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IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM) vol.11 issue.1 version.1

IOSR Journal of Mathematics (IOSR-JM) vol.11 issue.1 version.1

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e-ISSN: 2278-5728, p-ISSN: 2319-765X. Volume 11, Issue 1 Ver. 1 (Jan - Feb. 2015), PP 19-22

www.iosrjournals.org

Dr. N. Sarala1, R. Kavitha2

, . . . , , , .

, . . , , ,

Abstract: The quality of learning and teaching Mathematics has been one of the major challenges and concern

of the educators. Mathematics is often considered as a subject that a student either understand or doesnt with

little in between. Now a days modeling is one of the central ideas in mathematics education. The concept of

teaching is fundamental for the study of student cognitive action. In this paper we have developed a model for

mathematics teaching and analyses the skill of teachers using fuzzy logic.

Keywords: Fuzzy sets and logic, Possibility, Probability, Uncertainty

I.

Introduction

There are often situations in real life in which definitions do not have clear boundaries, for example this

happens when we speak about the high temperature of a place, about young people of a town, about the tall

pupils of a school, etc. The fuzzy set theory was created in response to the need to have a mathematical

representation of such kind of situations.

Let U denote the universal set of the discourse. Then a fuzzy set A in U, initiated by Zadeh [1], is

defined by means of the membership function mA , which assigns to each element of U a real value from the

interval [0,1]. More specifically

A = x, mA x , x U , where mA U [0,1]

The value mA x , called the membership degree of x in A, express the degree to which x verifies the

characteristic property of A. Thus, the nearer the value mA x to 1, the higher the membership degree of x in A.

It is always said that the formal mathematical teaching comes from the very exactness of the science

of Mathematics and therefore there is no possible space in Mathematics for any lack of definition, or vagueness.

But, the Mathematics teaching skill that teachers have about the various Mathematics teaching methodology

concepts is usually imperfect, characterized by a different degree of depth. This suggests that the application of

fuzzy set theory in Mathematics teaching could be a very promising tool in order to represent such situations

and get useful conclusions.

II.

Consider by Sutton [2] learning and teaching Mathematics are both complex active process. Teachers

are constantly making decisions as they facilitate a daily learning environment in which they work with their

students as active learners. They must also undertake long-term planning to connect daily efforts into the total

education of each student. At the same time, teachers share more responsibility for their students successes

with the other factors in educational community, including their colleagues, their institutions and the policies of

the educational system.

From [3], Based on review of literature in Mathematics education, the philosophy of Mathematics, the

philosophy of education and research on Teaching and Learning, Kuhs and Ball (1986) identified at least four

dominant and distinctive views of how Mathematics should be taught.

Learner focused

Focuses on learners personal construction of Mathematical knowledge

(Manouchehri & Enderson 2003)

Content focused with emphasis on conceptual understanding

Driven by content that is focused on conceptual understanding (Thompson, 1992).

Content focused with emphasis on performance

It deals with Student performance, mastery of Mathematical rules and procedures, combined with use

of exact, rigorous, Mathematical language (leung 1995)

It is an instrumentalist view (ernest 1989). It is based on knowledge of Mathematics is demonstrated

by correctly answering and solving problems using learned rules.

Class room focused

Class room focused with Mathematical teaching based on knowledge about effective class rooms.

Class room activity must be well structure and efficiently organized according to effective teacher

behaviors identified in process-product studies on teaching effectiveness(Thompson 1992)

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11111922

www.iosrjournals.org

19 | Page

Teachers cognition utilizes in general concepts that are inherently graded and therefore fuzzy.

Finally, concerning the stages of Mathematics Teaching presented above, notice that the learner

focused is an introductory stage. Next, we shall consider content focused with emphasis on understanding and

performance as a single stage of the whole process. The final stage is class room focused. This hypothesis,

without changing the substance of thing at all will make technically easier the development of fuzzy framework

for model of Mathematics Teaching.

III.

For special facts on fuzzy sets and uncertainty theory, we refer freely to [6,9].

Let us consider the group of n teachers n 2, during the Mathematics Teaching process in the class

room.

We denote Ai , i = 1,2,3, the states of learner focused, content focused with emphasis on understanding

and performance, class room focused respectively and by a,b,c,d and e are the linguistic labels of ordinary,

inspired, practical, innovative and excellent teaching respectively in each of the Ai s set.

U = {a, b, c, d, e}

We represent the Ai s as fuzzy sets in U. For this nia , nib , nic , nid and nie respectively denote the

number of teachers whose teaching is ordinary, inspired, practical, innovative and excellent at the state Ai , i =

1,2,3.

We define the membership function mAi , in terms of the frequencies, (ie) by

nix

mAi x =

n

for each x in U. Thus we can write

nix

Ai = x,

: x U , i = 1,2,3

n

In [4,5,8] we have to represent all possible teachers profiles (over all states) during the mathematics

teaching process we consider a fuzzy relation, say R in U3 of the form

R = { s, mR s s = (x, y, z) U3 }

To determine properly the membership function mR we give the following definition.

A triple (x,y,z) is said to be well ordered if x corresponds to a degree of success equal or greater than y

and y corresponds to a degree of success equal or greater than z.

For example, the profile (c,c,a) is well ordered, while (b,a,c) is not. We define now the membership

degree of s to be

mR s = mA1 x . mA2 y . mA3 z

If s is a well ordered profile, and zero otherwise. In fact, if for example (b,a,c) possessed a non zero

membership degree, given that the degree of success at the state of classroom focused is negligible.

In order to simply our notation we shall write ms instead of mR (s). Then the possibility rs of the profile s is

given by

ms

rs =

max

{m s }

where max{ms } denotes the maximal value of ms , for all s in U3 . In other words rs is the relative membership

degree of s with respect to the other profiles.

In [7] it is further to described how the above model can be used in studying through the calculation of

the pseudo frequencies f(s) = kt=1 ms (t) and the corresponding possibilities

f(s)

ms

r(s) = max {f s } and the corresponding probability of teachers profile is p(s) =

the combined results

m

sU 3

of the performance of two or more groups during the mathematics teaching of the same real situation , or

alternatively the performance of the same group during the mathematics teaching process of different situations.

IV.

A Classroom Experiment

Consider the set of students from the school of Thiruvarur District.They are trained by group of 12

teachers to improve their mathematical skill. Our characterizations of teachers performance at each state of the

model of mathematics teaching process involved

Ordinary teacher, the mathematical skill of the student is not satisfactory.

Inspired teacher, the mathematical skill of the student is not bad.

Practical teacher, the students get more marks but less mathematical skill.

Innovative teacher, the mathematical skill of the student is good.

Excellent teacher, the mathematical skill of the student is best.

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11111922

www.iosrjournals.org

20 | Page

After examine the students profile , group discussion and feedback, we found that 6,2 and 4 teachers

taught practically ,innovative and excellent respectively at the states of learner focused.

Therefore we obtained nia = 0, nib = 0, nic = 6, nid = 2, nie = 4. Thus the stage learner focused was

represented as a fuzzy set in U in the form

6

2

4

A1 = { a, 0 , b, 0 , (c, ), d,

, (e, )}

12

12

12

In the same way we represented the stage content focused with emphasis on understanding and

performance and classroom focused as fuzzy set in U by

3

1

5

3

A2 = { a, 12 , b, 12 , (c, 12 ), d, 12 , (e, 0)}

3

Using the given definition we calculated the membership degree of the 53 in total (ordered samples of

3 objects taken from 5) possible teachers profiles (see column ms (1) in table 1 below)

For example , for s = (c,b,a) one finds that

ms = mA1 (c). mA2 (b). mA3 (a)

6 1 3

= . . = 0.0104

12 12 12

It turned out that (c,c,c) was the profile of maximal membership degree 0.1215. Therefore the

ms

possibility of each s in U3 is given by rs = 0.1215

0.0104

0.0856,while the possibility of (c,c,c) is of course 1.

0.1215

A few days later the same set of students again trained by the another group of 15 teachers to improve

their skill. Working as before we found that

3

7

5

A1 = { a, 0 , b, 15 , (c, 15 ), d, 15 , (e, 0)}

4

A3 = { a, 15 , b, 15 , (c, 15 ), d, 0 , (e, 0)}

Then we calculated the membership degrees of all possible profiles of the teachers group (see

columnms (2) in table 1). It turned out that (c,c,c) was the profile possessing the maximal membership

degree 0.0995 and therefore the possibility of each s is given by

ms

rs = 0.0995

.

Calculating the possibilities of all profiles for the two groups (see columns rs 1 and rs (2) of table 1

below).

The probability of a teachers profile is defined by

ms

f(s)

p(s) =

= f(s)

m

sU 3

0.0311

For example , the probability of (c,b,a) is 1.135 0.024 while the probability of (c,c,c) is 0.1947.

We obtained a qualitative view of teachers performance during the mathematics teaching process

expressed in mathematical terms. Finally the combined results of performance of the two groups were studied

by calculating the pseudo-frequencies f(s) and the corresponding possibilities r(s) and probabilities p(s) of all

teachers profiles (see table 1).

Table 1: Probabilities and possibilities of teachers profile with non zero pseudo-frequencies

A1

b

b

c

c

c

c

c

c

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

d

e

A2

b

b

c

c

c

b

b

a

d

d

d

a

b

b

c

c

c

a

A3

b

b

c

a

b

b

a

a

a

b

c

a

a

b

a

b

c

a

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11111922

ms (1)

0

0

0.1215

0.0521

0.0347

0.0069

0.0104

0.0312

0.0104

0.0069

0.0243

0.0104

0.0034

0.0023

0.0174

0.0116

0.0405

0.0208

rs (1)

0

0

1

0.4288

0.2856

0.0568

0.0856

0.2568

0.0856

0.0568

0.2

0.0856

0.027

0.0189

0.1432

0.0954

0.3333

0.1712

ms (2)

0.0222

0.0088

0.0995

0.0248

0.0622

0.0518

0.0207

0.0166

0

0

0

0.0118

0.0148

0.037

0.0178

0.0444

0.0711

0

rs (2)

0.2231

0.0888

1

0.2492

0.6251

0.5206

0.208

0.1668

0

0

0

0.1185

0.1487

0.3718

0.1789

0.4462

0.7145

0

www.iosrjournals.org

f(s)

0.0222

0.0088

0.221

0.0769

0.0969

0.0587

0.0311

0.0478

0.0104

0.0069

0.243

0.0222

0.0182

0.0393

0.0352

0.056

0.1116

0.0208

r(s)

0.1005

0.0398

1

0.3479

0.4385

0.2656

0.1407

0.2163

0.047

0.0312

0.1099

0.1005

0.0824

0.1778

0.1593

0.2534

0.5049

0.0941

p(s)

0.0196

0.0078

0.1947

0.0678

0.0854

0.0517

0.0274

0.0421

0.0092

0.0061

0.0214

0.196

0.16

0.0346

0.0310

0.4393

0.0983

0.0183

21 | Page

e

e

e

e

e

e

e

b

c

c

c

d

d

d

b

a

b

c

a

b

c

Note : f s = ms 1 + ms 2

0.0046

0.0347

0.0231

0.0810

0.0208

0.0139

0.0486

0.0379

0.2856

0.1901

0.666

0.1712

0.1144

0.4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0.0046

0.0347

0.0231

0.0810

0.0208

0.0139

0.0486

0.0208

0.157

0.1045

0.3665

0.0941

0.0628

0.2199

0.0041

0.0306

0.0204

0.0714

0.0183

0.0122

0.0428

f(s) = 1.135

V.

Conclusions

From the experiment of the previous sections it becomes the evident that use of fuzzy set theory for the

mathematical representation of the process of teaching, apart from its theoretical interest, leads to useful

quantitative conclusions which can give an effective help the teacher of mathematics to improve their teaching

methodology.

It becomes also evident that the same method, with the proper each time modifications, could be used

in the classroom during the teaching process not only of mathematics but of many other cognitive subjects.

References

[1].

[2].

[3].

[4].

[5].

[6].

[7].

[8].

[9].

Sutton, Jhon, Ed. Krueger, Alice Ed, ED Thoughts: What we know about mathematics teaching and learning.

Models of Mathematics teaching CCSU. www.math.ccsu.edu/.../models of Mathematics Tea.

Michael Gr. Voskoglou, Fuzzy Measure For Students Mathematical Modeling Skills, international journal of fuzzy logic system

Vol. 2 No.2, 13-26, April 2012.

Michael

Gr.

Voskoglou,

The

Process

Of

Learning

Mathematics:

A

Fuzzy

Set

Approach

Http://Www.Ipv.Pt./Millenium/17_Ect4.Htm, March 2014. Page 1-7

Klir. G.J & Folger,T.A. (1988), Fuzzy Sets And Uncertainty And Information, Prentice Hall London.

Michael Gr. Voskoglou, (2011), Stochastic and fuzzy models in Mathematics Education, Artificial Intelligence and Management,

Lambert Academic Publishing, Saarbrucken, Germany.

Michael Gr. Voskoglou, The process of learning mathematics: A fuzzy set approach, Heuristics and Didactics of exact sciences, 10,

9-13.

Klir. G.J/Bo Yuan, Fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, Theory and applications, Prentice Hall London.(2010 )

DOI: 10.9790/5728-11111922

www.iosrjournals.org

22 | Page

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