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Original Title: EE448 Lec3 ControlTechniques 2014

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Actuators

Lecture 3. Control Techniques

Instructor : Hunh Vit Thng <thang143@gmail.com>

LA

: V Vn Thanh

1

Control techniques

Closed loop control is an essential topic for control

systems, bringing together actuators and sensors with

the control algorithm in software

Introduction

Problem: supplying the same analog voltage (or the same PWM

signal) to a motor does not guarantee that the motor will run at

the same speed under all circumstances!

Introduction (cont.)

y(t): output of the system;

u(t): output of the controller

r(t): reference signal (input);

e(t): error signal

Introduction (cont.)

Assuming the process/plant P, the sensor F and the controller

C are LTI (Linear Time-Invariant) systems

Closed-loop

transfer function

Control techniques

On-off control

PID control

Adaptive control (LMS, NLMS, RLS algorithms)

Others:

Fuzzy control

Neural Networks based control

On-off control

The power to motor is either switched on or switched off

Behavior over time

heater, thermostat, etc.

Disadvantage: the motor control signal is only updated at

fixed time intervals (e.g., 10ms) hysteresis (tr)

8

Use a hyteresis band with 2 desired signals to prevent a high

switching frequency

Not smooth

Can we improve this?

10

PID Control

11

The PID controller algorithm involves three separate constant

parameters, and is accordingly sometimes called three-term

control: the proportional, the integral and derivative values

PID = P + I + D

P = Proportional; I = Integral; D = Derivative

P depends on the present error,

I depends on the accumulation of past errors,

D is a prediction of future errors, based on current rate of

change

The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the

process via a control element

12

The control voltage is directly proportional to the error signal

(error function)

Varying the controller gain Kp will change the behavior of

the P controller

13

Step response for P controller

Higher Kp Faster response

Important: Too high Kp

leads to undesirable

oscillating system!

Require fast response

and stable system

(e.g., Kp = 0.45)

14

P controllers equilibrium state is not at the desired velocity

due to control formula

Steady-state error is the difference between desired velocity

and equilibrium-states velocity

Can we reduce the

steady-state error?

Integral controller

15

The idea of the I controller is to reduce the steady-state error

of P controller

The I controller is commonly used with the P or PD controller

16

Define the error function : e(t) =

The formula for PI controller is

Rewrite for 2 independent additive terms for P and I

A naive way of implementing the I controller part is to

transform the integration into a sum of a fixed number (for

example 10) of previous error values. These 10 values would

then have to be stored in an array and added for every

iteration.

17

Proper Implementation:

replace the integral with a sum and use the trapezoidal rule

Substitute KI for

18

proper implementation of PI control algorithm

the previous control value Rn-1

the previous error value en-1

19

The idea of using the D controller is to speed up the P

controllers response to a change of input

The D controller is commonly used with the P or PI controller

Recall:

P provides a better step response than on-off controller

I for reducing steady-state error of P

D for speeding up step response of P

20

P, PD and PID

21

PID controller

The full formula for PID controller

22

PID controller

A complete PID formula

23

Find parameters experimentally

24

Adaptive control (LMS, NLMS, RLS)

Fuzzy control

Control using Neural Network

25

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