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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM &


CHAPTER 3 CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATION
ANALYSIS OF PAST YEAR QUESTIONS FROM 2003 2008
Year
Paper
No.
Type of
question
Questio
n No

2003
P2
S
1

2004
P3

P2

2005
P3

1
a

2006

P2
S

P3

10a
10
b

P2

2007
P3

P2

2008
P3

3,
5

P2
S

P3

STRUCTURED QUESTION
1

SPM 2003 /P2/ Q1


Figure 1 shows the set-up of apparatus for an experiment to determine the empirical
formula of magnesium oxide.

Figure 1
Result :
Mass of crucible + lid
Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium ribbon
Mass of crucible + lid + magnesium oxide
(a)

= 24.0 g
= 26.4 g
= 28.0 g

What is meant by empirical formula?

[1 mark]

(b)
(i)

Based on the above results,


Calculate the mass of magnesium and the mass of oxygen that have reacted.

[1 mark]

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(ii)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Calculate the mole ratio of magnesium atoms to oxygen atoms


[Relative Atomic Mass: O = 16, Mg = 24]

[1 mark]
(iii)

Determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide.

[1 mark]
(iv)

Write the chemical equation for the reaction in this experiment.

[1 mark]

(c)

Why was the crucible lid opened once in a while during the experiment?

[1 mark]

(d)

Metal X is placed below hydrogen in the reactivity series. You are required to carry
out an experiment to determine the empirical formula of the oxide of metal X. The
apparatus provided are combustion tube, glass tube, cork, Bunsen burner, and
porcelain dish.

(i)

Draw a labeled diagram of the set-up of the apparatus for the experiment.

(ii)

[2 marks]
Describe the steps that should be taken to ensure that all the air in the combustion
tube has been expelled.
..

[3 marks]

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

SPM 2004/ P2/ Q1


(a)
Table 2 shows four substances and their respective formulae
Substance
Chemical formula
Iodine
I2
Copper
Cu
Naphthalene
C10H8
Copper (II) sulphate
CuSO4
Table 2
Use information from Table 2 to answer the following equations
(i)
State one substance from Table 2 which exists as a molecule.

(ii)

[1 mark]
Which substance has the highest melting point, iodine, copper or naphthalene?

(iii)

[1 mark]
What is the state of matter of copper (II) sulphate at room temperature?

(iv)

[1 mark]
State the substance in Table 2 which can conduct electricity in the solid state.

(v)

(vi)

[1 mark]
Draw the arrangement of particles in the substance in (a)(iv)
[1 mark]

Write the ionic formula for the substance in (a)(iv).

[1 mark]

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(b)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Graph 2.1 shows the temperature against time when solid naphthalene is heated

Graph 2.1
(i)

State the melting point of naphthalene.

[1 mark]

(ii)

Explain why there is no change in temperature from Q to R

[2 marks]

(iii)

State how the movement of naphthalene particles changes between R and S during the
heating.

[1 mark

SPM 2006/ P2/ Q2


(i)
What is the chemical symbol used to represent one water molecule?

[1 mark]
(ii)

What is the name of the isotope od an element used as a standard in determining


relative atomic mass?

[1 mark]

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b(i)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

What is the mass of 6.0dm3 of carbon dioxide gas, CO2 at standard temperature and
pressure?
[1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at standard temperature and pressure;
Relative atomic mass for CO2 = 44]

[2 marks]
(ii)

(iii)

How many molecules are there in 6.0 dm of carbon dioxide gas?


[Avogadro number = 6.02 x 1023]

[1 mark]
Explain briefly the relationship between the volume, mass and the number of
molecules of carbon dioxide in 3b(i) and 3b(ii) at standard temperature and
pressure.

[3 marks]

SPM 2007 / P2/ Q3


(a) What is the meaning of empirical formula?

[1 mark]
(b)

Diagram 3.1 shows an incomplete equation which is one of the steps involved in
determining the empirical formula.
Complete this equation.

Mass
=
Relative atomic mass ..
Diagram 3.1
[1 mark]

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(c)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Diagram 3.2 shows the apparatus set-up for two methods used to determine the
empirical formula of two compounds.

Diagram 3.2
Based on Diagram 3.2, determine the values of the following:
[Relative atomic mass : O=16, Pb = 207 ]
(i)

Mass of lead
= ..g
[1 mark]

(ii)

Number of moles of lead


= ..g
[1 mark]

(iii)

Mass of oxygen
= ..g
[1 mark]

(iv)

Number of moles of oxygen


= ..g
[1 mark]

(v)

Empirical formula of lead oxide


= .
[1 mark]

SPM 2007 / P2/ Q5


Diagram 5 shows the symbols of the atoms of element X and element Y.
The letter used are not the actual symbols of the elements.

Diagram 5

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(a)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

State the proton number of the atom of element X.

[1 mark]

b(i)

F4 Topic 4 : Periodic Table


Identify the position of element X in the Preiodic Table of Elements

[1 mark]

b(ii)

Explain why element X is placed at the position identified in 5(b)(i).

[1 mark]

c(i)

[Concept based on F4 Topic 4 : Periodic Table]


The reaction between element X and oxygen is less reactive than the reaction
between element Y and oxygen.
Explain this using ideas about valence electron.

[2 marks]

(ii)

Draw a labeled diagram to show the apparatus set-up that can be used to determine
the reactivity of the reaction between element X or element Y and oxygen gas.

[ 2marks]
(d)

2.3g of element X reacted completely with oxygen.


The following equation represents the reaction.

4X(s) + O2(g) 2X2O(s)


[Relative atomic mass : X = 23, O = 16]

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(i)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Calculate the number of moles of element X.

[1 mark]
(ii)

Calculate the maximum mass of X2O formed.

[3 marks]

SPM 2008 / P2/ Q3


(a) Diagram 3.1 shows the results of an experiment to investigate the movement of
bromine particles in air.

Air

Gas jar

cover

Bromine vapour
spreads
throughout both
gas jars within
10 minutes

Bromine vapour

Cover removed
Diagram 3.1
(i)

(ii)

State the name of the process involved in this experiment.

[1 mark]
State the type of particle present in bromine gas, Br2.

[1 mark]

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(iii)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Explain the observation in this experiment based on the kinetic theory of matter.

[3 marks]

(iv)

This experiment is repeated at a higher temperature.


Predict the time taken for the bromine vapour to spread throughout the space in both
gas jars.

[1 mark]

(b)

Diagram 3.2 shows two balloons containing oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas
respectively.

0.5 mol
oxygen
gas, O2

0.5 mol
Carbon dioxide
gas, CO2

Balloon A

(i)

Balloon B

Diagram 3.2
Based on the given information:
Calculate the mass of oxygen gas in balloon A
[Relative atomic mass : O = 16]

[1 mark]
(ii)

Calculate the volume of carbon dioxide gas in balloon B.


[Molar volume of gas = 24 dm3mol-1 at room temperature and pressure]

[1 mark]

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(iii)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Compare the number of gas molecules in balloon A and in balloon B.


Explain your answer.

[2 marks]

SPM 2004/ P3/ Q1


A student carried out an experiment to determine the empirical formula of
magnesium oxide. The steps and set-up of apparatus of the experiment are shown in
Figure 1.

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(a)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Complete the following table by stating the observation and related inferences in the
experiment.
Observation
Inferences
(i) ..

(i) .

(ii) .

(ii)

(b)

.
[6marks]

Record the reading to two decimal places for:


The mass of crucible and lid: g
The mass of crucible, lid and magnesium ribbon : g
The mass of crucible, lid and magnesium oxide when cooled : .g
[3marks]

ci)

What is the mass of magnesium that has been used?

(ii)

What is the mass of oxygen which reacted with magnesium?

[3marks]

[3marks]
(iii

Determine the empirical formula of magnesium oxide


Use the information that the relative atomic mass, Mg = 24 and O = 16.

[3marks]

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(d)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Based on your answer in (c)(iii), how many moles of magnesium and oxygen atoms
have reacted?

[3marks]

SPM 2005 /P3/ Q1


An experiment is carried out to determine the freezing point of naphthalene. Solid
naphthalene is heated in a water bath until it melts completely.
The initial temperature is recorded.
Then molten naphthalene is left to cool.
The reading of the temperature is recorded every 30 seconds.
Figure 1 shows the recorded thermometer readings at 30 seconds intervals.

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a)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Record the temperatures in the space provided in Figure 1.


[3marks]

b)

On the graph paper below, draw the graph of temperature against time for the
cooling of naphthalene.
[3marks]

ci)

Use the graph in (b), to determine the freezing point of naphthalene.


Show on the graph how you determine this freezing point.
[3marks]

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(ii)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

How does the graph in (b) show the freezing point of naphthalene?

(d)

(e)

[3marks]
The temperature of naphthalene did not change from the 90th second until the 50th
second during the cooling process.
Explain why.
.
.
[3marks]
On the graph paper below sketch the curve you would expect if the molten
naphthalene is cooled quickly.

[3marks]

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(f)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Naphthalene is an example of a covalent compound and sodium chloride is an


example of an ionic compound.
Classify the following into covalent or ionic compounds.

Glucose, potassium iodide, copper(II) sulphate,


Aluminium oxide, tetrachloromethane, ethanol

[3marks]

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM &


CHAPTER 3 CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATION
ANSWER
1

SPM 2003/P2/Q1
(a) It is a formula which shows the simplest ratio of atoms of the elements present
in a compound.
b(i) Mass of magnesium = (26.4 24.0)g = 2.4g
Mass of oxygen = (28.0 26.4)g = 1.6g
(ii)

Number of moles of magnesium atom = 2.4/24


= 0.1
Number of moles of oxygen atom = 1.6 / 16
= 0.1
0.1 mole of magnesium atom combine with 0.1 mole of oxygen atom.
Therefore 1 mole of magnesium atom combines with 1 mole of oxygen atom.

(iii)
(iv)

Empirical formula of magnesium oxide is MgO


2Mg + O2 2MgO

(c)

To allow oxygen to enter into the crucible. This is to make sure that all
magnesium reacts completely with oxygen.

d(i)

dry hydrogen gas

combustion excess
hydrogen gas

metal X oxide
(ii)

1. collect some gas into the test tube


2. place a burning splint near the mouth of the test tube
3. no pop sound

SPM 2004/ P2/Q1


a(i) Iodine / naphthalene
(ii)
Copper
(iii) Solid
(iv) Copper
(v)

(vi)
b(i)

Cu2+ / Cu+
T1 C

(ii)

Heat is absorbed to overcome the intermolecular forces of attraction between


naphthalene particles. Therefore, the temperature remains constant even
though heating continues.

(iii)

Naphthalene particles will move faster.

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SPM 2006/ P2/Q2


ai)
H2O
ii)

Isotope Carbon-12

bi)

Number of mole = 6.0 dm3 / 24 dm3 = 0.25 mol


Mass = 11g

(ii)

0.25 x 6.02 x 1023 = 1.505 x 1023

(iii)

6.0 dm3 of carbon dioxide with the mass of 11g contains of 1.505 x 1023
molecules.

SPM 2007/ P2/ Q3


(a) It is a formula which shows the simplest ratio of atoms of the elements present
in a compound.
(b)

= number of moles of atom

c(i)

Method I

(ii)

Magnesium is an active element which burns completely in air.

(iii)

To allow oxygen to flow into the crucible. This is to make sure that all
magnesium combines completely with oxygen.

d(i)

Mass of lead = (113.68 64.00 )g


= 49.68g

(ii)

Number of moles of lead = 49.68 / 207


= 0.24 mole

(iii)

Mass of oxygen = (117. 52 113.68)g


= 3.84g
Number of moles of oxygen = 3.84 / 16
= 0.24 mole

(iv)

(v)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

PbO

SPM 2007/ P2/ Q5


(a) 11
(bi) In Group 1 and Period 3
b(ii) Contains 1 valence electron and 3 shells filled with electron

c(i)

Nucleus attractions towards valence electron in atom X is stronger ,so valence


electron in X is difficult to be released or
Nucleus attraction towards valence electron in atom Y is weaker so valence
electron in Y is easier to be released.

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

c(ii)

Oxygen gas

Substance X / Y

d(i)

2.3/23 = 0.1

d(ii) 4 mol of X 2 mol of X2O


0.1 mol of X 0.05 mol of X2O
Mass of X2O = 0.05 x 62g
= 3.1g

SPM 2008/ P2/ Q3


a(i) Diffusion
(ii) Molecule
(iii) The particles are made up of tiny or discrete particles. They are randomly
moving. The particles fill the space between the air particles
(iv)
b(i)

Less than 10 minutes


0.5 x 32g = 16.0g

(ii)

0.5 x 24 dm3 = 12 dm3

(iii)

The number of gas molecules in balloon A and in balloon B is the same


because the number of moles is the same

SPM 2004/P3/Q1
(a)

Observation
(i) white fumes released
(ii) the mass of crucible and its
contents increases

Inference
(i) magnesium oxide is formed
(ii) magnesium reacts with oxygen

(b)

Mass of crucible and lid = 25.35g


Mass of crucible, lid and magnesium ribbon = 27.75g
Mass of crucible, lid and magnesium oxide when cooled = 29.35g

c(i)

Mass of Mg = (27.75 25.35)g = 2.4g

(ii)

Mass of O = ( 29.35 27.75)g = 1.6g

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

(iii)

Number of moles Mg = 0.1mole


Number of moles O = 0.1mole
Ratio of Mg : O = 1 : 1
Empirical formula is MgO

(d)

0.1 mole of Mg reacts with 0.1 mole of oxygen

SPM 2005/P3/Q1
(a)
Time/ s
Temperature/C
(b)

c(i)
(ii)
(d)

0
95.0

30
85.0

60
82.0

90
80.0

120
80.0

150
80.0

180
78.0

80C
There is no temperature change during the cooling process
The heat released during the formation of bonds balances the heat loss to the
surroundings

(e)

(f)

210
70.0

Covalent compound

Glucose, ethanol, tetrachloromethane

Ionic compound

Potassium iodide, copper (II) sulphate,


aluminium oxide

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM &


CHAPTER 3 CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATION
ANALYSIS OF PAST YEAR QUESTIONS FROM 2003 2008
Year
Paper
No.
Type of
question
Questio
n No

2003
P2
S

2004
P3

P2

2005
P3

1
a

2006

P2
S

P3

10a
10
b

P2

2007
P3

P2

2008
P3

3,
5

P2
S

P3

ESSAY QUESTION
1 SPM 2004/P2/Q1(SECTION B)
Figure 1 shows the chemical symbols which represent three elements, X, Y and Z.

a)

Figure 1
i) Write the electron arrangement of atoms X and Y.
[2 marks]
ii) State the number of neutrons in an atom of element Z and write the symbol
for an isotope of element Z.
[2 marks]

b)

F4 Topic 5: Chemical Bond


The reaction between atoms of X and Y forms an ionic compound whereas the reaction
between atoms Y and Z forms a covalent compound.
Based on the above statement, explain how these ionic and covalent compounds are
formed
[8 marks]

c)

The ionic compound formed from the reaction between elements X and Y is able to
conduct electricity when it is melted or dissolved in water.
Describe how you could prove that this statement is correct.
[8 marks]

SPM 2005/P2/Q10(SECTION C)
a)

Isotopes are used for example in medicine, industry, science and archeology.
Choose two of the above examples.
State an isotope and its purpose in each example that you have chosen.
[4 marks]

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b)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Figure 2.1 shows the electron arrangement of a molecule PQ2.


These letter are not the actual symbols of the elements.

Figure 2.1
Based on Figure 2.1, write the electron arrangement for atoms of element P and
element Q.
Explain the position of element Q in the Periodic Table of the Elements.
[6 marks]
c)

Table 2.2 shows the electron arrangement for atoms W, X and Y.


These letter are not the actual symbols of the elements.
Element
W
X
Y

Electron arrangement
2.4
2.8.7
2.8.8.2
Table 2.2

Using the information in Table 2.2, explain how two compounds can be formed from
these elements based on their electron arrangements.
The two compounds should have different bond types.
[10 marks]
3

SPM 2006 / P2/ Q9 (SECTION C)


a) Diagram 3.1 shows an atom of an element based on the model by James Chadwick.

DIAGRAM 3.1

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Compare the relative mass and the charge of two of the subatomic particles in
Diagram 3.1
[4 marks]

b)

Using the Periodic Table of Elements provided, identify an element that is placed in
the same group as the element in Diagram 3.1.
Write the symbol for the element in the form ZA X, where :
X = symbol of the element
A = nucleon number
Z = proton number
[3 marks]

c)

Describe fully the atomic structure for the element that you have stated in 3b.
Use the information in Diagram 3.1 to help your description.
[6 marks]

d)

Diagram 3.2 shows how the model of an atom was develop by several scientist.

DIAGRAM 3.2
The following is information about an element:

A good of heat and electricity.


Has a shiny surface
Needs to be kept an paraffin oil
Has more than two shells filled with electrons
Reacts with water to form a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas.

Draw the structure of an atom of the element using the modern atomic model that
you have identified in Diagram 3.2.
Name the element.
[7 marks]
4. SPM 2007/ P2/ Q8 (SECTION B)
Diagram 4 shows an atom of element X.
The letter used is not the actual symbol of the element.

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

DIAGRAM 4
a)

Describe the atom shown in Diagram 4.


[4 marks]

b)

Another atom of element X has 2 neutrons.


i) Compare this atom with the atom in Diagram 4.
[4 marks]
ii) Write the symbol for this atom in the form of

A
Z

X
[2 marks]

Graph 5 shows the heating curve of element X.

GRAPH 5
c)

Describe Graph 5 in terms of states of matter, particle arrangements and changes in


energy.
[10 marks]

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Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

FORM 4 CHAPTER 2 THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM &


CHAPTER 3 CHEMICAL FORMULAE AND EQUATION

ANSWER
1

SPM 2004/P2/Q1(SECTION B)
a)

i) The electron configuration of atom X: 2.8.1


The electron configuration of atom Y: 2.8.7
ii) The number of neutron in Z = 6
Isotope of 136Z or 146 Z

b)

1. Atom X and atom Y will form ionic bond. The electron configuration of atom
X is 2.8.1 and the electron configuration of atom Y is 2.8.7.
2. To attain the stable electron configuration with 8 electrons in the valence
electron shell, atom X donates one electron to form a positive ion.
X
X+ + e
3. Atom Y will receive the electron to form Y- ions, and attain the stable
electron configuration with 8 electrons in the valence electron shell.
Y + e
Y+
4. The X ion will attract Y ion with strong electrostatic force and form an ionic
compound with the formula XY.

6. Element Y and Z will form covalent compund. To attain stable electron


configuration with 8 electrons in the valence electron shell, atom Z shares
electrons with atom Y.
7. One atom of Z contributes 4 electrons and each atom of Y contributes one
electron.
8. Atom Z shares electrons with four atoms Y to form a covalent compound
with the formula ZY4.

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c)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

The apparatus was set-up as shown in the diagrams below:

Figure (a)
For molten compound:
1. The crucible was filled with XY powder until 2/3 full.
2. The crucible with its content was then heated strongly untill all the XY powder
melts.
3. After that, two carbon electrodes, were dipped into the molten XY and the
switch was switched on.
4. The ammeter shows a reading when XY powder is melted.

Figure (b)
For aqueous solution:
1. Water was filled into the beaker.
2. The XY powder was added into the beaker and dissolved in the water.
3. After that, two carbon rods, acting as electrodes, were immersed into the
solution
of XY and the switch was switched on.
4. The bulb lights up.

SPM 2005/P2/Q10 SECTION C


(a) i) Iodine-131 for cure cancer of thyroid glands
ii) Carbon-14 is used to determine the age of a fossil or ancient artifacts
b)
The electronic arrangement of P is 2.4 whereas the electronic arrangement of Q is
2.6
Q is located in Group 16 because it has 6 valence electrons
Q is located in Period 2 because it has 2 electrons shells filled with electrons

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c)

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

Refer Answer Form4 Topic 5 Chemical Bond

SPM 2006/ P2/ Q9 SECTION C


(a)
Subatomic particles
Relative
mass
Proton
1
Electron
1/1837
Neutron
1

Relative charge

Row 1

+1
-1
0

Row 2
Row 3
Row 4

Note: state row 1 and any two from row 2/ 3/ 4


(b)

23
11

Na

or

39
19

or

86
37

Rb

(c)

The atom consists of two parts: the centre part called nucleus and the outer part
called electron cloud.
The nucleus consists of 11 protons which are positively charged and 12 neutrons
are neutral. [ if answer in (b) is Na]
The electron cloud consists of 11 electrons which are negatively charged and
move around nucleus in orbits.
There is an electroststic force between nucleus and electrons.

(d)

Sample answer an atom of sodium.


11p + 12n

Na

SPM 2007/P2 / Q8 SECTION B


a
1. Nucleus is at the centre
2. nucleus atom contains 1 proton and 1 neutron
3. electrons move around the nucleus
4. the electron is negatively charged
5. One shell is filled with electron
b(i)
Proton number
Number of electron
Chemical properties
Number of neutron
Nucleon number
Physical properties

Atom of Diagram 4
1
1
Similar
1
2
Different

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Another atom
1
1
Similar
2
3
Different

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(ii)
c)

2
1

Form 4 Chapter 2 and 3

State any ten of following information:


At time t0 t1 :
1. element X is in liquid state
2. the particles are closed to each other
3. the particles arrangement is not orderly
4. the kinetic energy increases
At time t1 t2 :
5. element X is is in liquid ad gaseous state
6. some particles are closed to each other and some are far apart
7. the particle arrangement is not orderly
8. the kinetic energy is constant
At time t2 t3 :
9. element X is in gaseous state
10. the particles are far away
11. the particle arrangement are not orderly
12. the kinetic energy is increases

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