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- Logical Reasoning and Analytical Ability Deriving Conclusions
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Fuzzy Systems

Soft Computing

Fuzzy systems, topics : Introduction, fuzzy logic, fuzzy system

elements - input vector, fuzzification, fuzzy rule base, membership

function,

fuzzy

inferencing,

Classical

Logic

functions

defuzzyfication,

statement,

symbols,

and

output

tautology,

vector.

membership

inference

(GMP),

approximate

generalized

reasoning,

modus

tollens

generalized

(GMT).

modus

Fuzzy

rule

ponens

based

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Fuzzy Systems

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Soft Computing

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Topics

35, 36

2 hours)

Slides

(Lectures

03-05

1. Introduction

Fuzzy Systems : Fuzzy logic and Fuzzy set theory; Fuzzy system

elements : Input vector, Fuzzification, Fuzzy Rule Base, Membership

function, Fuzzy Inferencing, Defuzzyfication, Output vector.

06-19

2. Fuzzy Logic

Fuzzy logic : Proposition, Connectives, Quantifiers.

22

3. Fuzzification

23-27

4. Fuzzy Inference

Approximate

reasoning;

Generalized

Modus

Ponens

(GMP);

5. Fuzzy Rule Based System

28

Example

6. Defuzzification

29

Centroid method.

7. References

02

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Fuzzy Systems

Knowledge exists in two distinct forms :

the Objective knowledge

that exists in

the

Subjective

knowledge

that

exists

in

linguistic

form,

usually

impossible to quantify.

Fuzzy Logic can coordinate these two forms of knowledge in a logical way.

Fuzzy Systems

can

handle

linguistic knowledge.

are inherently imprecisely defined.

replicated with the

problems

have

been

modeled,

simulated,

and

systems, Navigation system, and Robot vision.

Expert Systems design have become easy because their domains are

inherently fuzzy and can now be handled better;

examples : Decision-support systems, Financial planners, Diagnostic

system, and Meteorological system.

03

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Any system that uses Fuzzy mathematics may be viewed as Fuzzy system.

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1. Introduction

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The Fuzzy Set Theory - membership function, operations, properties and the

have

been

described

in previous

lectures.

relations

theory is Fuzzy logic which is covered in this section.

Here the emphasis is on the design of fuzzy system and fuzzy controller in a

closedloop. The specific topics of interest are :

Fuzzification of

input information,

De-Fuzzification of results from the Reasoning process, and

Fuzzy controller in a closedloop.

of Fuzzy System is shown in the next slide. Fuzzy Inferencing combines the

facts

obtained

from

the

Fuzzification

04

with

the

fuzzy

rule

base

and

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Fuzzy System

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Fuzzy

Rule Base

Input

variables

X1

X2

output

variables

Fuzzy

Inferencing

Fuzzification

Y1

Y2

Defuzzification

Ym

Xn

Membeship Function

Fig. Elements of Fuzzy System

Fuzzy System elements

Input Vector :

X = [x1 , x2, . . . xn ]

Output Vector : Y = [y1 , y2, . . . ym ]

comes out

from

the

a crisp value.

Fuzzification : a process of transforming crisp values into grades of

Fuzzy Rule base : a

collection

of

propositions

containing

linguistic

If (x is A ) AND (y is B )

......

THEN (z is C)

A, B and Z

Fuzzy Inferencing : combines the facts obtained from the Fuzzification

with the rule base and conducts the Fuzzy reasoning process.

Defuzzyfication: Translate results back to the real world values.

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2. Fuzzy Logic

A simple form of logic, called a two-valued logic is the study of "truth tables"

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and logic circuits. Here the possible values are true as 1, and false as 0.

This simple two-valued logic is generalized and called fuzzy logic which treats

"truth" as a continuous quantity ranging from 0 to 1.

Definition : Fuzzy logic (FL) is derived from fuzzy set theory dealing with

reasoning that is approximate rather than precisely deduced from classical

two-valued logic.

FL is the application of Fuzzy set theory.

FL allows set membership values to range (inclusively) between 0 and 1.

FL is capable of handling inherently imprecise concepts.

FL allows in linguistic form, the set membership values to imprecise concepts

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Logic is used to represent simple facts. Logic defines the ways of putting

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Examples :

Sentence

Truth value

Is it a Proposition ?

"Grass is green"

"true"

Yes

"2 + 5 = 5"

"false"

Yes

No

No

"x = x"

No

(don't

mean;

to air"

has no

"3 = 3" or say "air is equal

or "Water is equal to water"

meaning)

A proposition is a statement - which in English is a declarative sentence

and

Logic defines

the ways

of putting

Propositional logic is also called boolean algebra.

Examples: (a) The sky is blue.,

(c) 12 * 12=144

A sentence is smallest unit in propositional logic

If proposition is true, then truth value is "true"; else false

Example ;

07

Sentence

"Grass is green";

Truth value

true;

Proposition

yes

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Statement : A

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ab

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Operator

or

connective :

Symbols for connectives

assertion

nagation

"p is true"

p ~ !

conjunction

pq

disjunction

P v q ||

implication

p q

equivalence

&& &

NOT

"p is false"

AND

OR

if . . then

if and only if

"either p is true,

or q is true,

or both "

"if p is true, then q is true"

" p implies q "

"p and q are either both true

or both false"

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p

~p

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Truth Value

pvq

and

propositions. The truth table for negation, conjunction, disjunction,

implication and equivalence are shown below.

09

p q p q p v q pq

pq

qp

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Tautology

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ab

p, q,

ha

r, . . . .

(pq) [p (q)]

and

(pq) (p) q

A proof of these tautologies, using the truth tables are given below.

Tautologies

(pq) [p (q)]

and

(pq) (p) q

pq q p (q) [p (q)] p

(p) q

Note :

1. The entries of two columns pq

and

[p (q)]

are identical,

(p) q are identical, proves the other tautology.

2. The importance of these tautologies is that they express the

membership function for pq in terms of membership functions of

either propositions p and q or p and q.

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Equivalences

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between Logic and

Boolean

the correspondence

given below.

Logic

Set theory

T

F

1

0

x

+

ie complement

=

a, b, c

,

, U

()

p, q,

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(pq) [p (q)]

and

(pq) (p) q

Using these facts and the equivalence between logic and set theory, we

can obtain membership functions for p q (x , y) .

From 1st fact :

pq (x , y) = 1 - p q (x , y)

= 1 min [ p(x) , 1 - q (y)]

Uq

Eq (1)

(x , y)

Eq (2)

Table-2 : Validation of Eq (1) and Eq (2)

p(x) q(y) 1 - p (x) 1 - q (y)

max [ 1

- p (x) ,

q (y)]

1 min [ p(x)

1 - q (y)]

Note :

1. Entries in last two columns of this table-2 agrees with the entries in

table-1 for pq , the proof of tautologies, read T as 1 and F as 0.

2. The implication membership functions of Eq.1 and Eq.2 are not

the only ones that give agreement with pq.

12

pq (x , y) = 1 - p (x) (1 - q (y))

Eq (3)

Eq (4)

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In

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Modus Ponens

Premise 2 : " if x is A then y is B " ; Consequence : " y is B "

Modus Ponens is associated with the implication " A implies B " [AB]

In terms of propositions p and q, the Modus Ponens is expressed as

(p (p q)) q

Modus Tollens

Premise 2 : " if x is A then y is B " ; Consequence : " x is not A "

In terms of propositions p and q, the Modus Tollens is expressed as

( q (p q)) p

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Like the extension of crisp set theory to fuzzy set theory, the extension of

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In crisp logic, the truth value acquired by the proposition are 2-valued,

namely true as 1 and false as 0.

In fuzzy logic, the truth values are multi-valued, as absolute true, partially

true, absolute false etc represented numerically as real value between

0 to 1.

Note : The fuzzy variables in fuzzy sets, fuzzy propositions, fuzzy relations

etc are represented usually using symbol

~ as

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Recaps

01 Membership function

of

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and B with the membership functions A (x) and B (x) based on min/max

operations is A

(Eq. 01)

and B with the membership functions A (x) and B (x) based on algebraic

product is

A (x) B (x) ,

(Eq. 02)

with the membership functions A (x) and B (x) based on min/max

operations is A U B = max [ A (x) , B (x) ] , x X (Eq. 03)

05 Fuzzy Union operator U ( OR connective ) applied to two fuzzy sets A and B

with the membership functions A (x) and B (x) based on algebraic sum is

A

UB

x X

(Eq. 04)

07 Fuzzy relations combining two fuzzy sets by connective "min operation" is an

operation by cartesian product R : X x Y [0 , 1].

R(x,y) = A (x) B (y)

(Eq. 06)

or

(Eq. 07)

h-m

x

G

0.5

0.3

0.4

0.2

0.0

maturity grade as Y = {verdant, half-mature, mature}

08 Max-Min Composition - combines the fuzzy relations

consider the relations :

R1(x , y) = { ((x , y) , R1 (x , y)) | (x , y) A x B }

R2(y , z) = { ((y , y) , R1 (y , z)) | (y , z) B x C }

max-min composition denoted by R1 R2 with membership function R1 R2

R1 R2 = { ((x , z) , max

y

(x , z) A x C , y B

15

(Eq. 08)

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Fuzzy Propositional

A fuzzy proposition is a statement P which acquires a fuzzy truth

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value T(P) .

ha

Example :

16

: Ram is honest

T(P) = 0.8 ,

T(P) = 1 ,

means P

is absolutely true.

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Fuzzy Connectives

The fuzzy logic is similar to crisp logic supported by connectives.

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Connective

Symbols

Usage

Definition

Nagation

Disjuction

P Q

Max[T(P) , T(Q)]

Conjuction

P Q

min[T(P) , T(Q)]

Implication

P Q

1 T(P)

Here P , Q are fuzzy proposition and T(P) , T(Q) are their truth values.

the P and Q are related by the operator are known as antecedents

as crisp logic, here in fuzzy logic also the operator represents

IF x

is A THEN y

is B,

is equivalent to

R = (A x B) U ( A x Y)

R (x , y) = max [min (A (x) , B (y)) , 1 A (x)]

For the compound implication statement like

IF x is A THEN y is B, ELSE y is C

is equivalent to

R = (A x B) U ( A x C)

R (x , y) = max [min (A (x) , B (y)) , min (1 A (x), C (y))]

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P : Mary is efficient ,

T(P) = 0.8 ,

Q : Ram

T(Q) = 0.65 ,

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: Mary is efficient ,

is efficient ,

i.e.

P Q : Either Mary or Ram is efficient i.e.

T(P Q) = max (T(P), T(Q)) = max (0.8, 0.65)) = 0.8

P Q : If Mary is efficient then so is Ram,

i.e.

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Let

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X

= {a, b, c, d}

= {(a, 0)

(b, 0.8)

(c, 0.6)

(d, 1)}

= {(1, 0.2)

(2, 1)

(3, 0.8)

(4, 0)}

= {(1, 0)

(2, 0.4)

(3, 1)

(4, 0.8)}

= { 1, 2, 3, 4}

(i)

If x is A THEN y is B

(ii)

If x is A THEN y is B

Else y is C

Solution

To determine implication relations (i) compute :

The operator represents

IF x is A THEN y is B,

is equivalent to R = (A x B) U ( A x Y) and

R (x , y) = max [min (A (x) , B (y)) , 1 A (x)]

Fuzzy Intersection A x B is defined as :

A

a

AxB =

1

0

2

0

3

0

4

A

a

0.2

0.8

A x Y =

Therefore R = (A x B) U ( A x Y) gives

x

a

R =

0.2

0.8

0

0

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ha

C

C

Given X = {a, b, c, d}

= {(a, 0)

(b, 0.8)

(c, 0.6)

(d, 1)}

= {(1, 0.2)

(2, 1)

(3, 0.8)

(4, 0)}

= {(1, 0)

(2, 0.4)

(3, 1)

(4, 0.8)}

IF x is A THEN y is B Else y is C,

is equivalent to

R = (A x B) U ( A x C) and

R (x , y) = max [min (A (x) , B (y)) , min(1 A (x), C (y)]

Fuzzy Intersection A x B is defined as :

for all x in the set X,

(A B)(x) = min [A(x), B(x)],

B

A

a

AxB =

1

0

2

0

3

0

0.2

0.8

y

A

a

for all x in the set X

(A C)(x) = min [A(x), C(x)],

A x C =

0.4

0.8

Therefore

R = (A x B) U ( A x C)

x

a

R =

0.2

0.8

gives

0

0

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Fuzzy Quantifiers

In crisp logic, the predicates are quantified by quantifiers.

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Relative quantifiers

Examples :

21

Absolute quantifiers

Relative quantifiers

almost

about

most

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3. Fuzzification

The fuzzification is a process of transforming crisp values into grades of

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ha

Example 1 : Speed X0 = 70km/h

low and a medium speed fuzzy set.

1

Low

.8

Medium

.6

.4

.2

0

20

40

60

80

Speed

100

120

140

X0 = 70km/h

medium speed fuzzy set

V Low

Low

Medium

High

V High

.8

to fuzzy medium.

.6

.4

.2

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

00

Speed X0 = 40km/h

low, medium, high and very high

speed fuzzy set

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4. Fuzzy Inference

Fuzzy Inferencing is the core element of a fuzzy system.

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Fuzzy Inferencing combines - the facts obtained from the fuzzification with the

ha

Fuzzy Inference is also known as approximate reasoning.

Fuzzy Inference is computational procedures used for evaluating linguistic

descriptions. Two important inferring procedures are

Generalized Modus Ponens (GMP)

Generalized Modus Tollens (GMT)

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This is formally stated as

ha

kr

ab

If

x is A THEN y is B

x

is

is

Note : Every fuzzy linguistic statements above the line is analytically known

and what is below the line is analytically unknown.

To compute the membership function B , the max-min composition

of fuzzy set A with R(x , y) which is the known implication relation

(IF-THEN) is used. i.e.

B = A R(x, y)

B (y) = max (min ( A (x) , R (x , y)))

A (x)

where

B (y)

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This is formally stated as

kr

ab

If

x is A THEN y is B

ha

is B

x is A

where A , B , A , B are fuzzy terms.

Note : Every fuzzy linguistic statements above the line is analytically known

and what is below the line is analytically unknown.

To compute the membership function A , the max-min composition

of fuzzy set B with R(x , y) which is the known implication relation

(IF-THEN) is used. i.e.

A = B R(x, y)

A (y) = max (min ( B (x) , R (x , y)))

B (x)

where

A (y)

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Example :

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Apply the fuzzy Modus Ponens rules to deduce Rotation is quite slow?

kr

ab

Given :

ha

(i)

Let H (High) , VH (Very High) , S (Slow) and QS (Quite Slow) indicate the

associated fuzzy sets.

Let the set for temperatures be X = {30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100} , and

Let the set of rotations per minute be Y = {10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60} and

H = {(70, 1) (80, 1) (90, 0.3)}

VH = {(90, 0.9) (100, 1)}

QS = {10, 1) (20, 08) }

S = {(30, 0.8) (40, 1) (50, 0.6)

R (x, y) = max (H x S ,

HxS=

26

H x Y)

10

20

30

40

50

60

10

20

30

40

50

60

30

30

40

40

50

50

60

0.8

0.6

60

H x Y = 70

70

80

0.8

0.6

80

90

100

90

100

1

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20

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

70

0.8

0.6

80

0.8

0.6

ha

kr

ab

or

ty

10

R(x,Y) =

90

100

1

QS = VH

R (x, y)

= [0 0 0 0 0 0 0.9 1]

10

20

30

40

50

60

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

= [1 1 1 1 1 1 ]

27

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The fuzzy linguistic descriptions are formal representation of systems made

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ab

ha

IF (a set of conditions) are satisfied THEN (a set of consequents) can be inferred.

IF (x1 is A1,

x2 is A2,

y2 is B2,

yn is Bn)

where linguistic variables xi, yj take the values of fuzzy sets Ai and Bj

respectively.

Example :

IF

THEN

A collection of rules referring to a particular system is known as a fuzzy

rule base. If the conclusion C to be drawn from a rule base R is the conjunction

of all the individual consequents C

C = C1

C2 . . . Cn

where

where Y

y Y

is universe of discourse.

On the other hand, if the conclusion C to be drawn from a rule base R is the

disjunction of the individual consequents of each rule, then

C = C1 U

C2 U . . . U Cn

where

c (y ) = max ( c1 (y ), c2(y ) , cn (y )) ,

Y

28

is universe of discourse.

y Y where

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6. Defuzzification

In many situations, for a system whose output is fuzzy, it is easier to take a

kr

ab

crisp decision

if the output

is

represented

as

ha

Defuzzification is the reverse process of fuzzification.

The typical Defuzzification methods are

Centroid method,

Center of sums,

Mean of maxima.

Centroid method

It is also known as the "center of gravity" of area method.

It obtains the centre of area (x*) occupied by the fuzzy set .

For discrete membership function, it is given by

n

x* =

i=1

n

i=1

xi (xi)

where

(xi)

xi are the elements,

and

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1. "Neural

Applications", by S. Rajasekaran and G.A. Vijayalaksmi Pai, (2005), Prentice Hall,

Chapter 7, page 187-221.

ha

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ab

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References : Textbooks

2. "Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems Design - Theory, Tools and Applications",

page 137-200.

3. "Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic: Theory and Applications", by George J. Klir and

Bo Yuan, (1995), Prentice Hall, Chapter 12-17, page 327-466.

Chapter 9-10, page 169- 233.

5. "Fuzzy Logic: Intelligence, Control, and Information", by John Yen, Reza Langari,

(1999 ), Prentice Hall, Chapter 8-13, page 183-380.

6. "Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications", by Timothy Ross, (2004), John Wiley

& Sons Inc, Chapter 5-15 , page 120-603.

7. "Fuzzy Logic and Neuro Fuzzy Applications Explained", by Constantin Von Altrock,

(1995), Prentice Hall, Chapter 3-8, page 29-321.

being prepared for inclusion at a later date.

30

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