In the heart of the limba tree (Terminalia superba Engl.

& Diels): detection methods for heart rot and false heartwood
Maaike De Ridder1,2, Jan Van den Bulcke1, Hans Beeckman2 and Joris Van Acker1 1 Laboratory of Wood Technology, Ghent University, Belgium 2 Laboratory for Wood Biology and Xylarium, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Belgium

Abstract Both resistance and velocity measurements were performed on planted and natural limba trees in the Democratic Republic of Congo. While 2 velocity measurements per tree are sufficient for the quick diagnosis of rotten or hollow trees, a compilation of 16 resistance profiles is necessary to distinguish the so-called false heartwood (limba noir). On those two-dimensional reconstructions, small peaks in resistance correspond roughly with the boundaries of limba noir. Detection methods are influenced by diameter, wood density and the presence of buttresses. Further research on density profiles is recommended to analyse these influences and the link with both detection methods.

1. INTRODUCTION
Limba (Terminalia superba Engl. & Diels) has a very large distribution: from Sierra Leone until the north of the DRC from the east and from the south, until northwestern Angola [1]. This heliophilous species - often with large buttresses - is typically found in secondary forests and fallows [7] but also in plantations in Bas Congo (Democratic Republic of Congo). The presence of heart rot in older trees and the formation of a so-called limba noir or false heartwood [2] alters the popularity of this species. The incidence of these two wood anomalies makes limba a very suitable species for the study of detection methods for as well heart rot as wood discolorations. This study is set up within the framework of sustainable forest management of tropical forests: detection of anomalies before exploitation prevents useless cutting and the loss of trees with an ecological function as e.g. seed trees. This implies certain conditions for detection methods: in situ applicable, not too expensive, fairly quick and easy to interpret. Two methods that meet all conditions are resistance [5, 6] and acoustic detection methods [9], mostly used as control methods for more specialised detection techniques. This case study wants to answer the following questions: (a) Are resistance and acoustic methods able to detect rot and/or wood discolorations like limba noir? (b) Which factors influence the measurements (density, buttresses, diameter)?

2. MATERIAL AND METHODS 2.1. Site description
In the present case study, we focus on a 58 year old plantation of Terminalia superba at the southern border of the Mayumbe Forest and a secondary forest with natural limba trees more eastward, near Tshela. The limba plantation lies within the transition area of the Man and Biosphere Reserve of Luki, about 400 km coastward from Kinshasa, and surrounds a core area of drier semi-evergreen GuineoCongolian rain forest with large parts of secondary forests where cultivation took place [8]. The forest near Tshela is also characterized by this alternation of secondary forest and agricultural lands.

2.2. General and detailed study
The detection methods were applied in two ways: 2 perpendicular measurements per tree (general study) and 16 measurements per tree at equal distances (detailed study). The general study is meant to evaluate the quick diagnosis of wood anomalies but also the relation between the two detection methods and the influence of diameter and buttresses. Next to the detection measurements, two wood cores per tree were taken to control the state of the wood just above or below the measuring point. Notes on the health status of trees were written down. The general study took place on 87 trees in the plantation. None of them showed signs of limba noir. Next to limba trees, other tree species were analysed with the acoustic method to investigate the influence of density and diameter (n = 10 trees per species). The detailed study is reconstructing the inside of the tree, providing two-dimensional visualisations. This more intensive case study was performed on freshly cut stem disks, where disk surface and detection measurements could be compared. In total, 8 disks from 5 trees were analysed.

2.3. Detection methods
All resistance measurements were performed with a resistograph of the type IML-Resi B400. This instrument has a needle that penetrates the wood and registers the resistance every 0.04 mm. Sound wood has a higher resistance than infected wood. The measurement is semi-destructive, leaving only a small channel where the needle passed. The result is a resistance profile from the outside of the tree (without bark for the general study, with bark for the detailed study) to the pith. A cheaper method consists of the determination of the velocity of sound within stems. Two sensors were placed upon the tree on opposite sides. With a small hammer, one of the sensors was hit,

transmitting a sound pulse to the opposite sensor. The result is a travel time (μs). Every travel time is the result of five repetitions that were recorded with the Fakopp Microsecond Timer. This measuring device only leaves two small holes in the tree where the sensors were placed and is less destructive than the resistograph. When the distance between the two ends of the sensors is measured with a calliper, the velocity can be calculated. The result is one velocity value per measurement.

2.4. Data analysis
The comparison between resistance profiles and velocity values is not always objective. After the first observations, a transformation of the resistance profiles into variables that are comparable with velocity values takes place. Every resistance curve shows a similar pattern (Figure 1): an increasing trend as the needle enters the stem followed by a more stable trend within the main stem. Using a double linear regression, we converted the resistance profiles into point values: the breakpoint (distance from the start of the profile to the intersection of the two linear regressions with the best cumulated determination coefficient, R²), the slope of the first and second linear regression, the maximum, minimum and range of resistance values after the breakpoint. All these values were compared with velocity and diameter values with special attention for the outliers of velocity. During the detailed study, interpolation of the resistance profiles in order to visualize the internal distribution of resistances is based on the principle of inverse distance weighing. For every unknown pixel, a value is estimated based on the known resistances within a certain radius of the unknown pixel taking into account that the further from the unknown pixel, the less influence it has in the estimation. The acoustic reconstruction is based on an existing algorithm [4]. The current images are based on the travel times.

Figure 1 – Example of the transformation of resistance profiles to point values. The result is a breakpoint at point 407, corresponding with a distance of 16.28 mm.

3. RESULTS 3.1. Diagnosis of wood rot
Variation in resistance and velocity within and between sample trees is moderate to large. For instance, the differences in velocity within a tree are considered not significant (ANOVA, p = 0.72). However, it is important to keep the original values since averaging would only permit to detect rot in the central part of the tree. According to the boxplot, normal velocity values are situated between 1000 and 1650 m s-1. When rejecting the velocity outliers, the mean velocity of mature limba trees is 1288 ± 120 m s-1 (n = 174). This can be considered as the reference velocity (V ref). The relative decrease in velocity can be calculated like this: Relative decrease of sound velocity = (Vref – Vmes) / Vref * 100 (1) On a total of 184 velocity measurements, only 7 measurements or less than 4 % appear unusually low, ranging from 298 to 917 m s-1. The corresponding relative decrease of sound velocity ranges from 29 to 77 %. The lowest record of velocity (298 m s-1) is excluded for further analysis because the sensor

was placed in the rotten area, a position that causes diverging values. Compared to the table on the distributor’s website (www.fakopp.org), this decrease should equal a decayed area of 75 % and more (hollow trees). On the other hand, 3 measurements are extremely high, reaching velocities of 1676 to 2181 m s-1. Mostly, those maxima are associated with the presence of buttresses. Before converting the resistance profiles, we compared the outliers of the velocity values with the resistance profiles. Sometimes, the decrease in velocity corresponds with a sudden decrease in resistance that is clearly visible (tree 8) while in other cases, this decrease can also appear to be subtle or even absent (tree 27) (Figure 2). Looking at the notes on the outer state of the tree and the wood cores, we can see that rot detection methods generally confirm what is suspected. Only little rotten zones near the bark, with velocities from 1050 to almost 1200 m s-1, are still classified as healthy because they are not considered as outliers. After transformation, a significant Pearson correlation of 0.23 (p < 0.01) was found between velocity and minimum resistance. Still, this correlation is not high enough to use the minimum resistance as a criterion for rot detection. Correlations do not improve when only outliers are included for analysis.

3.2. Influence of diameter, buttresses and density
The diameter is most significantly correlated with velocity (r = 0.44). Other significant Pearson correlations (p < 0.01) include the variance of the velocity measurements, the breakpoint, the maximum resistance and the range of resistance (r = 0.20-0.29). When reconstructing these relations graphically, only diameter (D) and velocity (V) result in a satisfactory linear regression model (Adjusted R² = 0.191, p < 0.001): V = 514.16 D + 1030.5 (2) Diameter is also positively related to the velocity of seven other African tree species: Millettia laurentii, Lovoa trichilioides, Aucoumea klaineana, Nauclea diderrichii, Pterocarpus soyauxii, Entandrophragma utile and angolense (r = 0.53-0.91). Only Prioria balsamifera didn’t reveal significant correlations with velocity values. Density and velocity of the tree species are described by a logarithmic regression model, concluding that a higher density (ρ) goes along with a higher velocity (Adjusted R² = 0.66, p < 0.001): V = 866.77 ln(ρ) + 1941.96 (3) Last but not least, it sometimes was not possible to avoid buttresses during the measurements. Although this is not a general rule, high velocity measurements (> 1350 m s-1) were often found where measurements were pressed between two buttresses. When the actual measurement occurred on top of the buttress, velocity tends to drop below the mean velocity.

(a)

(b)

Figure 2 – Resistance profiles of two infected trees: (a) Tree 8: both resistance profiles visualize a large rotten zone and have low velocities (ca. 850 m s-1). (b) Tree 27: measurement B has a low velocity (917 m s-1), but the decrease in resistance could be ascribed to natural density variations if velocity measurements were absent.

3.3. Qualitative assessment of heart rot and limba noir
Two stem disks from Tshela were selected (Figure 3): the first stem disk of the third tree (3.1) containing rot and a cavity and the first stem disk of the seventh tree (7.1) with limba noir. When looking at disk 3.1, it is clear that the rotten zone surrounding the cavity is also reflected by a decreased resistance. Resistance is the highest at the outsides, possibly as an indicator of a higher density. Preliminary research on dry stem disks from Ivory Coast showed a peak value in resistance just after entering the darker heart. Passed this point, the resistance decreased quickly. On fresh stem disks like 7.1, this effect is less clear but not absent. A ring with a higher resistance values is noticed but the peak values do not always occur after entering the dark heart; they more or less vary around the border of the dark heart and do not decrease as fast as on dry stem disks. The reconstruction based on travel times is in both cases problematical.

4. DISCUSSION
Normally, mature limba trees are sensitive to heart rot. In this case, less than 5 % of the sampled trees was infected, possibly the consequence of good planting material and favourable site conditions. Rotten or hollow trees are mostly found next to little paths that are regularly used by the local population. Using our detection methods, hollow and heavily rotten trees are detectable, where before only detected hollow trees using velocity measurements [9]. With only two measurements per tree, the resistance profiles are sometimes hard to interpret. Velocity measurements give a more straightforward value that can be immediately compared to normal velocity values. Therefore, velocity measurements are recommended for quick diagnosis. The range of allowable velocity measurements is still large (650 m s-1) so we propose further research on the diagnosis of small cavities or wood rot within the lower end of this range (1050-1200 m s-1). We confirm earlier results on the influence of density [3]. Higher diameters generate higher velocities in several tropical tree species, while previous research concluded the opposite [3]. We could expect that even-aged trees with a larger diameter are fast-growing so less dense and with a smaller velocity. Still, the trends in several African tree species are far more significant than in the previous study. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown and could be linked to wood anatomical features. Transforming resistance profiles into point values is not recommended. Resistance profiles are most appropriate for mapping of the impact, shape and location of wood anomalies. When analyzing the reconstructions, small resistance values often indicate rotten areas while peak values can be associated with the boundaries of limba noir. Acoustic measurements do not provide clear-cut reconstructions because they were made on stem disks, ignoring the influence of sound propagation in an axial way. Since stem disks often show cracks, these anomalies are also detected by velocity measurements, complicating reconstructions. Acoustic reconstructions should be based on standing trees above the buttresses. Resistance and velocity values are not easy to link since they weren’t taken at exactly the same spot but 5 to 10 cm one below the other. The presence of buttresses also influences results but there is no trend visible in velocity or resistance measurements. Buttresses sound quite hollow but can cause reaction wood once they join the main stem, creating additional density variations. Analysis of density (buttresses, wood cores and stem disks) is recommended to find the missing link between resistance and velocity measurements.

(a)

(b)

Figure 5 – Two-dimensional reconstruction of two stem disks. From top to bottom, the stem surface, the resistance (%) and acoustic reconstruction with travel times (10-5 s) is shown. (a) Stem disk 3.1 with rot and a cavity in the central part of the stem (b) Stem disk 7.1 with discoloured wood or limba noir

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