After conditioning, the valve shall close properly at 1.5 times rated pressure.
C. Through-the-seat leakage shall be tested and shall not exceed the limits as described in Section 4.2
above.
D. Valve closure time shall not exceed 5 seconds at 10 and 100 percent of rated pressure.
E. In the interest of practicality, air or other inert gas is the preferred process fluid test medium.

4.9 Control Valves for Pneumatically-actuated Main Valves


4.9.1 Requirement
When de-energized, an inlet pressure of 150 psi or 2 times the rated actuator pressure, whichever is greater,
shall not result in operation of the actuator.
4.9.2 Test/Verification
A pressure, as specified above, shall be applied to the inlet port of the de-energized control valve for
5 minutes. This shall not result in operation of the main valve actuator.

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

5. OPERATIONS REQUIREMENTS
A quality assurance program is required to assure that subsequent safety shutoff valve(s) produced by the
manufacturer shall present the same quality and reliability as the specific safety shutoff valve(s) examined.
Design quality, conformance to design, and performance are the areas of primary concern.
Design quality is determined during the examination and tests, and is documented in the Approval Report.
Continued conformance to this Standard is verified by the Facilities and Procedures Audits (F&PA).
Quality of performance is determined by field performance and as necessary by periodic re-examination and
testing.

5.1 Demonstrated Quality Control Program


5.1.1 The manufacturer shall demonstrate a quality assurance program which specifies controls for at least the
following areas:

existence of corporate quality assurance guidelines


incoming quality assurance, including testing
in-process quality assurance, including testing
final inspection and tests

equipment calibration
drawing and change control
packaging and shipping
handling and disposition of discrepant materials.
5.1.2 Documentation/Manual
There should be an authoritative collection of procedures/policies. It should provide an accurate description of the quality management system while serving as a permanent reference for implementation and
maintenance of that system. The system should require that sufficient records are maintained to demonstrate achievement of the required quality and verify operation of the quality system.
5.1.3 Records
To assure adequate traceability of materials and products, the manufacturer shall maintain, for a minimum
period of two years from the date of manufacture, a record of all quality assurance tests performed.
5.1.4 Drawing and Change Control
The manufacturer shall establish a system of product configuration control that shall allow no unauthorized changes to the product. Changes to critical documents identified in the Approval Report must
be reported to, and authorized by, FM Approvals prior to implementation for production.
The manufacturer shall assign an appropriate person or group to be responsible for, and require that,
proposed changes to Approved or Listed products be reported to FM Approvals before implementation.
The manufacturer shall notify FM Approvals of changes in the product or of persons responsible for
keeping FM Approvals advised by means of FM Approvals Form 797, Approved Product Revision
Report or Address/Contact Change Notice.
Records of all revisions to all Approved products shall be maintained.

FM APPROVALS

April 1998

7400

5.2 Facilities and Procedures Audit (F&PA)


5.2.1 An audit of the manufacturing facility is part of the Approval investigation to verify implementation of the
quality assurance program. Its purpose is to determine that the manufacturers equipment, procedures, and
quality program are maintained to insure a product consistent with that which was tested and Approved.
5.2.2 These audits shall be conducted periodically but at least annually by FM Approvals or its representatives
or more frequently dependent on jurisdictional requirements. At issue of this standard the Occupational
and Safety Health Administration (OSHA) of the United States Department of Labor requires audits of
manufacturing sites producing products for use in hazardous locations during each calendar quarter the
product is manufactured.
5.2.3 FM Approved products or services shall be produced or provided at or from the location(s) audited by
FM Approvals and as specified in the Approval Report. Manufacture of products bearing the FM Approval
Mark is not permitted at any other location without prior written authorization by FM Approvals.

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

APPENDIX A
UNITS OF MEASUREMENT
LENGTH:

in. inches (mm millimeters)


mm = in. 25.4
ft feet (m meters)
m = ft 0.3048

PRESSURE:

psi pounds per square inch; (kPa kilopascals)


kPa = psi 6.895
bar bar; (kPa kilopascals)
bar = kPa 0.01
bar = psi 0.06895

10

FM APPROVALS

7400

April 1998

APPENDIX B
APPROVAL MARKS
REPRODUCTION ART: FM Approval Marks
For use on nameplates, in literature, advertisements,
packaging and other graphics.
1) The FM diamond mark is acceptable to
FM Approvals as an Approval mark when used
with the word Approved.
2) The FM Approval logomark has no minimum
size requirement, but should always be large
enough to be readily identifiable.
3) Color should be black on a light background or a
reverse may be used on a dark background.

For Cast-On Marks


4) Where reproduction of the mark described
above is impossible because of production
restrictions, a modified version of the diamond is
suggested. Minimum size specifications are the
same as for printed marks. Use of the word
Approved with this mark is optional.

NOTE: These Approval marks are to be used only in conjunction with products or services that have been
FM Approved. The FM Approval marks should never be used in any manner (including advertising, sales or promotional
purposes) that could suggest or imply FM Approval or endorsement of a specific manufacturer or distributor. Nor should
it be implied that Approval extends to a product or service not covered by written agreement with FM Approvals. The
Approval marks signify that products or services have met certain requirements as reported by the FM Approvals.

Additional reproduction art is available through


FM Approvals
P.O. Box 9102,
Norwood, Massachusetts 02062
USA

FM APPROVALS

11