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Information Search and Analysis Skill

Master Mind Series

THE FAILURE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


IN FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER

By:
Batch 13

Irfan Irawan : R053012300790


Maria Oudrina : R053012300673
Nino Zulfrianto : R053012300602

IT EDUCATION & TRAINING

International Professional Program


In Information Technology NIIT & Telkom Centre
September 2007
NIIT & TELKOM CENTRE
Information Search and Analysis Skill
Master Mind Series

THE FAILURE OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE


IN FIFTH GENERATION COMPUTER

By:
Batch 13

Irfan Irawan : R053012300790


Maria Oudrina : R053012300673
Nino Zulfrianto : R053012300602

The Supervisor certifies that this ISAS documentation complies with


NIIT & Telkom center’s regulation and meets the accepted standard
For quarter 1

Bandung, September 21, 2007


Approved,

Faculty Evaluator

Siska Komalasari Christianto Triwibisono, Ir., MM


ABSTRACT
Fifth Generation Computer System(FGCS) was an initiative by Japan's
Ministry of International Trade and Industry, begin in 1982, to create a "fifth
generation computer was supposed to perform much calculation utilizing massive
parallelism. It planed to create an "epoch-making computer" with supercomputer
like performance and usable Artificial Intelligence (AI) capabilities.

Basically, in computer fifth generation locates in system operation that


used by computer is different. This generation tends to artificial intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) means one of the simple ways to make


computer can “think” with good intelligence. Other words AI means preparation
of the system that retires human characteristics, as like understands languages
learn and solve the problem.

As like human thinking, artificial intelligence has a weakness. So that,


artificial intelligence be failed in fifth generation computer project. One of the
causes is AI researcher has been trying unsuccessfully to get around the need for
common sense knowledge. So the effect is that building such systems amounts to
"solving AI" too difficult to get.

The basis of all success and failure is a simple one; any field that we
actually understand, we can reproduce in computers. If we can identify what a
"good chess move" is, then a computer can produce it.
PREFACE

All worship and praise always duo to Allah SWT the AL Mighty god
who always giving the guidance till we as the writer team can do the duty as good
as possible, namely ISAS task for completing documentation complies with
NIIT & Telkom center’s regulation and meets the accepted standard
for quarter 1.
In this working paper, we tray to discus several point about fifth
generation computer especially the usage of AI (Artificial Intelligence), is there
something wrong inside?
During the time we make this duty, team writer get many advices from
various side. So let we say thank you very much especially to Mrs. Siska
Komalasari, as the Faculty batch 13 and all side are involved in processing to
make this working paper.
Hopefully, the built criticism and advice from reader to improve this
working paper in the next period. Eventually, writer team say thank and hope this
working paper can be used for our self moreover reader.

Bandung 16, September 2007

Team Writer
TABLE CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ........................................................................................
TABLE OF CONTENTS .....................................................................
PREFACE ...........................................................................................
CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ..........................................................
1.1 Background ..................................................................
1.2 Problem Formulation ....................................................
1.3 Purposes .......................................................................
1.4 Benefit ..........................................................................
1.5 Problem Boundaries ......................................................
1.6 Writing Systematic .......................................................
1.7 Time Schedule………………………………………….
CHAPTER 2 CONTENT .....................................................................
2.1 History of Fifth Generation Computer System .............
2.2 Fifth Generation Computer Systems project…………..
2.3 Definition of an Artificial Intelligence ………………..
2.4 The Purpose or Direction (AI) Made ...........................
2.5 Why AI Failed? ...........................................................
2.6 The Failure of AI .........................................................
2.7 Artificial Intelligence Programming ..............................
CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS ....................................................................
3.1 Essential information of (AI)
in fifth generation computer ..........................................
CHAPTER 4 CLOSING ......................................................................
4.1 Conclusions ...................................................................................
4.2 Suggestions ....................................................................................
BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background
Nowadays technology is the popular thing in our life, we can see almost
100% everything that we do invite technology inside. Example, computer with
computer we can execute many things, start from writing, making program and so
on.
Computer generation nowadays has many modifications, start from first
generation until now in global era we know fifth computer generation. Basically,
in computer fifth generation locates in system operation that used by computer. If
we explain in completes explanation will take long time, so in this time we will
try explain at glance. The most different thing in fifth generation is about artificial
intelligence, what is it? Among of people may be does not know at all about it.
They think artificial intelligence belongs to human only. In fact this capability
belongs to computer also, how can it be? So that way, we think in this working
paper these problems need to explore.

1.2 Problem Formulation

 How to know the artificial intelligence in fifth generation computer


and the problems inside?

1.3 Purpose

To know the artificial intelligence in fifth generation computer and to


know the problems that everyone does not understand yet.
1.4 Benefit

We will get many benefit purpose of it; not only for the author but also for
the reader let we explain it.

 For the writer :


 We have the good chance to learn more about newest
information technology
 Give us new knowledge, especially about artificial
intelligence problems
 For the reader :
 Open the eyes and give the choices which kinds of
computer we need
 Give the information that nowadays IT is not only about
managing file and save data but also solving many
problems surrounding fifth generation computer.

1.5 Problem boundaries

In this working paper, we just explain a part of failure in artificial


intelligence in fifth computer generation.

1.6 Writing Systematic

I n this part we will explain about:


Chapter 1 Introduction, consist of the reason why
we choose this topic and we call general purpose
arrangement.
Chapter 2 Contents, consist of the explanation the
artificial Intelligence and sharpen
discussion to get the target
Chapter 3 Analysis, consist of the analysis the problem and
solve it according to valid data support.

Chapter 4 Closing, consists of conclusion and suggestion.

1.7 Time schedule

Time schedule
No Activities 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
/9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9 /9
1 Looking for data
2 Make formatting
3 Consultation with faculty
4 Make a revision
5 Process of printing
6 Presentation
CHAPTER 2
CONTENTS

2.1 History of Fifth Generation Computer System (FGCS)

This story started in 1982; the FGCS project begins and receives
$450,000,000 worth of industry funding and an equal amount of government
funding.

In 1985, the first FGCS hardware known as the Personal Sequential


Inference Machine (PSI) and the first version of the Sequential Inference Machine
Programming Operating System (SIMPOS) operating system is released.
SIMPOS is programmed in Kernel Language 0 (KL0), a concurrent prolog-variant
with object oriented extensions.

In 1987, a prototype of a truly parallel hardware called the Parallel


Inference Machine (PIM) is built using several PSI: is connected in a network.
The project receives funding for 5 more years. A new version of the kernel
language Kernel Language 1 (KL1) which looks very similar to "Flat GDC" (Flat
Guarded Definite Clauses) is created, influenced by developments in prolog. The
operating system written in KL1 is renamed Parallel Inference Machine Operating
System or PIMOS.

In 1991, the first Parallel Inference Machine that actually works is


produced.

In 1993, the FGCS program is cancelled/ ended. The source code for
PIMOS is made public domain, but since it can only run on the PIM-machine,
some additional funding is given to produce an emulator for UNIX named KL1 to
C compiler (KLIC).
2.2 Fifth Generation Computer Systems project

FGCS was an initiative by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and


Industry, begin in 1982, to create a "fifth generation computer was supposed to
perform much calculation utilizing massive parallelism. It was to be the end result
of a massive government/industry research project in Japan during the 1980s. It
planed to create an "epoch-making computer" with supercomputer like
performance and usable Artificial Intelligence capabilities.

The term fifth generation was intended to convey the system as being a
leap beyond existing machines. Computers using vacuum tubes were called the
first generation; transistors and diodes, the second; ICs, the third; and those using
microprocessors, the fourth. Whereas previous computer generations had focused
on increasing the number of logic elements in a single CPU, the fifth generation, it
was widely believed at the time, would instead turn to massive numbers of CPUs
for added performance.

Opinions about its outcome are divided: Either it was a complete disaster,
or it was ahead of its time.

2.3 Definition of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

Artificial Intelligence (AI) means one of the simple ways to make


computer can “think” with good intelligence. Other words AI means preparation
of the system that retires human characteristics, as like understands languages
learn and solve the problem. All of these meanings have dead line, how to make
computer solving many problems in real condition.

The modern definition of artificial intelligence (AI) is "the study and


design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives
its environment and takes actions which maximizes its chances of success. John
McCarthy, who coined the term in 1956, defines it as "the science and engineering
of making intelligent machines.” Other names for the field have been proposed,
such as computational intelligence, synthetic intelligence or computational
rationality. The term artificial intelligence is also used to describe a property of
machines or programs: the intelligence that the system demonstrates.

The basis of all of the confusion is that the question is not a scientific one,
but a philosophical question. Whether it can be emulated or not can only be a
product of research in those areas. The goal of "Artificial Intelligence," then, is
just to simulate intelligence, allowing for seeming intelligence. This, of course, it
has already done in many areas, such as game playing, problem solving, and
computational tasks. In other areas it has failed, miserably when not spectacularly;
writing, autonomous thought, and self-directed advances in any field, specifically
mathematics or art.

The basis of all success and failure is a simple one; any field that we
actually understand, we can reproduce in computers. If we can identify what a
"good chess move" is, then a computer can produce it. Since, however, we seem
unable to identify precisely what "good character development" or "plot structure"
is, we cannot expect the computer to do it for us. It seems straight forward, then,
that the real failure of Artificial Intelligence is two fold; it is just an application
of previously understood ideas in general algorithmic computer science, and has
done nothing truly new. Secondly, in a very real sense, it is completely goal-less,
and therefore unable to succeed at defining the illusions it chases.

2.4 The Purpose or Direction Artificial Intelligence (AI) Made

Everything includes artificial intelligence has purpose, in this occasion


writers will explain at glance about it, there are:
 For improving method and system to solve problems that can be solved
by human intelligence, for example how to prove computer acceleration
based on information system.
 Upgrade human comprehension or understanding, how does human brain
work.
 Improvisation method and system to solve artificial intelligence (AI)
problems without following way that used by human or we call it “Expert
System”
 Improvisation method and system to solve artificial intelligence (AI)
problems by human thinking model or human working brain that called
“Neural Networks”

2.5 Why AI Failed?

There has been some progress in AI in the past decade, but not much. We
see five reasons for this:

1. The field has broken into subfields populated by researchers with different
goals and who speak very different technical languages. Much has been
learned, and it is time to start integrating what we've learned, but few
researchers are widely versed or expert enough to do it.

2. The field suffers from physics envy. Most AI researchers are looking for
simple explanations to relate complex phenomena. Perhaps the universe
can be absorbed to a few simple rules, but it is unlikely that brains can.

3. Many AI researchers have lost touch with the original goal of building a
flexible, human level intelligence. This is partially a consequence of the
need to specialize in order to make a name for your self in the field, and
partially a consequence of the funding structure of most institutions that
find AI research. It is difficult to get funding for risky, large scale
integration projects.

4. AI is the ultimate software problem also; many AI researchers should be


experimenting with new algorithms. Few of them know about it.
5. AI researchers have been trying unsuccessfully to get around the need for
common sense knowledge. To solve the hard problems in AI - natural
language understanding, general vision, complete easily speech and
handwriting recognition - we need systems with common sense knowledge
and flexible ways to use it. The trouble is that building such systems
amounts to "solving AI". This notion is difficult to accept, but it seems that
we have no choice but to face it head on.

2.6 The Failure of AI

In the early days of AI, scientists thought they would be able to build an
intelligent computer by the end of the 20th century. This raised various fears
about computers eventually taking over the world, and human beings replaced by
robots. Not only this did not happen yet but we are very far from this!
But what is even worse is that we are now following a somewhat opposite trend.
There are many tasks at which humans are far better than computers, but instead
of trying to build better algorithms for these tasks, people are now trying to find
ways to better make use of human intelligence, or rather to automate this usage!

2.7 Artificial Intelligence Programming

 If modification inside the program happens, so it will not


disturb all “facts” that stored into the “brain”( as like human
thinking or information that stored on brain)
 Independent
 Can be modified without giving any effect in all structures
 Fleksible efisien any easy to understand.
CHAPTER 3
ANALYSIS

3.1 Essential Information Of Artificial Intelligence In Fifth Generation


Computer

Depend on the valid data in content, we can analyze some result that:
 According definition of artificial intelligence, consist of two words
artificial and intelligence.
o Artificial means the science and engineering of making
intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer
programs. It is related to the similar task of using computers
to understand human intelligence
o Intelligence means Intelligence is the computational part of
the ability to achieve goals in the world. Varying kinds and
degrees of intelligence happens in people, many animals and
some machines
 The story started since 1982 when FGCS (next Japan planed
supercomputer that used artificial intelligence) than in 1993 this
system ended or cancelled one of them caused of:
o AI is the ultimate software problem; many AI researchers
should be experimenting with new algorithms. Few of them
know about it
o Most AI researchers are looking for simple explanations to
relate complex phenomena but in the other hand AI is not
same with human brain that the can be absorbed to a few
simple rules.

 But since it can only run on the PIM-machine, some additional


funding is given to produce an emulator for UNIX named KL1 to C
compiler (KLIC).
CHAPTER 4
CLOSING

4.1 Conclusions

After looking these explanations about artificial intelligence in


generation of computer, may be we can imagine, what will they make again on
sixth generation. Here we can take conclusions:

 Artificial Intelligence (AI) is "the study and design of intelligent agents"


where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and
takes actions which maximizes its chances of success.
 Artificial Intelligence is not same with conventional computer
 Artificial intelligence has failed caused most AI researchers are looking
for simple explanations to relate complex phenomena. Perhaps the
universe can be boiled down to a few simple rules, but it is unlikely that
brains can.
 The basis of all success and failure is a simple one; any field that we
actually understand, we can reproduce in computers. If we can identify
what a "good chess move" is, then a computer can produce it.

4.2 Suggestions

As long as development of period and technology in the world, writers


hope artificial intelligence inside fifth computer generation to be continued
without more mistaken and more complete from previously.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Singh, Push 1996, Why AI Failed -- The Past 10 Years, viewed 9 June 1996,
<http://web.media.mit.edu/push/why_ai_failed.html>

McCharty, John What is AI, viewed 2007-09-01,

<http://www.formal.standford.edu/mc/whatisai.html>