Construction Tools



D. E. F. G. H. A SEMINARY CURRICULUM: RELATIVE WEIGHTING of COURSES. A CURRICULUM SCHEDULE: . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YEAR TRAINING PLAN ( Indian example) . The “PROGRAMME” . . . . . . . . . 52 54 55 56 57 58

A BEGINNER’S SCHOOL (Starting from Core TEXT BOOKS) . THE READING LIST: A Core Self-Study Programme

Constructing a Course (Examples)
I. J. USING THE MENU FRAMEWORK for INTEGRATIVE COURSE Worship example 61 CONSTRUCTING A COURSE from the MENU: Discipleship example . 62

More on Learning Domains
K. RANGES OF LEARNING outlined (4 Domains) . . . . . . . . 65 66 69 70 71 Categories of DOINGs, KNOWINGs & UNDERSTANDINGs. . LEARNING DOMAINS Summary Chart of Theory and Practice .. L. LEARNING DOMAINS: As Personal Growth. . In Proverbs . . . . . . .

M. N. O. P. Q. PASTORAL OBJECTIVES Bible Study WESTERN MODELS Critique . . Essay on MODELLING – Neil Foster . TAIL- PIECE - A Fable . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 73 74 78 79



SUMMARY CHART of CURRICULUM FIELDS for THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION (Pakistan Context) (taken from A Progressive Classification)
Dept. of Biblical Studies, Hermeneutics & Systematic Theology THE MESSAGE of THE CHURCH: SALVATION 100 BIBLICAL STUDIES
(The primary SOURCE of our Faith) 110 BACKGROUND STUDIES 115 The Canon of The Text The Transmission of the Text
(Describing the extent of the text & how it was handed down)

Dept. of Philosophy, Communication & Contemporary Studies THE MISSION of THE CHURCH: WITNESS 300 PHILOSOPHY
(The philosophical BASIS of our Faith) 350 PHILOSOPHICAL THEOLOGY 360 APOLOGETICS
(Commending & defending the Faith as truth & wisdom)

Dept. of Historical Theology & Church History THE MOVEMENT of THE CHURCH: DISCIPLING: CHURCH HISTORY
(How the Faith SREAD and was effective) 601 THE EARLY CHURCH 607 THE WEST The Middle Ages The Renaissance 615 THE MODERN ERA The Enlightenment The Evangelical Revival 620 ASIA Near East & Central Asia 624 THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT Missionary Agents Spheres of Mission 640 S. E. ASIA 650 AFRICA 656 AMERICA

Dept. of Practical & Pastoral Theology & Christian Education THE MINISTRY of THE CHURCH: NURTURE-CAREPRAISE 700 PRACTICAL THEOLOGY
(Following Jesus in the Way)

(Finding the implications of Faith for conduct)


(Clarifying what the Text says, & what the Text means)




(What may be discovered about God apart from revelation)

(Preaching the Faith to-day) 545

(Surveying all that the texts say on all the subjects with which they deal)


(How the Faith was STATED in the past)


(Formulating the Faith today)

(Defining the Christian task in the world)


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Appendix G

 Introduction to the Bible  OT-NT relationship Geography of Bible 

Lands Biblical Archaeology Transmission & Canon  Higher Criticism Translation Hermeneutics Bible Study Methods Other: 120 OLD TESTAMENT Survey of the OT Historical Outline of OT Themes of OT The Law Genesis – Exodus Deuteronomy The Prophets  “Early” (Historical)  “Later” Isaiah  “12” (Minor) The Writings  Wisdom Literature 5 Rolls (Festivals / Fasts) Daniel (Apocalyptic Ezra / Nehemiah (Hist.) Other: 160 NEW TESTAMENT Survey of the NT OT fulfilment in the NT Themes of NT The Gospels Jesus’ Life & Death Jesus’ Teaching Synoptic Gospels John’s Gospel Acts Paul’s Theology Romans Epistles (Cor-Thes) Pastoral Epistles Hebrews Revelation Other:

Systematic Theology God The World  Revelation  Jesus Christ  The End Times  Humanity  Redemption  The Holy Spirit  The Church  Other: 

600 CHURCH HISTORY Early & Patristic Era The Western Church 4th-10th C Middle Ages The Reformation Counter-Ref. & Puritans E. Europe & Russia Eastern Churches Modern Era: The West Evangelical Awakening Contemporary Times Asia (incl. Persia, C.Asia) Indian Sub-continent 1st-10th C 16th-21st C Pakistan (regions) Other Countries Denominations Individuals Others:

300 PHILOSOPHY Areas of Philos. Enquiry Philosophical Theology Apologetics Eirenics Polemics Hist. of West.Rel. Thought Other: 400 CONTEMPORARY STUDIES Modern Beliefs Contemporary Issues Contemporary Theology Cults & Sects Pluralism & Other Faiths Comparative Religion ISLAM Culture & Local Values Contextual Theology Basic Xian Communities Other: 500 COMMUNICATION Principles of Communic. Preaching (Proclamation) Expository Preaching Other kinds of Preaching Homiletics (Craft of Pr.) Other Ways of Commun. Faith Sharing Evangelism Other: 550 MISSIOLOGY Theology of Mission Culture in Mission LINGUISTICS Approach to Other Faiths Strategy of Mission Call to Mission Leadership in Mission History of Mission
 Other: 

THEOLOGY H. of Hermeneutics H. of Spirituality H. of Sexuality Patristic Medieval Reformation Enlightenment Modernity Post-Modernity Formularies & Creeds Controversies Doctrinal Development Others:

Introduction to Theology Sources of Theology Types of Theology  Fundamental Doctrines 

THEOLOGY Personal Discipleship Conversion Obedience Guidance Spiritual Warfare Self-control & Discipline The Cost of Discipleship Imitating Christ Growth Fruit of the Spirit Holiness Communion with God The Means of Grace Feeding on God’s Word

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Prayer life Worship with others Christian Fellowship  Christian Service  Using Gifts of the Spirit  Local Ch. Involvement  Service to Community  Work  Use of Time & Money  Giving & Tithing  Psychology of Self  Other: 

Appendix G


780 THEOLOGICAL EDUCATION Theological FrameworkK Theological Reflection U Godly Character B Ministerial Skills D Other: 800 PASTORAL THEOLOGY Pastor: gifts & character His Office & Church Order Manager Missionary Strategist Preacher Liturgist (Lead pub Wor) Spiritual Director Counsellor Psychology of Past. Care Jesus as Counsellor Care of the Individual Shepherding the wayward Encouraging the faint Counselling the troubled Rescuing the weak Problems of Families Comforting the grieving Ministering to the sick Visiting the parish Seeking the lost
Building up the faithful Other

How Cultural locally? The Psychological elem: How adapted to Personal Temperament? Essential ingredients Word and Sacrament Occasional Services Liturgy(prescribed forms) Other:

720 CHRISTIAN ETHICS Principles Moral Theology Christian Virtues Values Setting Priorites Conscience & Conflicts Sexual Morality Lying and Truth Money Attitudes Vices Environmental Theol. Ecological Issues Use of Resources Use of Technology Social Theology Personal Attitudes Social Issues Global Issues
Community Development

835 CONGREGATIONAL OVERSIGHT Equipping for service Disciplining disobedient Dealing with conflict Other: 840 LOCAL CHURCH LEADERSHIP Jesus as Leader Modelling: Personal Example Vision Team Work Managing Change Congregational Strategy Missionary Outreach Stewardship Other 850 ORGANISATION Administration (Congr.) Finances & Fund Raising Property & Maintenance Legalities Church Courts (Higher) Boards of Institutions Parish Councils, etc Other: 870 DENOMINATIONS Own Denom. Ethos Other Denominations Denom. History Denom. Doctrines Denom. Worship Denom. Government Denom. Official posts Denom. Geog. Divisions W.C.C.

730 EDUCATION Principles Logic Study Methods Thinking Skills Reading Skills Researching Note Taking Evaluating & Organising Writing Essays Computer Skills Other: 770 CHRISTIAN EDUCATION Religious Educ.(Schools) Teaching Catechists Sunday School Youth Work Marriage Preparation Parish Training

820 RENEWAL & REVIVAL Personal Renewal Hist. & Theol. of Revival Leading House Groups Charismatic Renewal Tongues & Spirit Baptism Spiritual Discernment Vital Churches Conducting Retreats Other: 830 PUBLIC WORSHIP Public Worship aspects: The Historical element: How Traditional?  The Universal element: How World-wide?  The Social element:

Curriculum Manual


Using the Classification for Course Construction The following Course was constructed mainly from the Progressive Classification “menu”. Educational Objectives were added for each subject.


Part 1: Following Christ 1.  The Evilness of Sin, Repentance, Conversion and the Life of Faith
To understand what is involved in conversion and to be assured of eternal life.

2.  Commitment and the Lordship of Christ; Freedom and Obedience; Living out the Ten Commandments Today; Self-denial
To learn what is involved in obeying God’s commands, in commitment to Jesus as Lord, in denying the desire of self-pleasing, and in experiencing the freedom of Christ’s Spirit within.

3.  Guidance and a Sense of Purpose
To learn how God guides the Christian disciple and shows us what he wants him/her to do now.

4.  Spiritual Warfare & Empowerment
To be able to fight victoriously against the world, the flesh and the Devil.

5.  Persevering against Temptation, Hindrances, Backsliding and Spiritual Decline
To be able to withstand temptation and avoid backsliding.

6.  Self-control & Self-discipline: The Quiet Time, Fasting, Silence
To learn self-control and practice various spiritual disciplines.

7.  The Cost of Discipleship & Sacrificial Living
To evaluate and accept the cost of being a disciple of Christ.

8.  Imitating Christ
To learn how to abide in Christ and become more like Him.

9.  Character development & Growth in the Fruit of the Spirit
To learn how the believer’s life can bear spiritual fruit.

10.  Spiritual Pruning of Bad Habits and Obstacles to Growth
To learn how to check one’s spiritual life and allow the Holy Spirit to remove all hindrances to growth.

11.  Integrity, Reliability and Simplicity
To learn how to live simply and with complete reliability & integrity in every dealing with others.

12.  Holiness and the Question of Perfection in This Life
To become closer to God and learn how to please Him better.

13.  Growth through Suffering & Inner Healing.
To understand the place of suffering in the Christian life and develop a scriptural understanding of healing of body, mind and spirit.

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Part 2: Walking with God & The Means of Grace 1.  The Means of Grace
To understand, and learn how to use, the means of grace.

2.  Studying God’s Word & Hindrances to Hearing God’s Word
To learn to feed on God’s Word regularly.

3.  Biblical Meditation
To learn how to meditate on God’s Word.

4.  Prayer Life
To learn how to talk with God and develop a personal prayer life.

5.  Worship
To learn how to worship God in truth and in spirit.

6.  Rest & the Sabbath
To learn how to keep Sunday as God’s day of rest and recreation.

7.  Fellowship with God’s People
To learn how to maintain fellowship with other Christians at all times.

Part 3: Christian Service 1.  Involvement in the Life of the Local Church, Using & Developing the Gifts of the Spirit
To be able to distinguish the fruit of the Spirit from the gifts of the Spirit and develop one’s own gifts for the up-building of the Church.

2.  Witness
To learn how to share a personal faith with others.

3.  Service to Society & the Community
To learn to recognise and fulfil our responsibilities as Christians to meet human need and serve others.

4. Work
To learn how to work purposefully, productively and conscientiously.

5. The Use of Time
To learn how to make the best use of time.

6. A Giving and Tithing
To learn how to make best use of personal resources for the extension of God’s kingdom. The course, as laid out above, represents a two term period of 13 weeks per term. However, some topics may well require longer treatment than others. Also some topics may not be considered as essential as others. It is recommended that for each topic listed above a further suboutline of main points be developed – with key Bible texts where possible – and then priorities established for inclusion in a final syllabus. Reference to the NIV Thematic Study Bible (Hodder & Stoughton, 1996) is highly recommended for this exercise.

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Examples of the different uses of “UNDERSTAND” and “KNOW” in considering Educational Objectives. RANGES of LEARNING: Terms Defined (The Four “Learning Domains” or Areas of Learning Development)
When we learn something, it is not always the same kind of activity or result that is involved. We can learn a fact (e.g. the place where Jesus was born); we can learn to understand something (why God allowed Jesus to die); we can learn to do something (present the Gospel of Jesus Christ to children); and we can learn to become something (more Christ-like in our attitudes and behaviour).
These are all things we can “learn” (and to a greater or lesser extent be “taught”), but, in each case, the “learning” involved is of a different kind: it occurs in a different “domain” or area of our personality. (The word “domain” suggests the scope or extent of a type of learning. Though the different kinds of learning relate to each other, they have a distinguishable boundary. A different kind of process is taking place within each domain.)

The first area we can call the Sapiential Domain, because in this range of learning we are gaining insight. This kind of learning often comes through reflecting upon our own experience. Thus: “we learn by experience”. Proverbs 2 provides an extended celebration of this type of learning.
(“Insightful” might be another term for this domain, or “prudential”, which points to the element of wisdom gained through learning any new understanding. Some educational theorists like to subsume this domain under the next domain: “cognitive”. This is because both emphasize the process of thinking. But apart from conceptual understanding, insight generally includes some degree of spiritual understanding that transcends purely any mental process.)

The second area is known as the Cognitive Domain, because the learning involves thinking. The term comes from the Latin: cognitio, which means study, or knowledge. This is the most easily accessible form of knowledge and lends itself especially to “rote-learning”, which, paradoxically, is marked by its lack of thinking!
(Cognition, in psychology, includes perception, memory, reasoning, judgement, problem-solving, language, symbolism and conceptual thought, in fact any mental activity that enables a person to experience and learn about his or her environment. But, educationally, we suggest it be restricted to its original Latin connotation of knowledge and the study of that knowledge. Robert Ferris divides the cognitive domain into theory and information, recognizing differences in the ways these areas are taught and tested. However, it is also possible to contrast theory with practice. Then theory would cover both information and the understanding of that information, while practice concerns the next two domains: the affective and the functional.)

The third kind of learning is called Affective. This relates to how we are influenced or affected by what we learn and so become changed, or at least developed, as a result. It is the sphere of learning where the Holy Spirit can touch our personality at its deepest level.
(Some Christian educationalists object to the use of the term “affective” because it was used in the scheme of the naturalist behaviourist B.S. Bloom, “affective” to refer to feelings, whereas “character qualities” are much more substantial than emotions. However, “affective” can also be thought of as affecting character.) The last kind of learning is very practical, so we may call it the Functional Domain. This sort of learning enables us to do things that we could not do before, or, if we could, to do them better. Demonstration followed by practice is often the method of training that is most effective in this domain. (Bloom uses the term “psycho-motor domain” which Ferris rightly finds too technical and substitutes “skills”, which fairly describes this domain, as does the adjective “functional” which is preferred here.)

Roger Lewis, who is Professor of Learning Development at Humberside University, UK, points out that all four domains are important in learning, as in any common human activity (where learning is put into practice). This is so whether in order to write a school essay or to service a bicycle in the workshop. For the latter, he notes,
“I need to know where to apply oil and which components to check; have manual skills [doing], e.g. in adjusting brakes; want to do it, or at least accept the importance of maintaining the bicycle [which is to do with attitude and so the formation of one’s being]; understand why I am carrying out the various tasks [to do with the purpose, design, and how the various parts of the whole fit together.”

Curriculum Manual

Appendix O


“FOLLOW MY EXAMPLE” TEACHING THE WORD OF GOD IN OUR LIVES Neil Foster 1. Introduction One of the topics which is justifiably high on the agenda of everyone interested in theological education is that of “spiritual formation”, or, in terms perhaps closer to New Testament terminology, training our students to grow in godliness. No matter how much information about the Bible and the Christian faith that our students have, it will be of no use unless they know the Lord personally and grow in maturity. It struck me very forcibly, when reviewing New Testament material on “teaching” generally, how strong the emphasis is on the teacher providing a model of godly living for the student. We must teach, not only in the classroom, but through our lives! I knew, of course, one or two verses which mentioned this; but it surprised me when I looked a bit more closely how much material on this topic there is in the new Testament. Not only the apostle Paul, but the Lord Jesus, the apostle Peter, and the author of the letter to the Hebrews stress that we who are teachers, must be careful to live what we teach! Of course there is a general principle in the Christian life that we as believers are to imitate Christ (e.g. Rom 15:1-3, 2 Cor 8:9, Phil 2:5-11, 1 Pet 2:21, 4:1) and even God (Eph 5:1, 1 Pet 1:15-16)! These verses alone would give us good grounds for teaching by example, for this is just what the Lord Jesus did (e.g. Mk 10:45). Yet beyond these general principles of Christian life, there is a solemn charge laid upon those of us who are teachers of God’s people, that our lives must be worthy of imitation. 2. The Lord Jesus’ teaching We start with a saying of the Lord Jesus in Lk 6:39-40: “Can a blind man lead a blind man? Will they not both fall into a pit? A student is not above his teacher, but everyone who is fully trained will be like his teacher.” A frightening thought, but true! If a blind man leads another blind man, they will both be ruined. And if a teacher is not following the Lord Jesus himself, how can we expect the student to be any better? We praise God, of course, that in his mercy he does sometimes rescue students from poor teachers. But as teachers we must take this warning very seriously. If we read in Lk 6 we see the dangers that we can fall into: hypocrisy, trying to correct minor problems in our students when we have major areas of sin in our lives; ungodly talk, which reveals the true state of our hearts; lack of firm foundations in the Lord ourselves. May the Lord teach us these things clearly so that we do no prove to be a danger to others!

3. The Apostle Paul
When we turn to Paul’s writings we find again and again that he learned this lesson from the Lord Jesus very well: that his way of life was a pattern, an example, for others to follow. (a) Paul himself set an example for those he taught.

Let’s look first at 1 Thessalonians, probably one of Paul’s earliest letters. This is the way he describes his ministry in Thessalonica in 1 Thess 1:5-7: “Our gospel came to you not simply with words, but also with power, with the Holy Spirit, and with deep conviction. You know how we lived among you for your sake. You became initiators of us and of the Lord. And so you became a model to all the believers in Macedonia and Achaea.”

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From this passage we see that (i) Paul consciously chose to live his life in a certain way, for the benefit of the Thessalonians, for their sake. His life and that of his companions was a model to the Thessalonians of the gospel he was preaching. Indeed, when we look at 2 Thess 3:9 we see that Paul and his companions always had in mind the fact that the Thessalonians would observe their behaviour and imitate it. They had refused to accept financial help from the Thessalonians, and instead had worked for their own living. He says:
“We did this, not because we do not have the right to such help, but in order to make ourselves a model for you to follow.”
For Paul was prepared, even if he had no rights as an apostle, to give them up in order to set an example to others.

(ii) Secondly, if we look at the context of this imitation, we find that it expressed itself partly in the way that the believers endured severe suffering, while welcoming the gospel with the joy given by the Holy Spirit. (iii) And not only did they imitate Paul, but they in turn became a model for other believers. We might call this the “golden chain” of imitation: Paul imitates the Lord, the Thessalonians imitate Paul, others believers imitate the Thessalonians. Think of the “multiplication” factor: from Paul, to the congregation in Thessalonia, to the congregations in Greece. Think of the potential effect of our modelling on the church in our country! If we present a godly model of life to our students, which (with God’s grace) they follow, and they then present a godly model of life to the congregations they work in, then this can spread through many churches. If we behave in a godly way when in the Seminary issues of status or property are at stake, who can tell what good effects this might have in the future in the church at large? In 1 Thess 2:9-10 Paul refers to this again:
“Surely you remember, brothers, our toil and hardship; we worked night and day in order not to be a burden to anyone while we preached the gospel of God to you. You are witnesses, and so is God, of how holy, righteous and blameless we were among you who believed. For you know that we dealt with each of you as a father deals with his children, encouraging, comforting and urging you to live lives worthy of God.”

Paul says that he was like a father to them. What do we see in someone’s children? How much they resemble and imitate their parents! It is no surprise, then, when Paul says to the Thessalonians in 2 Thess 3:7 “For you yourselves know how you ought to follow our example.” Turning to other letters of Paul we find the same theme. In 1 Corinthians 4:14-17 we again find the image of the father. Paul, he says, is their “father” in Christ because through him the gospel first came to them.
“Therefore I urge you to imitate me. For this reason I am sending to you Timothy, my son whom I love, who is faithful in the Lord. He will remind you of my way of life in Christ Jesus, which agrees with what I teach everywhere in every church.”

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We may note in passing how deeply involved Paul is in imitating God, for, like God, he “sends” his “beloved son”. The Greek word agapetos, used to describe Timothy here, is the word used of the Lord Jesus at his baptism - see Mk 1:11 and parallels. What is most significant for our purposes is this: that Paul can boldly claim that his teaching and his life in Christ completely agree with each other. And this is why, I Cor 11:1, Paul can say: “Follow my example, as I follow the example of Christ.” Next in Paul’s career we come to a letter written from a Roman prison. He says in Philippians 3:17:
“Join with others in following my example, brothers, and take note of those who live according to the pattern we gave you.”

The context tells us two important things.

First, that Paul here (and in other examples we’ve seen) is not being haughty or proud, as if to say: “I’m perfect, look at me!” No! In the immediate context of Phil 3:12 he reminds his readers that he is not perfect, that he has not reached complete godliness. But he reminds them of the direction in which he is moving, the energy he is putting into reaching the goal, running the race, with the call of Jesus Christ as his goal, the prize of heaven.

(ii) Again, there are other people involved as well as Paul. Not just Paul but also his companions have given the pattern. There is one pattern, a life of serving God, but it is a pattern that they gave. We should never forget the impact that can be made, not just by individual lives, but by an example of godly community life set by a group of teachers! Finally from Paul’s letters, we have one that was probably written at the end of his life, from another prison. He says this in 2 Timothy 3:10: “You, however, know all about my teaching, my way of life, my purpose, faith, patience, love, endurance.” His teaching and his chaal challan, his way of life, are again tied up together. And so in v.14 he goes on to make this the basis of Timothy’s behaviour: “Continue in what you have learned…because you know from whom you learned it.” (b) Paul taught that teachers ought to set an example of godliness Having seen Paul’s example of godly behaviour, we ought also to listen to his teaching, as to how we should teach. When he wrote to Timothy and Titus he gave them clear principles as to how they should pastor the people in their care. In 1 Timothy 4:11-12 Paul says: “Command and teach these things. Don’t let anyone look down on you because you are young, but set an example for the believers in speech, in life, in love, in faith and in purity.” The result of this we see in vv.15-16:
“Be diligent in these matters; give yourself wholly to them, so that everyone may see your progress. Watch your life and doctrine closely. Persevere in them, because if you do, you will save both yourself and your hearers.”

For Paul both life and doctrine are essential! We need to understand the word of God correctly and have right teaching. But that teaching will be powerless if it is not reflected in our living! Paul gave the same advice to Titus, in Titus 2:7: “In everything set them an example by doing what is good. In your teaching show integrity, seriousness and soundness of speech.”

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The way we teach God’s word and the other subjects we present is also a big part of modelling godly behaviour. Do we do so frivolously, without adequate preparation, in a lazy way? This will model bad habits for our students.

3. Other New Testament writers.
We should briefly notice the teaching of two other New Testament authors.
(i) In Hebrews 13:7 the author writes to the congregation to urge them to follow the example of

their leaders: “Remember your leaders, who spoke the word of God to you. Consider the outcome of their way of life and imitate their faith.” (ii) The apostle Peter gives a stern warning to all those who teach the word of God to others, in Peter 5:2-3: “Be shepherds of God’s flock that is under your care…not lording it over those entrusted to you, but being examples to the flock.”

4. Conclusion
God’s word speaks clearly to us from all these passages, doesn’t it? Any one of them deserves detailed study and reflection. Taken together, they provide a powerful argument for living transparently godly and obedient lives, which can be modelled by our students. We are rightly concerned when we catch students copying each others’ exam papers and essays. This is difficult to stop! But we cannot stop another copying the way they will copy the lives of their teachers. They will do this whether we like it or not; this is the way God made us, so that we learn by modelling. The only question left is that raised by the simple words of the apostle John in his third letter (3 John 11): “Dear friend, do not imitate what is evil, but what is good!” Will we set a good example, or a bad? The responsibility on our shoulders as teachers is indeed a heavy one, but we rejoice that with God nothing is impossible! As we allow the Spirit of God, through the Word of God, to shape our lives in godliness, we can look forward to the Lord producing much fruit through our ministry, for his glory.

Curriculum Manual


“Towards a THEOLOGY of TRAINING METHODS” Questions raised by Dr. Robert W. Ferris in a Conference paper delivered to the South Pacific Association of Bible Colleges, Australia, in 1993.
The following questions relate to attitudes that we all have towards any form of curriculum or course development. They all need to be addressed if we are genuine in wanting an effective curriculum that “scratches where it itches”. EMPHASIS and ETHOS Priorities in Education: What order of priority should be given in Christian education to: a) attitudes? b) learning techniques? c) content? d) relationships? OPENNESS to ALTERNATIVES Learner involvement: How can opportunity be given for the learner to contribute towards the process of formulating goals? Is there room for re-formulating during the learning process? Serendipity (happy chance discoveries): How can opportunity be given for alternative avenues of enquiry, and for unplanned, fortuitous discoveries to be made? JOINT RESPONSIBILITY: SHARING, PROVIDING and BUILDING on EXPERIENCE Partnership in learning: If students and their sending churches were to be involved also in the process of curriculum planning, what knowledge, experience and emphases would possibly be brought to the task by: a) the student? b) the sending church or congregation? c) the ministry educator or curriculum designer? Field-work: How can work in the Church / Community be adequately guided and monitored? STUDENT RESPONIBILITY Critical Reflection: How can personal reflection and group analysis of what has been done in the field be fostered? Self-examination: How can students learn to examine their own previously held values, beliefs and behaviours? STUDENT OWNERSHIP Self-direction: How can students be motivated to direct their own learning and become independent of their teachers for continuing their learning? Elective courses (optional, student-chosen): How feasible are opportunities for students to take elective courses within the over-all curriculum? What constraints restrict offering elective courses? THE CURRICULUM DESIGNER’S RESPONSIBILITY Subjectivism: will the curriculum be manipulated to meet the personal values or interests of the curriculum designer? Facilitation, not dictation: How can the curriculum designer ensure that (s)he is facilitating student learning, not prescribing what the curriculum should be? SETTING GOALS and ASSESSING OUTCOMES Tyler’s four basic questions: Objectives: Methods: Curriculum: Evaluation: What are our educational goals? What learning experiences are needed to achieve these goals? How can these experiences be organised effectively? How can we evaluate how far we are achieving our goals?

Curriculum Manual



An Arabian Folk Tale THE MAKING OF FIRE Once there was a man who discovered how to make fire. The man, named Nour, traveled from one community to another teaching his discovery. Some received the knowledge gladly; others, before they could learn how valuable fire could be, drove him away thinking he must be dangerous; finally a tribe became so panicstricken by the fire that they killed him, fearing that he was a demon. Centuries passed, and a wise man and his disciples passing through the lands discovered that one tribe reserved the secret of fire for their priests, who were warm and wealthy while the people froze; another tribe had forgotten the art but worshipped its instruments and some ashes that survived; a third worshipped the image of Nour, who once made fire, but they themselves had forgotten the secret; a fourth retained the story and the method in their legends but no one believed or tried it; a fifth used the fire to cook, to give warmth, and to manufacture all kinds of useful goods, even bronze and iron. The disciples were amazed at the variety of rituals and said, “But all these procedures are in fact related to the making of fire, nothing else. We should reform these people.” The teacher

Curriculum Manual


said, “Very well, then. We shall retrace our journey. By the end of it, those who survive will know the real problems in teaching people and in how to suggest change.” So the teacher and his disciples attempted to teach as Nour had taught. They too were scorned, abused, driven away. At the end of their journey, the master said, “One must learn how to teach, for no one wants to be taught. First you must teach people that there is still something to be learned. Then you must teach them how to learn. Then you must wait until they are ready to learn. Then you will find that they learn what they imagine is to be learned, not what they really must learn. When you have learned all this, then you can devise a way to teach.” (Adapted from DavidW. Augsburger: Pastoral Counseling across Cultures, 1986)

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