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THE UNIVERSAL BASIC EDUCATION PROGRAMME AND FEMALE TRAFFICKING IN SOUTHSOUTH, NIGERIA

B.O.OGNONOR and A.U.OSUNDE


University of Benin, Africa

The study investigated the impact of the Universal Basic Education (UBE) programme on the
phenomenon of female trafficking in South-South Nigeria. To this end, six research questions
were raised. These revolved around:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)

resource situation and adequacy of training provided for repatriated trafficked


victims in the service provider centre;
efforts in the formal education sector of the UBE to curb female trafficking; and
parents and female students disposition toward female trafficking.

The design of the study was descriptive survey.


The sample was 420 female students and their parents as well as 100 teachers in the
formal segment of the UBE programme and 130 repatriated trafficked victims in a
service provider centre. Four sets of instruments were utilized to generate data for the
study. The first was quantitative designed
-

to elicit information on the resource situation of the service provider centre and the
adequacy of the training given to the repatriated victims for employment purposes.
The other instruments were qualitative and they generated information on the
other foci of the study. The findings of the study were: available resources at the
service provider centre for repatriated victims were inadequate; no aspect of the
content of the UBE programme were targeted at the curbing of female trafficking; a
majority of the female students and a few parents were disposed toward female
trafficking.

The challenges experienced by the management of the trafficking service provider


centre were : inadequate funding, and willingness to be re-trafficked by repatriated
trafficked victims as well as pressure from parents in trainees to be re-trafficked. The
conclusion that can be drawn from the study is that the Universal Basic Education
programme has not made significant impact on the community in the issue of female
trafficking. The implication of the finding is that female trafficking will continue
increasing in South-South Nigeria unless a concerted effort is made in the UBE
programme to address the issue.

Introduction

Education has consistently been a priority in the national development plans of Nigeria since
independence in 1960. This is because of the belief that it is the tool for national
development and technological advancement. Similarly it is stated in the National Policy on
education (Federal Republic of Nigerian 2004) that the philosophy of education in Nigeria is
hinged on utilizing education as an instrument for national development. It is of significant
importance that the Nigerian National Policy on Education also states that education shall be
accessible to both males and females. Section 1:5C states, as follows:
the provision of equal access to educational opportunities for all citizens of the
country at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels both inside and outside the formal
school system.
Unfortunately, educational access to the female segment of the population has been
short of equality in both quantity and quality. For example the percentage of females in
primary schools from 1990 to 1998 were 43.2%, 46.6% 44.1%, 43.7%,44.1%,44.5%,43.4%
and 43.4% as compared with the figures for males, which were
56.8%,53.4%,55.9%,56.3%,55.9%,56.5% ,56.6% and 56.6% (Federal Republic of Nigeria
1995,1998) even when females constitute 49% of the total population in Nigeria (Federal
Republic of Nigeria 1998).
The factors which contribute to inequality of access to education by females have
been listed as negative traditional attitudes, economic factors, religious factor (Abala 1995,
Ogonor 2003a), and female trafficking (Igbinedion 2001).
Female trafficking has been increasing at an alarming rate in Nigeria over the last
two decades. Females, particularly those of school age, are trafficked from their homes to
places within and outside Nigeria for labour and prostitution, thereby depriving the victims
of access to education. The victims are usually lured into the trade by family friends who are
contact persons to the agents of traffickers (ex-Nigerian prostitutes abroad). They are
transported through the Saharan desert tracks under dehumanizing conditions in trolleys by
the smugglers to Morocco, where they eventually gain entry illegally to Europe through
Spain. On arrival, they are handed over to their sponsors to whom they remit the proceeds
from prostitution until they fully pay off the supposed fee (between US$40,000 to
Us$100,000) for transportation from Nigeria to Europe (Okojie et al. 201). For example,
UNICEF estimated that between 60-80% of girls in the sex trade in Italy were Nigerians. The
average age was given as 15-years-old. Futhermore, Hinshua News Agency(2003) reported
that in the year 2000, 250,000 Nigerians were deported from European and Asian countries
and most of them were women. The United Nations Organisation has identified Nigeria as a
major source of supply of trafficked humans in the world. In view of the notoriety of Nigeria
in human trafficking, the International Human Rights organization called on the Federal
Government to pass a bill on human trafficking as a crime.
The Nigerian Governments response to the issue has been threefold: prevention,
rehabilitation and prosecution. Strategies adopted by Government to curb the menace
through the latter response range from the passing of bills on human trafficking and child
rights, and signing bilateral agreements with some American, European and African
countries.

The preventive and rehabilitative strategies adopted by Government and nonGovernmental organisations have been through female empowerment by improving access
to education as was recommended by the Parliamentary Assembly Council of Europe (2001).
In view of this, the Federal Government instituted the Policy of Universal Basic Education
(UBE) for all citizens. The policy has among several objectivies, the provision of free universal
basic education for every Nigerian child of school age and reducing drastically the incidence
of dropout from the formal school system hrough improved relevance, quality and efficiency.
At the adult and non-formal education level, the UBE policy has provision for education
programmes for the acquisition of functional literacy, numeracy and life skills, especially for
adults. Also, there is an out of school program for updating the knowledge and skills of
persons who left school before completion, and apprenticeship training for adolescents and
youths who have not had the benefit of formal education (Obanya 2000).
The contributions of the efforts of non-Governmental organisations to equip
females with worthwhile skills for economic and social empowerment cannot be
overemphasized; Ognor(2003) found in her study that rural women in the Niger Delta,
Nigeria, were positively impacted in social skills to resolve conflicts after been trained in
conflict resolution strategies. Laudable as Government policies are at improving educational
access to males and females, the question is : What special provisions have been made by
Government and non-Governmental organisations to strenfthen educational resources and
empower females who are now being threatened by the menace of trafficking? This is the
question that this study sought to answer. As there is the need for the aggressive pursuit of
the implementation of the UBE scheme which is intended to improve the quality of life f the
citizenry, particularly in terms of impacting negative trends in the immediate community
such as female trafficking.
To address the issue, the following research questions were raised.
-

What are the available human and material resources in the human trafficking
service provider centre?
Are the available facilities considered adequate for the acquisition of skills for
survival?
How equipped are the graduating students of the service provider centre for the
world of work?
Are there aspects of the UBE curriculum targeted at educating females on the
dangers of being trafficked?
What are female students dispositions toward trafficking?
What are parents attitudes to the trafficking of female children?
What are the challenges experienced by the management of the service
provider centre to rehabilitate the victims of trafficking?
The purpose of the study is to determine how the formal and non-formal
segments of the Universal Basic Education programme aid the prevention and
rehabilitation of trafficked victims in South-South Nigeria

Literature review / conceptual framework


Nigerian culture is patriarchal, ith great emphasis on gendered power relations.
Males and females are gendered from birth into social roles. Bennet (2002a,
Gaid-zanwa (2001) and Britwum (2005) pointed out that patriarchy and
gendered power relations pervasively determine the framework within which
men and women interact in all arenas of life. This is the case in Nigeria, as
gendered power relations permeate the whole gamut of societal norms and
alues which ascribe to males superior and assertive power and rights over and
above females. Guffre and Williams (1994) explain that in a situation where
power is vested in the male, the subordinate position of the female, coupled
with the potential of her body, tend to make her vulnerable to sexual violence
(e.g. trafficking). Futhermore, the gender power concept protends unequal
access to economic opportunities and wealth between males and females.
Societal values and norms tend to thrust economic power upon men while
women are deprived and are socialized to believe that their success is hinged on
the success of the other sex. Hence at tender age, females are charged with the
responsibility of caring for younger siblings and engaging in economic activities
to ensure that male siblings acquire some level of education and/or economic
empowerment even if it is at their (the females expense.
Educational institutions as sites for socialization of students are expected to
positively influence the larger society by promoting alternative understandings
of social issues such as patriarchy, gendered power relations and female
trafficking by teaching concepts, ideas and practices from the classroom to out
of class cognition and action. This study is hinged on the conceptual framework
of overlapping influence of social organisations.
The thesis of transformative pedagogy according to Nagda et al. (2003) is
that: if the right content and pedagogy are adopted in the teaching of social
issues that pose dilemmas to students, they will be able to develop the personal
agency to resolve social dilemmas in their favour and society as a whole. In
support of the statd view, Sleeter (1996) recommended that educational
practices that help students to look at issues in broad social contexts and tap
their abilities for deep and critical enquiry, so as to take socially just actions,
should be adopted in schools to prepare a new citizenry.
On the other hand, Epstein conceptualized the influence of the school and
the larger society on the pupils as overlapping. The thesis is that pupils tend to
be more willing to drop negative values from the larger society as a result of
school-initiated behaviours, if the larger community is negatively disposed
toward such values. In other word, students are best supported when families
and school have shared goals and work collaboratively, as childrens
development is greatly influenced by family, schools and communities. The
model conceptualizes the community as an important arena of child and
adolescent learning. Epstein and Sanders (2000) and simon (2000) point to the

focus of Epsteins model on teacher and school-initiated behaviours, indicating


that the school is positively positioned to influence negative influences that may
originate in the larger community.
In view off the discussed framework of Nagda et. Al. (2003) and Epstein, the
researcher conceives that sexual trafficking-which is currently pervasive in the
larger society- can be reduced if segments of the UBE programme, e.g.
curriculum content, pedagogy and school practices, are targeted at equipping
pupils with personal agency to resist sexual trafficking. Furthermore, the UBE
programme is likely to be more relevant to South-south Nigeria, if parents are
made to realize the menace of sexual trafficking so that they can serve as
reinforcement to the schools in discouraging their children from being trafficked.
The thesis of the study is that when family, school and communities have shared
values that are reinforced on the pupils, It tend to yield the desired
attitudinal/behavioural outcome.

Method of study
The design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. The population of the
study comprised all co-educational and female secondary schools. (this is a pool
for trafficked females) and non-formal educational ( apool as well as a
rehabilitative centre) institutions in Nigeria. The sample of the study consisted of
10% of the students in co-educational and female secondary schools, their
parents as well as a non-Governmental education centre which is the service
provider to repatriated trafficked females in the South-South Zone of Nigeria.
The South-South zone was chosen because it has been implicated in several
investigations as the area of origin of many trafficked victims (Skongseth 2006).
The sampling technique that was adopted for the study was multiple. First,
stratified sampling technique was utilized to determine the educational
institutions that were in the sample. Straticfication was on the basis of school
location (traffickers are currently shifting base to rural areas to recruit victims0.
Then by purposive sampling technique the major non-formal education centre
which is a service provider for repatriated trafficked victims was included in the
sample.
All the 100 teachers in the educational institutions in the sample were
interviews. Furthermore through simple random sampling technique, 420
female pupils in the UBE programme as well as their parents were selected to
respond to the instruments. Finally, the students in the non-Governmental
trafficking service provider (these were 130) was also part of the sample. All the
students were included because the number is relatively few compared with the
number in the formal educational sector of the UBE programme.

Four sets of instruments were used to generate data for the study. The first
set was an interview guide adapted from the interview guide on issues on
trafficking by Macdonald et al. (2000) to reflect local situation. The instrument
was in two sections. The first section was a checklist and ot elicited information
on types of courses and the quantity and quality of human resources as well as
available hardware materials in the non-formal educational centre. The second
segment was targeted at repatriated trafficked females. It was qualitative and
generated information on the adequacy of the training they received at the
service provider service centre for the world of work.
The second instrument elicited information on the curricular and cocurricular contents of the syllabi of the UBE programme to determine if there
were aspects targeted at dissuading potential victims from being trafficked. The
foci were on efforts to equip pupils with the personal agency to probe antifemale cultural values, sex education, female dignity and trafficking. The third
set of instrument was qualitative, designed to elicit information from female
pupils in the UBE programme to determine their disposition toward trafficking.
The fourth set of instrument which was also qualitative elicited information on
parents attitude regarding the issue of female trafficking. The fifth and last
instrument of the trafficking service provider centre.
All the instruments were personally administered with the aid of trained
research assistant who were versatile in the use of the listed instruments for the
collection of data.
Data analysis
Research Question 1. What are the available human and material resources in
the human trafficking service provider centre?
Table 1. Available human resource personnel in providers service centres
Type of programme

Computer/secretarial
studies
Catering/home
economics
Hairdressing/cosmetology
Fashion design
Counselling

No. of
students

No.instructors

Ratio of
instructors to
students
standard
period

40

1:10

40

1:10

20
30
130

1
2
1

1:30
1:15
1:130

Table 1 indicates that the ratio of instructors to adult learners was 1:10 for
computer/secretarial studies and catering/home economics. Fashion design had

the ratio of 1:15 while hairdressing/cosmetology 1:30. All the 130 learners were
counseled by one guidance counselor.
As can seen in Table 2, the ratio of learners to facilities at the service
provider centre was 3:1,4:1,5:1,and 6:1 for gas cookers,typing machines, sewing
machines and hair dryer. The ratio 8:1,13:1 and 30:1 were recorded for facilities
such refrigerators/freezers, computer set, and pedicure set.

Research Question 2. Are the available facilities considered adequate for the
acquisition of the desired skill ?
To determine the adequacy of the available instructors and facilities to the number of
learners, in the different courses, the learners were asked to comment on their experiences.
Their views are reflected according to the course of study on Table 3.
Table 3. Students perception of the adequacy of available instructors and facilities
Course of study

No. of respondents

Computer secretarial
studies
Catering/home
economics
Hairdressing/
cosmetology
Fashion design

40

Adequacy of facilities
Yes
2 (30%)

No
28(70%)

40

6(40%)

24(60%)

20

8(40%)

12(60%)

30

15(50%)

15(50%)

In Table 3, it can be observed that 50% of the learners in fashion design indicated
that the instructors and facilities at their disposal were adequate. Sixty per cent of the
learners in hairdressing/cosmetology, catering/home economics were of the perception that
the available facilities they had for studies were inadequate while 70% of the learners in
computer/secretarial studies shared a similar opinion.

Research Question 3. How equipped are the students of the service provider
centre for the world of work ?
Table 4. Learners perception of proficiency for the world of work

Course of study

Computer
studies

Skills acquired

sevretarial Production of
handbills,
weddings card,
invitation
cards,
and
stickers
Catering/home
Baking
of
management
cakes,
tasty
foods, cooking
and
entertainment
on occasions
Hairdressing/cosmetology Fixing of weave
on, braiding,
tonguing
of
hair, washing
and setting of
hair
Fashion design
Handmade
clothing, e.g.
wedding gowns
curtains, table
covers, dresses

Total no. of No.


of
students
students who
consider
themselves
proficient
40

28(70%)

Bo.
Of
students who
are did not
consider
themselves
equipped
12(30%)

40

18 (45%)

22 (55%)

30

13(43.3%)

17(56.7%)

30

22(73.3%)

8(26.7%)

Table 4 shoes that only 43.3% and 45% of the graduating learners in hair
dressing/cosmetology and catering/home management respectively indicated that they
considered themselves proficient in the skills they were required to have acquired. And 73.3%
of the learners in computer/secretarial studies and fashion design opined that they were
equipped with the skills they were expected to acquire. However, 56.7%,55%and 30% of the
learners in hairdressing/cosmetology, catering/home management, and secretarial studies
respectively, considered themselves as not proficient.

Research Question 4. Are there aspects of the UBE curriculum targeted at educating
female students on the dangers of being trafficked ?
Evaluation of teachers regarding the relatedness of the UBE curricular to the
discouragement of female students from trafficking are summarized under the following
subheadings:

Content to equip pupils with the personal agency to probe pro-trafficking


cultural values.

Content regarding sex education.


Content regarding female dignity.
Content regarding female trafficking.

Content to equip pupils with the personal agency to probe pro-trafficking cultural values
An overview of the teachers responses indicated that the culture of the immediate
community is taught in the schools but aspects inimical to female trafficking are not
discussed. The impression created is that aspects of the culture that make females
vulnerable to being trafficked are good and the status quo should be maintained. For
example, a male teacher expressed the following view:
I personally have no problem with women being encouraged to go to school.
However, they should continue to respect and uphold our tradition. Women must
continue to realize that they are inferior to males. We can never regard them as our
equals. It is against our tradition to accord them equal status as us. Do we have to
encourage them to disregard out tradition? Are we training our women to become
oyinbos(Europeans)? From the time of our forefathers, bride price is paid on
women because of their economic value.
Content regarding sex education
The teachers said that a programme on sex education is just being designed but it is not yet
implemented in schools. However, the content of what seems to be sex education in schools
for now is aptly summarized by a respondent as follows:
You know that issues about sex cannot be mentioned in public without people
feeling that you are very immoral. We only concentrate on the biological differences
between males and females when we dare to mention sex education. That is how
far we can go for now.
Content regarding female dignity
The teachers said that there is nothing in the curriculum that has bearing with female dignity.
Female teachers observed that such provision would have been a welcome development to
them. The position was succinctly expressed by a female teacher as follows :
Women are treated as nobody in the society, and they too feel that they are nobody.
They are easily intimidated by their male counterparts. Most often they withdraw
into their shelves and allow themselves to be manipulated and used. Nothing in the
UBE programme is designed to change this situation. We the female teacher are
handicapped because if we attempt to introduce such topics we would be accused
of teaching what is not in the syllabus and turning the females against their brothers,
fathers and husbands. Do you not know that curses are hurled at the proprietor of
the anti-female trafficking non-Governmental organization by many people in the
community? She is regarded as an enemy because she advices females not to allow
themselves to be trafficked.

Content regarding female trafficking


The respondents indicated that moral studies has just been introduced as a subject but the
content of the course is determined by the teacher. However, no aspect of the school
curriculum relates to the evil of female trafficking. Rather, the role models of success are
some female dropouts who occasionally visit home and the schools, to showcase their
wealth from trafficking.
Research question 5. What is females students disposition toward trafficking?
Of the 420 female students, who were the respondents, 95.2% of them indicated that they
were willing to be trafficked. Only 23.8% stated that they were aware of the consequeces of
being trafficked, and 11.9% indicated that they had actually been approached by traffickers.
The position of the majority of female students regarding willingness to be trafficked was
succinctly put as follows by some of the respondents.

Osasus response
My sister wants to take me abroad to weave hair. Is there anything wrong in that ? they
make a lot of money. If I go I shall be able to help my family. Can u imagine that my brothers
and I are often sent out of classes for lack of writing materials. Even if I stop schooling my
brothers will be able to continue.

Erhahons response
My parents always compare me with some girls who have traveld abroad because their
parents now live in bery large houses and their daugthers always remit money to them. They
feel that I am wicked and a disagrace to the family for remaining here and going to school as
I have no means of helping them at all. Well, I dont know however . I may go some day so
that I can help my family.

Ivies response
My parents have warned me never to ask them for money again as my mates are those
sustaining their families. Anyway it is good to help your family. I was just waiting to hear
from one of my friends who went last year before I know what to do.

Research question 6. What are parents attitudes to the trafficking of female


children?

Table 5 shows that 88.1% of the parents are aware of the dangers of trafficking and have
attended campaign rallies against trafficking.
However 26.2% have had children who have been trafficked and 23.8% of the parents are
still willing to give support to their children being trafficked. Reasons why parents are willing
to approve the trafficking of female children can be deduced from comment of some
respondents as stated below:
Table 5. Female students disposition toward trafficking
Students disposition
Willingness
of
females
students to be trafficked
Awareness
of
the
consequences of trafficking
Approached by traffickers

Yes
400(95.2%)

No
20(4.8%)

100(23.8%)

320(76%)

50(11.9%)

390(88.1%)

I have no reservation about my daughters travelling because I have suffered too much. The
country is too hard. Just imagine my daughter only traveled last year and she has been able
to purchase two cars for the family. When a girl gets married she is no more useful to her
natal family. She starts to help her husband. But if she travels abroad she will continue to
support us. This of course is better for us.

Research question 7. What are the challenges experienced by the management of


the service provide centre to rehabilitate the victims of trafficking ?
From an interview, instructors revealed that the barriers to the successful rehabilitation of
trafficked victims were as follows :
-

Lack of fund to provide the desired learning facilities for training.


Preparedness of the trafficked victims to be re-trafficked.
Pressure from parents of the repatriated victims to be re-trafficked.

Table 6. Parental attitude to the trafficking of female children


Items
Awareness of the
dangers of trafficking
Attendance
of
campaign
rallies
against trafficking
Parents
whose
children have been
previously trafficked
Parental support to
children
to
be

No. of respondents
420

Responses
Yes
370(88.1%)

No
50(11.9%)

420

370(88.1%)

50(11.9%)

420

110(26.2%)

310(73.8%)

420

100(23.8%)

320(76.2%)

trafficked

Discussion of findings
The major crux of the study was to assess the human and material resources available at the
trafficking service provider centre in South-South Nigeria. The finding was that the ratio of
instructors to pupils was higher in all the programmes than the recommended standard,
meaning there are not sufficient instructors. The same situation for the ratio of facilities to
learners. The observed pattern was an indication that the human and material resources at
the disposal of the trafficking service provider centre are not adequate to train the learners
in the various programmes;Alily(2000) found in her study that there is a correlation between
the availability of human and material resources and students achievement. The question is :
what meaningful contribution can the service provider centre make toward the
rehabilitation of the repatriated victims with the shortage of both human and material
resources in the training of learners? Is it ironic that this is the situation at the centre,
whereas Igbinedion (2006, the proprietress of the service provider centre) had attributed
the high rate of female trafficking to females who drop out from ill-equipped schools.
The survival of the trainees of trafficking service provider centre in the world of work,
was another concern of the study. More than 70% of the graduates considered themselves
proficient in programmes as secretarial studies and fashion design while more than 50 %
considered themselves unprepared for the world of work. Regarding catering/home
management and hair dressing/cosmetology the finding is not unexpected as respondents
had earlier indicated that majority of them could not perform elementary tasks in catering
such as baking, preparation of fast foods and rendering of catering services at occasions
(95.5%). Menwhile, 56.75% of those in the hair dressing and cosmetology programme can
neither fi weave-on, braid, wash nor set hair, etc. The implication is that half-baked products,
unprepared for the world of work, are turned out from the centre. It would have been
expected that the learners should be trained to be well rounded in skills that would equip
them for financial independence as Orakwue (2006) found in his study among trafficked
victims that a reason for being involved is the desire to be financially independent. Similarly,
Igbinedion (2006) implicated unemployment as a reason for involvement in being trafficked.
No wonder Orakwue (2006) noted that although the girls, when repatriated, come back
with a lot of frustration and pain, they want to go back to Europe as soon as possible,
because their backgrounds are very poor. Therefore, they seek to be re-trafficked at the
least opportunity.
An analysis of the formal curriculum segment of the Universal Basic Education
indicated that neither the curriculum content nor educational practices were designed to
equip pupils with the personal agency to probe anti-female cultural values or dissuade
female students from accepting to be trafficked. The implication is that though the issues is
topical in the area, no attempt is made by the formal school segment to address the issue
thought its clienteles are the victims of the vice. It would have been expected that the UBE
programme, should incorporate some transformative content and pedagogy aimed at

reorienting students to change their values and equip them with the where withal to resist
sexual trafficking. Such provisions in the formal school segment could have greatly stemmed
the tide of female trafficking in the immediate environment where the schools are situated.
Presently, it appears that that the school which ought to be an agent of change of negative
practices in the larger society is apathetical to needs of the immediate environment. This is
because no attempt has been made to change the values and attitudes of the students who
are well positioned to positively influence members of the larger society toward in the larger
community, especially as female trafficking has become prevalent in the region even at the
international arena.
A probe of the disposition of female pupils toward trafficking indicated that the 95%
of the former were very well disposed. The finding, though alarming, was not unexpected as
the prevalent patriarchal system with the attendant gender power relations in the area,
tends to equate the usefulness of the female child with the financial benefit that can be
derived from her by her natal family. Consequently the girl child is socialized into believing
that her worth is in terms of the financial benefit that can be derived by the natal family on
her behalf. It is not unlikely therefore, that the girl child desires to be trafficked so that she
will be better positioned to make financial contribution to the well being of her family. No
wonder very many female students indicated that they desired to travel so that they can
help their families. This point was well buttressed by Guffre and Williams (1994) who
explained that in a situation where power is vested in the male, the subordinate position of
the female coupled with the potential of her body tend to make her vulnerable to sexual
violence (e.g. trafficking). The gravity of the issue is further exacerbated by a very large
proportion of pupils (76%) and parents (88.1%) who indicated that they were unaware of the
dangers of female trafficking. The finding corroborates Orakwue (2006), who found that
trafficked victims overseas do not seem to appreciate the gravity of their situation. The issue
then is: is it not necessary to enlighten the victims of female trafficking who are dropouts or
graduates of the UBE programe before they fall prey to traffickers again ? This question
remains very pertinent because it is an established fact that the region is notorious for
female trafficking and the UBE programme is intended to equip the citizenry with the
knowledge, values, attitudes and skills for useful living in the society.
Only very few (21.9%) of the parents had attended rallies and campaigns against
trafficking, a very large proportion of them (93.6%) had children who had previously been
trafficked. As much as 23.8% are still willing to support their daughters being trafficked.
These expressions by parents all indicative of the beliefs regarding the female child in a
patriarchal society, where the she is seen as a commodity to be disposed off, for financial
gains whereas the male child should be preserved to carry on the family name. The question
that comes to mind therefore is : should the non-formal segment of the UBE not reorient the
public on such issues, since many parents are oblivious of the dangers of female trafficking ?
these are pertinent aspects where a transformative pedagogy of the UBE programme could
positively influence the larger society by promoting alternative understanding of social
issues such as patriarchy, gendered power relations and sexual trafficking.
As regard the challenges experienced by the management of service provider
centres to rehabilitate the victims of trafficking, lack of funds to provide the desired learning

facilities for training, readiness of the trafficked victims to be re-trafficked and pressure from
the parents of repatriated victims to be re-trafficked were prominent. These finding are not
unexpected as it had been earlier revealed that the available facilities and instructors are
inadequate to provide life skills to trafficked victims.

Conclusion
Human and material resources at the disposal of the trafficking service providers centre are
not adequate to train learners in the various programmes. Consequently, many of the
graduates were of the opinion that they were not proficient in the programmes
implemented, except secretarial studies and fashion design, Similarly, no aspect of the
formal school curriculum addressed female trafficking, so when female pupils were willing to
be trafficked, the majority of the parents give their support. The pressure of repatriated
victims to be re-trafficked and inadequate funding were perceived as the barriers to the
attainment of the objectives of the trafficking service provider centre.
Implication to educational administration
Educational policies are designed to affect the day-to-day lives and activities of the larger
society. Hence it was stated in the National Policy of Education (Federal Republic of Nigeria
1981,1988,2004) that education should be a tool for social transformation. The UBE
programme was intended to provide the Nigerian citizenry from primary school age with the
basic education required for useful living in society. However, it appears that no attention
was given to the need to equip pupils with the capacity to address social problems such as
female trafficking, as the content, practices and pedagogy adopted in the implementation of
the programme did not in anyway take cognizance of such issues.
Presently, female trafficking is a vice which is preventing a large segment of the
female population from benefiting from the UBE programme in South-South Nigeria.
Consequently, the outcome of the UBE programme is likely to be at variance with intended
objectives. It is imperative therefore that educational mangers should as a matter of urgency
revie and incorporate definite aspects in the content, pedagogy and practices in the UBE
programme targeted at combating social vices as female trafficking.