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Physical Education

PROJECT FILE

ON
COMMONWEALTH GAMES

SUBMITTED TO

SUBMITTED By

Mrs.Rekha Sharma

YASH CHATURVEDI
R. NO. 41

Contents
1.Acknowlegment
2.Certificate
3.Introduction of Commonwealth Games
4.Introduction of 2010 Indian Commonwealth
Games
5.Introduction of 2014 Glasgow Commonwealth
Games
6.Bibliography

History of the Games


A sporting competition bringing together the members of
the British Empire was first proposed by the John Astley Cooper
in 1891, when he wrote an article in The Timessuggesting a "PanBritannic-Pan-Anglican Contest and Festival every four years as a
means of increasing goodwill and good understanding of the
British Empire". The John Astley Cooper Committees worldwide
(e.g. Australia) helped Pierre de Coubertin to get his
international Olympic Games off the ground fast.In 1911,
the Festival of the Empirewas held at The Crystal Palace in
London to celebrate the coronation of King George V. As part of
the festival, an Inter-Empire Championships was held in which
teams from Australia, Canada, South Africa, and the United
Kingdom competed in events such as boxing, wrestling,
swimming, and athletics.
In 1928, Melville Marks Robinson of Canada was asked to
organise the first British Empire Games; these were held in 1930,
in Hamilton, Ontario, and women competed in the swimming
events only. From 1934, women also competed in some athletics
events.
The first Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were held alongside
the Commonwealth Games from 1962 to 1974. Athletes with a
disability were then first included in exhibition events at the 1994
Commonwealth Games in Victoria, British Columbia, and, at the
2002 Commonwealth Games, they were included as full members
of their national teams, making them the first fully inclusive
international multi-sport games. This meant that results were
included in the medal count.
The Empire Games flag was donated in 1931 by the British
Empire Games Association of Canada. The year and location of
subsequent games were added until the 1950 games.

Total Commonwealth Games by


country
Place

Country

Continent

No. of times

Years hosted

Australia

Oceania

1938, 1962, 1982, 2006, 2018

Canada

Americas

1930, 1954, 1978, 1994

1950, 1974, 1990

New Zealand Oceania


3

Scotland**

Europe

1970, 1986, 2014

England**

Europe

(1911*), 1934, 2002

India

Asia

2010

Malaysia

Asia

1998

Jamaica

Americas

1966

Wales**

Europe

1958

Notes
* The 1911 Inter-Empire Championships held in London is seen as a
precursor to the modern Commonwealth Games, but is not normally
considered an official edition of the Games themselves.
**The United Kingdom competes as its separate Home Nations, Overseas
Territories and Crown Dependencies and has held the games 6 times, 7
including the precursor 1911 Inter-Empire Championships in London.

Approved sports
There are a total of 22 sports (with two multi-disciplinary sports) and a
further seven para-sports which are approved by the Commonwealth
Games Federation. They are categorised into three types. Core sports
must be included on each programme. A number of optional sports may be
picked by the host nation, which may include some team sports such
as basketball. Recognised sports are sports which have been approved by
the CGF but which are deemed to need expansion; host nations may not
pick these sports for their programme until the CGF's requirements are
fulfilled.
Sport

Type

Years

Archery

Optional

1982, 2010

Athletics

Core

1911present

Badminton

Core

1966present

Basketball

Optional

2006, 2018

Billiards

Recognised Never

Boxing

Core

Canoeing

Recognised Never

Cricket

Recognised 1998

1911present

Sport

Type

Years

Cycling

Optional

1934present

Diving

Optional

1930present

Fencing

Recognised 19501970

Football

Recognised Never

Golf

Recognised Never

Gymnastics (Artistic)

Optional

1978, 1990present

Gymnastics (Rhythmic) Optional

1978, 1990present

Handball

Recognised 1930

Hockey

Core

1998present

Judo

Optional

1990, 2002, 2014

Lawn bowls

Core

1930present (except 1966)

Life saving

Recognised Never

Netball

Core

1998present

Sport

Type

Years

Rowing

Optional

1930, 19381962, 1986

Rugby league

Recognised Never

Rugby sevens

Core

Sailing

Recognised Never

Shooting

Optional

Softball

Recognised Never

Squash

Core

1998present

Swimming

Core

1911present

1998present

1966, 1974present

Synchronized swimming Optional

1986-2006

Table tennis

Optional

2002present

Taekwondo

Optional

Never

Tennis

Optional

2010

Ten-Pin Bowling

Recognised 1998

Sport

Type

Years

Triathlon

Optional

2002, 2006, 2014

Volleyball

Recognised Never

Water Polo

Recognised 1950

Weightlifting

Core

1950present

Wrestling

Optional

19111986, 1994, 2002, 2010present

Participation
Only six teams have attended every Commonwealth Games: Australia,
Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland and Wales. Australia has been
the highest scoring team for twelve games, England for seven and Canada
for one.

Aden1 1962
Anguilla2 1998
Australasia 1911
Antigua and
Barbuda 19661970, 1978,
1994
Australia 1930
Bahamas 19541970,
19781982, 1990
Bangladesh 1978, 1990
Barbados 19541982,
1990
Belize4 1978, 1994
Bermuda 19301938,
19541982, 1990
Botswana 1974, 1982
British Guiana3 19301938,
19541962
British Honduras4 1962
1966
British Virgin
Islands 1990
Brunei Darussalam 1990
Cameroon 1998
Canada 1911
Cayman Islands 1978
Ceylon5 19381950, 1958
1970
Cook Islands 19741978,
1986
Cyprus 19781982, 1990

Montserrat 1994
Mozambique 1998
Namibia 1994
Nauru 1990
Newfoundland15 19301934
New Zealand 1930
Nigeria 19501958, 19661974, 1982,
19901994, 2002
Niue 2002
Norfolk Island 1986
North Borneo14 19581962
Northern Ireland11 16 19341938,
1954
Northern Rhodesia18 1954-1958
Pakistan 19541970, 1990
Papua New Guinea 19621982, 1990
Rhodesia 19341950
Rhodesia and Nyasaland17 1962
Rwanda 2010
Saint Christopher-NevisAnguilla2 1978
Saint Helena (with Ascension Island
and Tristan da Cunha)19 1982, 1998
Saint Kitts and Nevis2 1990
Saint Lucia5 1962, 1970, 1978, 1994
Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines 1958, 19661978, 1994
Samoa20 1998
Sarawak14 19581962
Scotland 1930
Seychelles 1990

Dominica 19581962,
1970, 1994
England 1930
Falkland Islands 1982
Fiji6 1938, 19541986,
19982006, 2014Gambia7 19701982, 1990
2010
Ghana8 19581982, 1990
Gibraltar 1958
Gold Coast8 1954
Grenada 19701982, 1998
Guernsey9 1970
Guyana3 19661970, 1978
1982, 1990
Hong Kong10 1934, 1954
1962, 19701994
India 19341938, 1954
1958, 19661982, 1990
Ireland11 12 1930
Irish Free State11 1934
Isle of Man 1958
Jamaica 1934, 19541982,
1990
Jersey9 1958
Kenya 19541982, 1990
Kiribati 1998
Lesotho 1974
Malawi13 1970
Malaya14 1950, 19581962
Malaysia 19661982,
1990
Maldives 1986
Malta 19581962, 1970,
1982
Mauritius 19581982,
1990

Sierra Leone 1958, 19661970, 1978,


1990
Singapore14 1958
Solomon Islands 1982, 1990
South Africa 19111958, 1994
South Arabia1 1966
Southern Rhodesia18 1954-1958
Sri Lanka 19741982, 1990
Swaziland 1970
Tanganyika21 1962
Tanzania 19661982, 1990
Tonga 1974, 1982, 1990
Trinidad and Tobago 19341982,
1990
Turks and Caicos Islands 1978, 1998
Tuvalu 1998
Uganda 19541974, 1982, 1990
Vanuatu 1982
Wales 1930
Western Samoa20 19741994
Zambia13 19701982, 1990
Zimbabwe13 22 1982, 19902002

2010 Indian
Commonwealth Games
Organising committee
The organisation of CWG 2010 was beset by delays: in January 2010, the
Indian Olympic Association vice-chairman Raja Randhir Singh expressed
concern that Delhi was not up to speed in forming and organising its games
committee and, following a 2009 Indian Government report showing twothirds of venues were behind schedule, Commonwealth Games
Federation president Mike Fennell stated that the slow progress of
preparations represented a serious risk to the event. Singh also called for a
revamp of the games' organising committees: Jarnail Singh, a former
Secretary of the Government of India, was appointed as the chief executive
officer and Indian Olympic Association presidentSuresh Kalmadi was
appointed as head of the committee. In spite of delays and the corruption
cases levied on the organisors, commentators stated that they were
confident that India will successfully host the games and do so on time.
At the launch of the Queen's Baton Relay in October 2009, the Business
Club of India (BCI) was formed through the partnership of the organising
committee, the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) and the Federation of
Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI). The BCI was formed
to both market the Games and promote Indian business interests
internationally.

Costs
The initial total budget estimated by the Indian Olympic Association in 2003
for hosting the Games was 16.2 billion (US$260 million). In 2010,
however, the official total budget soon escalated to an estimated 115
billion (US$1.9 billion), a figure which excluded non-sports-related
infrastructure development. Business Today magazine estimated that the
Games cost 600 billion (US$9.7 billion). The 2010 Commonwealth Games
are reportedly the most expensive Commonwealth Games ever.

Transport

DelhiGurgaon Expressway with Toll Tax Gate, Gurgaon

Delhi Metro
A four-lane flyway, 2.2 km stretch from Lodhi Road to trans-Yamuna,
linking the Games Village to the Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium was
constructed which reduced the travelling time between thevillage and the
Stadium to six minutes.
In response to concerns over the large number of trains that pass by the
Delhi metropolitan region daily, construction of road under-bridges and
over-bridges along railway lines have been completed. To expand road
infrastructure, flyovers, cloverleaf flyovers, and bridges were built to
improve links for the Games and city in general. Road-widening projects
were finished with an emphasis being placed on expanding national
highways. To improve traffic flow on existing roads, plans were made to
make both the inner and outer Ring roads signal free.
To support its commitment to mass transport, nine corridors have been
identified and were constructed as High Capacity Bus Systems (for
example, one from Ambedkar Nagar to Red Fort). Six of these corridors
were expected to be operational in 2010. Additionally, TheDelhi Metro was

expanded to accommodate more people and boost the use of public


transport during the 2010 games. The metro has extended to Gurgaon and
the Noida area. For this large increase in the size of the network, Delhi
Metro had deployed 14 tunnel boring machines. Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID) was used to tag vehicles in venue parking lots to help
organise mass parking and increase security.
Indira Gandhi International Airport was modernised, expanded, and
upgraded. Costing nearly $1.95 billion, Terminal 3 has increased airport
passenger capacity to more than 37 million passengers a year by 2010. A
new runway has been constructed, allowing for more than 75 flights an
hour. At more than 4400 metres long, it is one of Asia's longest. The airport
has been connected to the city via a six-lane expressway (DelhiGurgaon
Expressway) and the $580 million Delhi Airport Metro Express line.

Other preparation
In preparation for an influx of English-speaking tourists for the Games, the
Delhi government implemented a program to teach English, and the
necessary skills for serving tourists, to key workerssuch as cab
drivers, security workers, waiters, porters, and service staff. In the two
years prior to the Games 2,000 drivers were taught English. In addition to
Delhi, the Indian Government plans to expand the program to teach people
in local tourist destinations in other parts of India.

HOHO Delhi Bus Inauguration in Delhi


To facilitate hassle-free sightseeing in Delhi, Delhi Tourism undertook the
launch of India's very first Hop on Hop Off bus known as HOHO DELHI,
modelled on popular concept of transport facilities in Western countries.
The bus, which is equipped with state-of-the-art technologies like digital
video screens and GPS systems, also had trained guides who were
responsible for giving information about the sites.
To prepare for the energy-usage spike during the Games and to end
chronic power cuts in Delhi, the government undertook a large powerproduction initiative to increase power production to 7,000 MW (from the
current 4,500 MW). To achieve this goal, the government streamlined the
power distribution process, direct additional energy to Delhi, and
constructed new power plants.
In addition to physical preparation, free accommodation for all athletes at
the Games Village, as well as free transport and other benefits, such as a
free trip to the famed Taj Mahal and a reserved lane for participants on
selected highways was provided. The Games Villagewill house over 8,000
athletes and officials for the Games. Indian states will train state police
forces to handle tourist-related issues and deploy them prior to the Games.
A large-scale construction and "beautification" project has resulted in the
demolition of hundreds of homes and the displacement of city dwellersat
least 100,000 of New Delhi's 160,000 homeless people have removed from
shelters, some of which have been demolished. Bamboo screens have

been erected around city slums to separate visitors from the sights of the
slums, a practice which human rights campaigners have deemed dishonest
and immoral.
The Delhi High Court implemented a series of "mobile courts" to be
dispatched throughout Delhi to relocate migrant beggars from Delhi streets.
The mobile courts would consider each beggar on a case-by-case basis to
determine whether the beggar should be sent back to his/her state of
residence, or be permitted to remain in government-shelters.

Medal table

Medalists of the Badminton mixed team competition at the 2010


Commonwealth Games in Delhi. From the left: India (silver), Malaysia
(gold), and England (bronze).

Medalists of the 10-metre air pistol pairs women at the 2010


Commonwealth Games in Delhi. From the left: Dina Aspandiyarova,
Pamela McKenzie, Heena Sidhu, Annu Raj Singh, Dorothy Ludwig, and
Lynda Hare.
Only the top ten nations by medal rank are shown in this medal table.
Nations are ranked first by count of gold medals, then silver medals, then
bronze medals.
The ranking in this table is consistent with International Olympic
Committee convention in its published medal tables. By default, the table is
ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation have won
(in this context, a "nation" is an entity represented by an NOC). The
number of silver medals is taken into consideration next and then the
number of bronze medals. If nations are still tied, equal ranking is given
and they are listed alphabetically by IOC country code.
In Boxing two bronze medals were awarded in each weight class.
Additionally there was a tie of three athletes for the third place in
thewomen's pole vault in athletics meant that three bronze medals were

awarded. Therefore, the total number of bronze medals is greater than the
total number of gold or silver medals.
Host nation (India)
Rank

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

Australia (AUS)

74

55

48

177

India (IND)

38

27

36

101

England (ENG)

37

60

45

142

Canada (CAN)

26

17

32

75

Kenya (KEN)

12

11

10

33

South Africa (RSA)

12

11

10

33

Malaysia (MAS)

12

10

13

35

Singapore (SIN)

11

11

31

Nigeria (NGR)

11

10

14

35

10

Scotland (SCO)

10

26

272

274

282

828

Total

Venues

The main venue of the Games, theJawaharlal Nehru Stadium.


Events took place at 12 competition venues. A total of 20 training venues
were used in the Games. Of these 20, one was used for archery; three for
aquatics; two for lawn bowls; two for netball; eight for rugby sevens,
including seven venues within Delhi University; two for shooting; one for
squash; two for table tennis; one for weightlifting, three for wrestling and
two for tennis.
The Commonwealth Games Village provided accommodation and training
for athletes of the Games, and was opened from 23 September to 18
October 2010. It is located along the east bank of the River Yamuna, in
proximity to competition and training venues as well as city landmarks, and
is spread over an area of 63.5 hectares (157 acres). Comprising five main
zonesthe Residential Zone, the International Zone, the Training Area, the
Main Dining and the Operational Zonethe Games Village, which is a nonsmoking zone, is universally accessible particularly to accommodate parasport athletes.
There were three main non-competition venues in the Games, besides the
Commonwealth Games Village (see above); namely the Delhi 2010
Commonwealth Games Organising Committee Headquarters (OC CWG
Delhi 2010), the Main Media Centre, and the Games Family Hotel, Hotel
Ashok.

Legacy
One of the aims of hosting the Commonwealth Games was to build worldclass athletics infrastructure within the country, expose audiences to toplevel non-cricket competition and encourage the youth to "Come out and
play" (the official theme of the games). Building a sporting culture that looks
beyond cricket is seen as an important task for a country which won its first
ever individual Olympic gold medal in Beijing 2008, despite having the
world's second-largest population.
Sebastian Coe, former Olympic gold medalist and chairman of the 2012
Summer Olympics Organising Committee, was at the stadium during the
4x400m women's relay and described the audience's cheers for the racers
as "potentially the moment that could change the course of athletics in
Asia, the moment that could inspire thousands of people who'd never even
seen an athletics track before to get involved... To build a truly global
capacity in sport, you have to take it round the world out of your own
backyard. That means taking risks and facing challenges, but it has to be
done."

2014 Glasgow
Commonwealth Games
Selection process

Special liveries in support of Glasgow's bid were applied to numerous


subway carriages.
Scotland was the first country to consider hosting the 2014 Commonwealth
Games in 2004, with Scottish cities being invited by the Commonwealth
Games Council for Scotland to consider making a bid. In September 2004,
Glasgow was announced as the Scottish candidate city
overEdinburgh (which hosted the Games in 1970 and 1986, and the
inaugural Commonwealth Youth Games in 2000) following a cost-benefit
analysis by the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland. The Scottish
Executive under then First Minister of Scotland, Jack McConnell, with the
support of the United Kingdom government and all main parties in
the Scottish Parliament, formally announced Glasgow's intention to host
the games on 16 August 2005.
In March 2006, the bidding process began, with the Glasgow Bidding team
presenting their case to the Commonwealth Games Federation at the 2006
Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, along with the other confirmed
candidate cities; the Nigerian capital, Abuja and Halifax in Canada. In
October 2006, the first voting delegates arrived in Glasgow, to inspect the

city's existing and proposed amenities and facilities. Glasgow announced


on 16 January 2007, the 17 sports to be included should its bid be
successful. Halifax later withdrew its bid on 8 March 2007, following the
withdrawal of funding from the municipal government.

Glasgow city centre.


That left Abuja and Glasgow as the remaining bidders, with Abuja seen as
a likely favourite due to the basis of its campaign that an African nation has
never before hosted the Commonwealth Games. The deadline for formal
submission of bids to the Commonwealth Games Federation, in the form of
a Candidate City File, was set for May 2007. Both bids were highly
recommended, though Glasgow's bid team had made use of extensive
benchmarking against the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester and
the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne and as a result, its bid was
deemed technically superior according to the CGF Evaluation Report that
was released in September 2007. The Commonwealth Games Evaluation
Commission concluded that: "Glasgow has shown it has the ability to stage
the 2014 Commonwealth Games to a standard which would continue to
enhance the image and prestige of the Games." This put Glasgow ahead in
terms of the technical comprehensiveness of its bid.
The final decision on the host city of the 2014 Commonwealth Games was
held in Colombo, Sri Lanka on 9 November 2007 at the Commonwealth
Games Federation General Assembly, attended by all
71 Commonwealth Games member associations. Each bid city made a
presentation to the General Assembly, the order of which was determined
by drawing lots. Glasgow's delegation was led by Louise Martin, chair of
the Commonwealth Games Council for Scotland, First Minister Alex
Salmond, athlete Jamie Quarry and Leader of Glasgow City Council Steven
Purcell. The presentation also included a promotional film narrated by Sean
Connery. Abuja's delegation was led by General Yakubu Gowon, head of
the Abuja 2014 Commonwealth Games bid team.

The CGF members later voted for their preferred candidate in a secret
ballot. As there were only two bids, the winner was announced by the CGF
President, Mike Fennel, after the first round of voting, with the winner only
requiring a simple majority. The results of the bidding process were as
follows:
2014 Commonwealth Games bidding results
City

Country

Votes

Glasgow

Scotland

47

Abuja

Nigeria

24

Sports
A total of 18 sports and 261 medal events were contested at the 2014
Commonwealth Games. A record 22 para-sport events were contested
in five different sports (athletics, cycling, lawn bowls, swimming
and weightlifting) and para track cycling was held for the very first
time. Archery and tennis from the 2010 games were replaced on the
sports programme with triathlon (for the first time since 2006) and judo
(first time since 2002). Among sport disciplines removed from 2010
include the walking events in athletics,synchronised
swimming and Greco-Roman wrestling, while mountain biking was
contested for the first time since 2006. Shooting medal events also
dropped from 44 in 2010 to 19. Among new disciplines on
the Commonwealth Games programme for the first time were the
triathlon mixed relay event, more shooting medal chances for women
and the addition of women's boxing to the programme.
Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of medal events contested
in each sport.

Aquatics
Diving (10) (details)
Swimming (44) (details)
Athletics (50) (details)
Badminton (6) (details)
Boxing (13) (details)
Cycling (details)
Mountain biking (2)
Road (4)
Track (17)

Gymnastics (details)
Artistic gymnastics (14)
Rhythmic gymnastics (6)
Hockey (2) (details)
Judo (14) (details)
Lawn bowls (10) (details)
Netball (1) (details)
Rugby sevens (1) (details)
Shooting (19) (details)
Squash (5) (details)

Medal table
Only the top ten successful nations are displayed here.
The ranking in this table is consistent with International Olympic
Committee convention in its published medal tables. By default, the
table is ordered by the number of gold medals the athletes from a nation
have won (in this context, a "nation" is an entity represented by
a Commonwealth Games Association). The number of silver medals is
taken into consideration next and then the number of bronze medals. If
nations are still tied, equal ranking is given and they are listed
alphabetically by their three letter country code.
Two bronze medals were awarded in boxing, judo and wrestling, except
for Women's freestyle 75 kg as only five competitors were entered in the
event. Additionally, two bronze medals were awarded in the men's 100
m backstroke and women's pole vault as a result of a tie between two
athletes. No bronze medal was awarded in the men's synchronized 10
metre platform as only four teams competed in the event. Therefore, the
total number of bronze medals is greater than the total number of gold
or silver medals.
Key
* Host nation (Scotland)
Rank

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

England (ENG)

58

59

57

174

Australia (AUS)

49

42

46

137

Canada (CAN)

32

16

34

82

Rank

Nation

Gold

Silver

Bronze

Total

Scotland (SCO)*

19

15

19

53

India (IND)

15

30

19

64

New
Zealand (NZL)

14

14

17

45

South
Africa (RSA)

13

10

17

40

Nigeria (NGR)

11

11

14

36

Kenya (KEN)

10

10

25

10

Jamaica (JAM)

10

22

Total

261

261

302

824

Drug testing and doping


Nigeria's Chika Amalaha failed a doping test and was stripped of
a gold medal in the women's 53 kg weightlifting. In the women's
400 metres final, Botswana's Amantle Montsho placed fourth; she
was subsequently provisionally suspended pending the results of
a B sample after failing a doping test. Montsho's B sample was
reported as positive on 14 August 2014.

Bibliography
1.www.Google.com
2.Wikipedia
3.www.yahoo.com