SURGE IMPEDANCE LOADING (SIL

)
L . C

Surge impedance of a line, Zo '

SIL '

(kVLL)2 Zo

, (MW)

A transmission line loaded to its surge impedance loading: (i) (ii) has no net reactive power flow into or out of the line, and will have approximately a flat voltage profile along its length.

For (i) to hold: I 2XL ' V2 V2 TL V , or, ' , or, ' XL Xc ' TC I Xc I2 L ' Zo ' Load impedance C

This means that there will be no net reactive power flow at surge-impedance loading.

For (ii) to hold: Vs 'AVr % BIr ; Is ' CV r % DI r , where, A' D ' cosh ZY ; B' Zosinh ZY ; C ' sinh ZY ; Z' jT LR ; Y ' jT CR Zo

ZY ' jTR LC'

jTR 2BfR 2BR 'j 'j <c f8 8 2BR 8 Zo

Then, A' D ' cos

2BR 2BR ; B' j Zo sin ; C'j 8 8

sin

At surge&impedance loading ,

Vr Ir

' Zo .

And, V s ' (A%

B 2BR 2BR 2BR )Vr ' (cos % j sin )Vr ' Vr ptan&1 , Zo 8 8 8

Is ' (C Zo % D)Ir ' ( j sin

2BR 2BR 2BR % cos )Ir ' Ir ptan&1 8 8 8

This means that the line will have a flat voltage profile, i.e., no voltage drop.

LOADABILITY CURVES

Loadability of a line is limited by : (i) (ii) (iii) thermal limitation (I2R losses) voltage regulation stability limitation

(EPRI Publication EL-2500)

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