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OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV

INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

Installation and use


Manual
OIL TRANSFORMER

Emiss. 10/12
Rev.00 - Pag. 1/19

OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV


INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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Rev.00 - Pag. 2/19

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................................ 3
1.1 Reference standard .................................................................................................................................. 3
1.2 Electromagnetic compatibility ................................................................................................................ 3
1.3 Marking CE ............................................................................................................................................. 3
2 GENERAL ................................................................................................................................................... 3
3 OUTLINE OF THE TRANSFORMER AND THE ACCESSORIES ......................................................... 4
4 RECEPTION, HANDLING, STORAGE .................................................................................................... 8
4.1 Reception ................................................................................................................................................. 8
4.2 Handling .................................................................................................................................................. 9
4.3 Storage ................................................................................................................................................... 11
5 INSTALLATION ....................................................................................................................................... 11
5.1 Standard installation conditions ............................................................................................................ 11
5.2 Ventilation ............................................................................................................................................. 11
5.3 Insulating distances ............................................................................................................................... 13
5.4 Earthing connections ............................................................................................................................. 13
5.5 LV and HV connections ........................................................................................................................ 13
5.6 Regulation of transformation ratio ........................................................................................................ 14
5.7 Parallel connection of transformers ....................................................................................................... 14
6 TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONS .......................................................................................................... 15
6.1 Over temperature protection .................................................................................................................. 15
6.2 Overloading and short circuit protection ............................................................................................... 15
6.3 Protection against over voltages ............................................................................................................ 15
7 COMMISSIONING ................................................................................................................................... 16
7.1 Mechanical checks before the commissioning ...................................................................................... 16
7.2 Electrical checks before the commissioning ......................................................................................... 17
7.3 Insulating fluid level.............................................................................................................................. 17
7.4 Arcing horns .......................................................................................................................................... 18
7.5 Air dryer ................................................................................................................................................ 18
7.6 Buchholz Relay ..................................................................................................................................... 18
7.7 Thermometer ......................................................................................................................................... 18
7.8 Integrated safety device ......................................................................................................................... 18
7.9 Operations for commissioning .............................................................................................................. 19

OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV


INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1

Reference standard
The oil transformer referred to the attached test report, has been designed and manufactured by TESAR
in order to meet to Italian CEI and international IEC Standards requirements in force at the moment of
its manufacturing (unless different agreement).

1.2

CEI Standards (Italian)


-

CEI EN 60076-1
CEI EN 60076-2
CEI EN 60076-3

CEI EN 60076-4

CEI EN 60076-5
CEI EN 60076-10
CEI 14-7
CEI 14-15

- Power transformer part 1 : General


- Power transformer part 2 : Temperature Rise
- Power transformer part 3 : Insulation levels, dielectric tests and
external clearances in air
- Power transformer part 4 : Guide to the lightning impulse and
switching impulse testing - Power transformers and reactors
- Power transformer part 4 : Ability to withstand short circuit
- Power transformer- part 10 determination of sound levels
- Marcatura dei terminali dei trasformatori di potenza
- Guida di carico per trasformatori immersi in olio

IEC Standards (International)


-

IEC 60076-1
IEC 60076-2
IEC 60076-3

IEC 60076-4

IEC 60076-5
IEC 60076-10

- Power transformer part 1 : General


- Power transformer part 2 : Temperature Rise
- Power transformer part 3 : Insulation levels, dielectric tests and
external clearances in air
- Power transformer part 4 : Guide to the lightning impulse and
switching impulse testing - Power transformers and reactors
- Power transformer part 4 : Ability to withstand short circuit
- Power transformer- part 10 determination of sound levels

IEC 60616

-Terminal and tapping markings for power transformers

IEC 60076-7

- Loading guide for oil-immersed power transformers

Electromagnetic compatibility
The intensity of low frequency magnetic field emitted by the windings is of a limited value and,
however, it is equal or lower than those of the field emitted by the connections and the low voltage
bars. Its value quickly decreases by increasing of the distance from the transformer.

1.3 Marking CE
TESAR does not affix the marking CE on its transformers as foreseen at paragraph 5.4.2 of the Guide
to the application of the Directive 89/336/EEC which excludes from the Directive application field:
High voltage inductor
High voltage transformer

2 GENERAL
This publication aims to guide users on the properties of power and distribution transformers insulated
with mineral, silicone or vegetable oil. Two types of transformers are considered:
- Hermetically sealed total filled (Fig. 1)
- Breathing with conservator (Fig. 2)

OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV


INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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3 OUTLINE OF THE TRANSFORMER AND THE ACCESSORIES

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

Hermetically sealed total filled transformer

Breathing with conservator transformer

OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV


INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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Standard components and accessories:


a. Rating plate (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4)
b. HV porcelain bushing (Fig. 4)
c. LV porcelain bushing (Fig. 4)
d. Off-load tap-changer (Fig. 4)
e. N2 earthing terminals (Fig. 4)
f. Tow attachment (Fig. 4)
g. Lifting eyes (Fig. 4)
h. Truck with rollers for lengthways or sideway travel (Fig. 4)
i. Thermometer pocket (Fig. 4)
j. Drain valve(Fig. 4)
k. Arcing horns on HV porcelain bushing, for transformer without HV cable box (Fig. 4)
l. Air dehydrating breathers, for breathing transformer (Fig. 4)
m. Oil level indicator, for breathing transformer (Fig. 4)
Optional components and accessories:
I. Plug-in HV terminals (Fig. 5)
II. Thermometer, to install on the thermometer pocket (Fig. 5)
III. RIS or equivalent for hermetically sealed transformer (Fig. 5)
IV. Buchholz Relay for breathing transformer (Fig. 5)
V. Safety valve (Fig. 5)
VI. PT100 thermo-resistance (to install in the thermometer pocket) (Fig. 5)
VII. HV and/or LV cable boxes (Fig. 5)

Fig. 3

Rating plate

OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV


INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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k
g
i

f
b
c
d
a

j
e

Fig. 4

Standard components and accessories

OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV


INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

I Plug-in for HV terminals

II Thermometer

IV - Buchholz Relay
(for breathing transformer)

Rev.00 - Pag. 7/19

III RIS or equivalent


(for hermetically sealed transformer)

V - Safety valve

VII - HV and/or LV cable boxes


Fig. 5

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Optional components and accessories

VI - PT100 thermo-resistance

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INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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4 RECEPTION, HANDLING, STORAGE


4.1 Reception
The transformer is generally supplied totally assembled and ready to be connected to the medium and
low voltage line.
According to the specification, the transformer is shipped with a polythene protection, or packed into
wooden cage, for protection against dust and little shocks, or finally packed into a wooden case for
over-sea shipments.
On receipt of the transformer, both at the client's plants or at site, it is necessary to carry out the
following checks:
Check there are no signs of damage on the packing or on the transformer occurred during the
transport.
The characteristics of the transformer detailed on the rating plate must correspond to those of the
shipping documents and with those of the test report, which is attached to the transformer.
Check each transformer is complete with the accessories foreseen in the contract (wheels, bushing,
etc.).
IMPORTANT: In case any anomalies are found, please contact immediately the manufacturer.
If within 5 days there will be no notification of anomalies or defects, it can be considered that the
transformer has been delivered in perfect conditions. The manufacturer, therefore, cannot be
considered responsible neither for what could happen to the transformer during service nor for
the eventual consequences.

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4.2 Handling
During the transport or the handling, it is recommended to use only the special lifting eyes and tow
attachments (see g and f letter in the Fig. 4).
IMPORTANT: The transformer cannot be moved pushing the cooling fins or radiators or tank.
Ropes must be arranged so as not to interfere with the radiators or cooling fins.
Lifting can be made using the appropriate hooks remembering to use ropes long enough so that H is
never less than L (Fig. 6). Always use all the existing hooks and not only one of them.

Fig. 6

Lifting transformer

OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV


INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

Example of handling

Fig. 7

Handling by means of bridge crane and forklift truck

Fig. 8

Manual handling

Fig. 9

Wrong handling

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OIL TRANSFORMER HV/LV

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INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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4.3 Storage
4.3.1 Transformer for indoor installation
The transformer must be stored in a sheltered, clean and dry ambient maintaining the packing up to the
installation.

4.3.2 Transformer for outdoor installation


The transformer may be stored outdoor until the installation time.

IMPORTANT: The storage temperature must not be lower than -25C.

5 INSTALLATION
5.1 Standard installation conditions
The maximum height of installation must not exceed 1000 m above sea level.
When the transformer is in service, the ambient temperature of the room must be within the following
limits:
Minimum temperature:
-25C
Yearly average temperature:
+20C
Monthly average temperature:
+30C
Maximum temperature:
+ 40C
In case the height of the place of installation and/or the ambient temperature values are higher
than the ones specified above, it is necessary to specify it at the ordering stage since a particular
dimensioning of the transformer depends upon these values.

5.2 Ventilation
The electric current passing through the windings, and the effect of the core magnetising current
produce electrical losses resulting in localised heating of the windings and core.
The transformer is designed in such a way that natural cooling maintains the transformer temperature
under the maximum values foreseen by the standards.
In order to avoid temperature accumulation in the room where the transformer is installed, it is
necessary to provide suitable ventilation.
Each TESAR transformer is equipped with a thermometer pocket where a thermometer with contacts
may be installed (optional accessory).
The suggested values for setting the contacts are following (oil temperature):
Description

Alarm C

Trip C

Oil

90C

100C

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Dimensioning of air louvers


Natural cooling
In the room where the transformer is installed, it is necessary to install air louvers sufficient to
dissipate the heat generated by transformer during service, in order to guarantee the standard
service conditions and to prevent exceed the over temperature limits of the transformer.
Therefore the room must be provided with a louver on the lower part S, in order to guarantee an
appropriate fresh air flow; and a louver S on the upper part of the opposite wall, in order to extract
the hot air (see Fig. 10).
To calculate the surface of the louvers for air incoming and outgoing, for a nominal annual ambient
temperature of 20C, the following formula may be used:

S 0.188

P
H

S ' 1.10 S

where:
P = Sum of the transformer no-load losses and the load losses at 120C [kW]
(if the losses are at 75C, they must be multiply for 1.15)
S = Surface of the incoming louver [m2]
S = Surface of the outgoing louver [m2]
H = Height between the two louvers [m]

Fig. 10 Natural cooling

In order not to obstruct cooling is necessary that the transformer is installed at a distance not less
than 30 cm from the walls and not less than 60 cm from other transformers.

Forced cooling
Forced cooling is necessary in the following cases:
Frequent overloading
Low-dimensioned room
Room scarcely ventilated
Medium daily temperature higher than 30C.
The forced cooling can be realized by means of installation of air extractor located in the upper
part of the room controlled by a suitable thermostat or directly by a transformer thermal protection
relay, with a suggested flow of approx. 3,54 m3/min for each kW of total losses at 120 C (if the
losses are at 75C, they must be multiplied by 1.15).

ATTENTION: an insufficient air circulation, besides reducing the nominal life of the
transformer, causes over heating which, in the worst cases, can determine the intervention of the
thermal protection relay.

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INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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Rev.00 - Pag. 13/19

5.3 Insulating distances


The transformer supplied for service without HV/LV cable-box (IP00) must be installed in the room
respecting the insulating distances specified in the national standard (in Italy, CEI 11-1).
The transformer, also with plug-in bushing, must be protected against direct contacts.

5.4 Earthing connections


Tesar is not responsible for the transformer installation.
The installation must be carried out according to the standards in force, to the applicable laws and to
the present instructions.
The following points must be taken into consideration when the installation is carried out:
connect the earthing conductors to the relative earth points on the metallic parts of the transformer
and cable boxes.
connect the low voltage neutral to earth when required or when required by the protection system
to earth.

5.5 LV and HV connections


Execution without cable boxes (IP00)
The cables and the bus bars which are connected to the transformer must be duly fixed to avoid any
mechanical stress on the LV and HV transformer terminals.
Both upper and bottom cable connections can be performed, being sure, however, to respect the
configuration showed in the drawings. In case the connections arrive from the bottom please ensure
that there is sufficient depth for the bending of the cables.
Execution with cable boxes
The cables and/or the bus bars which are connected to the transformer must enter in the cable boxes
only through suitable flanges specified at the ordering stage.
In any case the cables and/or the bus bars must be duly fixed outside the cable boxes to avoid any
mechanical stress on the LV and HV terminals of the transformer and also on the cable boxes. After
the installation please check the correct degree of protection is maintained near the passageway of the
cables and/or the bus bars.
HV cable box: cables coming only from the bottom
LV cable box: cables coming from the bottom or from the top

Fig. 11 Cables coming from the bottom (left) and from the top (right)

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5.6 Regulation of transformation ratio


The variation of the primary voltage is obtained by changing the position of the voltage off-load tapchanger located on the cover of the tank. Ensure always that the position of the tap-changer is properly
inserted and not in an intermediate position.
In case the primary voltage of the system does not correspond exactly to the voltage of the central tap,
it is necessary to modify the position of the tap duly positioning it on one of the other taps in order that
the secondary obtained is the no-load voltage shown on the rating plate.
Note: At the time of shipping, the position of the voltage off-load tap-changer are located on the
central tap.
In case of transformers with double ratio, please be sure that the position corresponding to the voltage
of the system feeding the transformer is properly connected.
Note: At the time of shipping, the position of the voltage off-load tap-changer are connected on
the position of the higher primary voltage.

Important
A) In case of transformers with double ratio, please be sure the tap corresponding to
voltage of the system feeding the transformer it-self, is duly connected.
B) In case the position of the tap-changer has to be changed after the transformer has
been put into service the first time, it is recommended to put the transformer out of
service and to connect to ground the LV and HV circuits before approaching the
transformer.
5.7 Parallel connection of transformers
If the transformer must be connected in parallel with other transformers, please verify the total
compatibility of the voltage ratio and of the conditions stated by the IEC 60076-1 standards, and
particularly:

Identical voltage ratio


Identical frequency of functioning
Identical vector group
Identical short circuit voltage (Tolerance 10%)
The rated power (kVA) of the biggest transformer should not be larger than twice the smallest
transformer
The LV connections must be the same length from the LV terminals (of two different units) to the
switch junction.

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6 TRANSFORMER PROTECTIONS
6.1 Over temperature protection
The protection can be realized with:
- thermometer (optional accessories)
- RIS or equivalent equipment (optional accessories for hermetically sealed transformer)
The thermometer is generally installed in the thermometric pocket on the cover of the tank.
The thermometer may be equipped with two settable contacts, one for alarm, the other for trip.
The suggested values are written at paragraph 5.2.

The integrated safety device for hermetically sealed transformer (RIS or equivalent) provides:
- two settable contacts for temperature, one for alarm and the other for trip. The suggested values
are written at paragraph 5.2.
- one settable trip contact for pressure (The suggested value is 0.3 bar)
- one trip contact for oil level

6.2 Overloading and short circuit protection


According to the parameters of the standards shown at point 1.1, the transformer is designed and
manufactured in such a way to withstand limited abnormal situation of over-voltages, overloading and
short circuit. Therefore, the transformer must be protected against thermal and dynamic effects caused
by continuous overloading and secondary short circuits by means of an automatic switch or suitable
fuses, able to disconnect the transformer in case of current flow higher than the one fixed by the
protection.
The protections setting and/or the choice of fuses HV and LV side, must be carried out taking into
consideration the primary and secondary rated currents stated in the transformer rating plate, taking
also into consideration that when we feed the transformer, a very high magnetizing current is
established on the primary, by means of variable starting from a minimum of 10 times the rated
current (in the worst conditions of insertion depending from the instant when the feeding circuit is
closed, from the electric characteristics of the feeding network, from the reactance and resistance
values of the circuit network-transformer, the insertion current can reach also 20 times the rated
current), even if the automatic switch located on the secondary is open and therefore without loading.
Therefore, it is necessary to duly set the relay of maximum current HV side, in current and time value,
by introducing a little delay (approx. some tens of ms), in such a way that the protection relay will not
operate. Furthermore, we suggest limiting the number of connections and disconnection of the
transformer on the network.

6.3 Protection against over voltages


In order to protect the transformers against over-voltages at industrial frequencies or the ones due to
atmospheric origin, it is recommended that voltage surge arrester with variable resistance are used.
The characteristics of the surge arresters depend on the transformer insulation level and from the
characteristics of the distribution system line.
It is recommended to install the surge arresters when the transformer is connected, directly or through
a short cable, to the main networks.

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INSTALLATION AND USE MANUAL

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7 COMMISSIONING
7.1 Mechanical checks before the commissioning
Check the earth connections
Check of the insulating distance of the parts under voltage towards ground as shown at paragraph
5.3
Check the tightening of HV and LV terminals applying the following values of the tightening
torque.
Bushing
On the central conductor LV/HV in copper or brass
Bolts
Torque N*m

M8 M12 M20 M30x2 M42x3 M48x3 M55x3 M75x3


10
13
30
70
110
180
250
250

On the fixing stud screw HV insulators


Bolts
Torque N*m

M10 M12 M16


15
25
40

On the pinch bolts connecting flags


Bolts
Torque N*m

M10 M12 M16


25
40
90

Mechanical parts
Bolts

M8

M10

M12

M14

M16

M18

M20

M22

Torque N*m

20

45

75

125

190

275

385

530

With torque wrench set in kgm, divide the values by 10

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7.2 Electrical checks before the commissioning


Verify that the position of the tap-changer is inserted correctly. In case of double primary
voltages, please check the feed to the transformer correspond to the correct position.
Check the correct functioning of the switches located as protection of the transformer on
HV and LV side.
Check the correct setting and functioning of the overloading and short-circuit protection
relay.
Check the correct setting and functioning of the over-temperature protection relay and of
the thermometer.
Check the functioning of the fans.
Check the general conditions of the transformer and proceed with the measurement of the
insulating resistance by means of a Megger at 2500 V.
This measurement must be carried out with HV and LV terminals disconnected from
the equipment, it means before connecting the cables and/or the bus bars.
The values of the measured resistances must be approx. the following:
HV terminals / LV terminals grounded
20 M
LV terminals / HV terminals grounded
10 M
HV terminals - LV terminals / ground terminal
10 M
In case the measured values are lower, please contact our after sale service.
ATTENTION: In case a transformer is put into service after a long storage period, or
after a long de-energised period, it will be necessary:
1) clean the HV/LV bushings from eventual dust and condensation by means of dry
compressed air jets and dry cloth.
2) if the transformer has been held in stock far more than six months in normal climates
or far more than a month in damp climates, check the dielectric strength of the
insulating oil. Using the procedure established by the IEC standard to check the
dielectric strength of the insulating oil, if the test is negative proceed to dry the
dielectric oil of the transformer, otherwise contact Tesar.
It is recommended, finally, to carry out always a visual check of the transformer in order
to verify any unlikely presence on the surface the cooling ducts
7.3 Insulating fluid level
Check that the reading on the level indicator approximately correspond to ambient temperature
(transformer with conservator or RIS for hermetically sealed). If the insulating fluid needs to be
topped up, only fluid with the same characteristic and not containing PCBs must be used and with the
required dielectric strength.
The oil transformer must be topped up according to the manufactersinstruction.

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7.4 Arcing horns


If the transformer is equipped with arcing horns, check that the position of the spark gap rods mounted
on HV porcelain bushings corresponds to the insulation class, as shown in the following chart.
Insulation Class
[kV]

A
[mm]

B
[mm]

12

15

70

17.5

15

90

24

15

100

36

15

200

Fig. 12

Arcing horns

7.5 Air dryer


If the transformer is equipped with air dryer (transformer with conservator), check that the salts of
silicagel are orange. If they are neutral colour, they have already picked up moisture and do not fulfil
their function as dehydrating air. It is necessary to remove the salts and regenerate the dryer by placing
them in an oven at 150C until they are come back to orange colour.

7.6 Buchholz Relay


If the transformer is equipped with Buchholz relay (transformer with conservator) to avoid
unnecessary activation, proceed carefully with the leaking operation of the relay, acting on the taps
(see instruction relay). If during commissioning or in the first hours of the energization the Buchholz
relay should signal the formation of gas, in small quantities, first to believe that there is a fault in the
transformer and repeat the leaking operation.

7.7 Thermometer
If the transformer is equipped with the thermometer check the threshold of the alarm and trip are set at
the operating conditions. The setting temperature are provided to the manufacturers in according to
transformer type and the insulation class.

7.8 Integrated safety device


If the transformer is equipped with the integrated safety device (RIS or equivalent) check the setting
of the alarm and trip of the thermometer and the values of pressure shown are matched to operating
conditions. For more additional information, consult the operating manual supplied with the integrated
security device, you must be careful not to change the orientation fixing RIS or equivalent (the exact
position should be required before delivery).

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7.9 Operations for commissioning


Closing of HV switch
When the switch is closed the transformer gives out a sharp noise, which decreases in few ms
until it stabilises.
Check of secondary voltages
Before closing the low voltage switch or make additional checks for parallel operation with
other transformers, it is necessary:
Check by means of a voltmeter the proper value between each two phases and of the three
wye-connected voltage.
Check the proper phases displacement and the correct vector group.
In case the values correspond to those stated in the rating plate, it is possible to proceed and
complete the commissioning or to carry out the checks for the parallel service.
Run in parallel service with other transformer
In case the transformer has to run in parallel with another, it is also necessary:
Check the compatibility of the rating plates of both transformers
Verify the concordance of the phases by measuring the voltage between the phase "one" of
the transformer already in service and the phase "one" of the transformer to be connected
in parallel by means of a voltmeter. The value of this result must be zero. Continue in
the same way for phase 2 and phase 3
Closing of LV switch
Complete the commissioning of the transformer closing the LV switch.

IMPORTANT
We remind you that qualified technical personnel must carry out the operation,
commissioning and energization. Furthermore, during the voltage measurements and the
phase displacement checks on the upper terminals of the LV switches, you are
recommended to use suitable instruments and suitable insulating gauntlets.

For more accurate and complete checks, please contact our Assistance Service

Phone
Fax
E-Mail

(+39)-0575.317.1
(+39)-0575.317.201
info@tesar.eu