Introduction Law has jurisdiction over Science.

Galileo and Scopes trials are two most famous cases where Law decided what is science and what is not. Today, Science, or what goes as Science, is under the jurisdiction of Doctors of Philosophy. As unregulated professionals Doctors corrupted Science and turned it into a collection of career enhancing absurd speculations. To reinstate Science Doctors must be regulated. This case is the first in a series of landmark cases and highlights the fact that Modern physics is founded on the original sin of its founding father, Isaac Newton. Newton stole Kepler’s discovery and made it the foundation of Newtonian physics. In this case J. Kepler, a German astronomer, is suing I. Newton, the patriarch of the House of Newton, on the grounds that Newton stole a law discovered by Kepler and marketed it as Newton’s law. Analysis This case is a tough one for Kepler’s attorney. Even though the historical facts firmly support Kepler’s claim of priority, Newton is infinitely more famous than Kepler. As the internationally recognized symbol of genius Newton possesses an immutable authority. Newton projects his authority with authority and confidence and appears immune to any kind of accusation however true. Newton is also favored by the media. Newton is associated with beautiful and well known symbols from apple to iconic images portraying him as a scientific hero. The media loves to create and display Newtonian graphics. It seems that Newton is supported by an invisible giant marketing department. Kepler appears to have no marketing support. It is even hard to find a flattering portrait of Kepler. Under these circumstances the jury may be awed by Newton’s mythical image and give him the benefit of the doubt and uphold the status quo. Kepler’s attorney is disciplined and he methodically presents historical facts to prove Newton’s theft. Newton always aspired to be a lawyer and spent a good part of his career as a prosecutor in the London Mint. He chose to represent himself in this trial. Below is the transcript of the cross-examination of Newton conducted by Kepler’s attorney as recorded by the court clerk in the famous landmark trial in Manhattan in the Southern District of New York. The Transcript of Newton’s cross-examination

Kepler’s Attorney: Mr. Newton do you have any evidence proving that you discovered the law of universal gravitation while sitting under an apple tree and observing that the force which makes an apple fall on earth is also the same force which holds the moon in orbit? Newton: Yes. It is all written in my book, which is universally known as Newton’s Principia. This happens to be the greatest scientific book ever written by a human being. KA: Thank you for being so humble Mr. Newton. We all know that you are a demi-god not a mere human. You told us yourself in the hagiographic doggerel you placed in the opening pages of the book popularly known as Newton’s Principia. Do you have, Sir, a material evidence to offer to the court that you discovered what today the physicists call Newton’s Universal Law of Gravity in your orchard? This court does not accept hearsay as evidence. N: [Angry] No one dares lecturing Sir Isaac Newton on what is evidence and what is not! I discovered this law of nature while I was reading in my orchard on a beautiful day. KA: How lucky Sir. Lincolnshire is notorious for its inclement weather favoring a dreary gray over beautiful sun, does it not, Sir? N: Indeed so. KA: What book were you reading Mr. Newton on this exceptionally beautiful day? N: I was reading a book called Astronomia Carolina by Mr. Thomas Streete. [Condescending] Do you happen to be familiar with this book? KA: Indeed, Sir. Is this not the book in which you read for the first time what is known today as Kepler’s Third Law? N: [Surprised. But doesn’t let it show.] I never heard of a Kepler’s third law. KA: Sir, you have been spending too much of your time in London Mint sending counterfeiters of the British currency to the gallows and not enough time with your scientific work. It may have slipped your memory that Streete’s Astronomia Carolina was the book in which you saw for the first time Kepler’s third law. Could you please tell us what that law says. N: That was no law when I read it. Kepler got lucky. One day when he was visiting Tycho Brahe he saw some observations of Mars made by Brahe spread on a table and noted that Mars moved according to a simple proportionality. KA: Your Honor, for the record. Mr. Kepler, whom I have the honor to represent, is a great astronomer and spent about 30 years poring over Brahe’s observations to discover the correct law of how Mars moved.

Judge: More likely, no more than ten years, correct the records. KA: I stand corrected, Your Honor. Nevertheless, Mr. Kepler did not just stumble on his famous law. He dedicated 10 years of his life making tedious orbital calculations in the absence of computers that we take for granted today. On the other hand it took Mr. Newton 10 seconds to steal Kepler’s life’s work ... N: I object! KA: ... what did Kepler’s law say Mr. Newton? N: Kepler’s law my wig! At best, I would say that Kepler discovered Newton’s law but he did not realize the importance of what he discovered. I made it into a law. Read Newton’s Principia Proposition 8 of Book III to see how I used Newton’s law to calculate astronomical motions of planets. KA: I am familiar with this argument Mr. Newton. In Newton’s Principia you used it to argue that Galileo discovered Newton’s law of free fall and Huygens discovered Newton’s third law, and of course, Leibniz stumbled upon Newton’s Calculus and then he dared claim credit for it. You even went as far back as Thales and claimed that Thales was the first Newtonian and through him you made the first ever prediction of a solar eclipse. Is it not true Sir that Isaac Newton made all past and future discoveries from the beginning to end of times? N: Correct. Read Newton’s Principia especially proposition 8 of Book III. KA: I have read that Proposition Sir. In that proposition you used Kepler’s third law to compute Jupiter’s motion. Correct? N: Not correct. Isaac Newton does not use other people’s discoveries. Other people have not made any discoveries. How can Isaac Newton use other people’s discoveries if Isaac Newton made all discoveries. In Newton’s Principia I used Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation to compute Jupiter’s motion and then I extrapolated that conclusion scientifically to the entire Universe. KA: Mr. Newton, I went through Isaac Newton’s Principia word by word and never encountered the phrase “Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation.” This phrase does not exist in Newton’s Principia. In fact, it was invented in the nineteenth century by your dedicated British disciples. How could you have used it in your book? N: I used the essence of the law which I discovered. I did not use any law discovered by what’s his name... KA: Mr. Kepler.

N: Yes. Kepler. That minor German astronomer more famous as a court astrologer than a serious astronomer. KA: We’ll let the jury decide which law you used. What was that simple proportionality discovered by Kepler that you stumbled upon in Streete’s book, Sir? N: I will explain this in a way a dimwit such as yourself could understand: as the distance from the center increases the speed of the planet in its orbit decreases as the power of 1.5. KA: Thank you Sir Isaac for this brief and to the point explanation, the court is grateful to you. When you read this law you were not sure if it worked. Correct? N: Not correct! Of course, I knew it worked. I discovered it. KA: Sir, please let me remind you that you are under oath. According to the laws of the United States you have to tell the court the truth and nothing but the truth. Otherwise you would perjure yourself. Your Honor, we like to present the court Exhibit A. This is the book called Astronomia Carolina written by Mr. Thomas Streete. This copy actually belonged to Mr. Newton. You see that Mr. Newton made some calculations on the margin to verify Streete’s calculations. Judge: This only proves that as a good scientist Sir Isaac was verifying Streete’s computations. KA: This is correct, Your Honor. We are showing that Mr. Newton did not know about this law when he read Streete’s book. Now, let me present Exhibit B. Here’s the note written by Mr. Newton to the Astronomer Royal asking him if it was indeed true that this mysterious 1.5 law was true. Did you, Mr. Newton, or did you not, send this note? N: I don’t remember. KA: The handwriting is Mr. Newton’s and this is verified by world class Newton scholars. Is this your handwriting Sir? N: I’ll take the Fifth on this. KA: I see you have already made yourself familiar with the popular Court Dramas on American TV. Your Honor, according to the historical record, the Defendant read the law of 1.5 in Streete’s book, made some calculations on the margin, and sent a note to the astronomer royal asking if this law worked. What was the response of the Astronomer Royal? N: I don’t remember. KA: Your Honor, here’s Exhibit C. This is the reply the Astronomer Royal sent to Mr. Newton. It clearly states Astronomer Royal’s conviction that Kepler’s discovery is indeed

valid and explains well the motions of Jupiter’s satellites. Upon this verification, Mr. Newton stole Kepler’s discovery of 1.5 law. To hide his theft, Mr. Newton divided Kepler’s law into two separate proportionalities and presented them in his book as Newton’s laws. This is the greatest plagiarism in the history of science. Newton’s crime against science is explained in detail in our Exhibit D. N: Spare me the details of your Exhibit D. This is a lie. I was sitting under an apple tree on my backyard on a beautiful day and I made the scientific observation that ripe apples fall and then I looked at the moon and I said, “Gosh, the Newtonian force that makes the apple fall in my orchard must also hold the moon in its orbit.” I went inside, sharpened by quill pen and made some calculations and found that it all worked out “more or less.” This is my famous Moon Test. KA: Mr. Newton, in this Court you have to offer material proof that you made this discovery in your orchard. The only proof you offer is your own words. Even Jesus refrained from being his own witness. You are the only source of this myth about your alleged discovery of a universal law in your orchard. N: Sir Isaac Newton’s words are not to be doubted by any one let alone a mere attorney! KA: It is indeed true that you made a discovery in your orchard on a beautiful day. What you discovered was Kepler’s law in Streete’s book. You did not discover a new law of nature. Your discovery consists of stumbling upon Kepler’s law in Streete’s book. What fell in your lap that day was not an apple but Kepler’s law. The fact is that you did not know about Kepler’s law when you read it, and once you read it, you stole it. Your theft of Kepler’s law is not a myth but a historical truth revealed by the paper trail you left behind. N: My story is not a myth. It is the truth. KA: You have no valid proof for it. N: I object. KA: Your famous so-called Moon Test is nothing more than a simple application of Kepler’s law of 1.5. Is it not? N: [Growling] I used Newton’s universal law of gravity to make those calculations. KA: No. You used Kepler’s law of 1.5. You did not know about this law before you read about it in Streete’s book. When you read it you liked it and you stole it. Judge: You already said that. KA: Your Honor, it bears repeating that Newton’s theft of Kepler’s law is the greatest intellectual highway robbery in the history of humanity.

N: Circumstantial! Judge: Proceed. KA: Yes Sir! Newton must pay up. He stole Kepler’s intellectual property. Newton stole Kepler’s 1.5 law and presented it to the world as Newton’s law. N: This is a lie. This court is not just and has no jurisdiction over this case. I want this case to be tried in Royal Society of London. Only that great society can give me a fair and just trial. I can prove under the roof of that distinguished society that I did not plagiarize Kepler. He was a minor Continental astronomer while I am the great Isaac Newton, Royal Subject, and the great discoverer of Universal Truths which I donate to humanity. KA: Sir, you are the Chair of the Royal Society of London. It would only take you to form a committee to investigate this matter. This committee will gladly find you innocent of all plagiarism. This is what you did in your dispute of plagiarism brought against you by Leibniz... N: I object! KA: ... In fact, you are distinguished as the only scientist in the history of humankind against whom so many plagiarism suits have been filed. N: I object! KA: There is no other scientist in the entire history who was involved in so many accusations of plagiarism. Had you been practicing science today you would be disgraced and fired. N: Unjustified supposition! Newton will not be redundant, never, ever. KA: You are also distinguished by the fact that all of these cases were dismissed and you were found to be innocent. In all of them, the investigators were handpicked by you from your Royal Society chaps whom you yourself handpicked to be chaps of Royal Society. In the United States this is considered a conflict of interest and no court will grant your wish to be tried by your Royal Society cronies, Sir! N: What is a conflict of interest? Judge: Sir Isaac, I advise you to get a lawyer, and a good one. Otherwise your entire scientific reputation will be put to shreds by the plaintiffs. They are very well prepared for this case. The court is adjourned until Sir Isaac hires a heavyweight New York trial attorney to make this case a bit more interesting and draw better media attention.