Lecture notes on Advanced MoM

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Lecture notes on Advanced MoM

© All Rights Reserved

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Elasticity

David M. Parks

Geometry of Deformation

Position, 3 components of displacement, and [small] strain tensor

Cartesian subscript notation; vectors and tensors

Dilatation (volume change) and strain deviator

Special cases: homogeneous strain; plane strain

Equilibrium of forces and moments:

Stress and traction

Stress and equilibrium equations

Principal stress; transformation of [stress] tensor components between

rotated coordinate frames

Isotropic linear elastic material properties: E, , G, and K

Stress/strain and strain/stress relations

Putting it all together: Navier equations of equilibrium in terms of displacements

Boundary conditions and boundary value problems

Geometry of Deformation

Reference location of material point : x;

specified by its cartesian components, x1, x2, x3

Displacement vector of material point: u(x);

specified by displacement components, u1, u2, u3

Each function, ui (I=1,2,3), in general depends on

position x functionally through its components:

e.g., u1 = u1(x1,x2,x3); etc.

Deformed location of material point: y(x)=x+u(x)

Displacements: u(x) and u(x + x)

Deformed: y(x) and y(x + x)

Displacements: u(x) and u(x + x)

Vector geometry: y = x + u,

where u = u(x + x) - u(x)

gradient tensor can be put in matrix

form:

Then, with y = x + u,

(extensional strain) of a material line

element initially parallel to x1 axis is

u1 / x1 ; similar conclusions apply for

coordinate directions 2 and 3

Line segments initially perpendicular

Deformed lines: QR & QP

|QR| = | x1|(1 + u1/ x1)

|QP| = | x2|(1 + u2/ x2)

for i=1..3 and j=1..3, by

matrix equation are equal, so this is equivalent to 9 separate equations.

The strain tensor is symmetric, in that, for each i and j, ij = j;i

for i=1..3 and j=1..3, by

Diagonal components of the strain tensor are the extensional strains along

the respective coordinate axes;

Off-diagonal components of the strain tensor are times the total reduction

in angle (from /2) of a pair of deformed line elements that were initially

parallel to the two axes indicated by the off-diagonal row and column number

and 33 equal each other,

and whether or not any or all of the shear strain components

(e.g., 12=21) are zero-valued or non-zero-valued.

The sum of diagonal elements of a matrix of the cartesian components of

a tensor is called the trace of the tensor; thus,

the fractional volume change is the trace of the strain tensor.

are given in terms of the components of

the strain tensor by

satisfying ij =1 if i=j, and ij =0 if i is not equal to j

Off-diagonal components of the strain deviator tensor equal corresponding

off-diagonal components of the strain tensor;

Each diagonal component of the strain deviator tensor differs from the

corresponding diagonal component of the strain tensor by 1/3 of the trace

of the strain tensor

Exercise: evaluate the trace of the strain deviator tensor.

Strain Decomposition

a shape-changing (but volume-preserving) part (the strain deviator)

Plus

a volume-changing (but shape-preserving) part (one-third trace

of strain tensor times identity matrix):

Later, when we look more closely at isotropic linear elasticity, we will find that

the two fundamental elastic constants are

the bulk modulus, K, measuring elastic resistance to volume-change, and

the shear modulus, G, measuring elastic resistance to shape-change

Undeformed segment:

Deformed segment:

in direction from P to Q

S : length of vector = |PQ|

e(P->Q) : unit vector pointing

in direction from P to Q

P

P

Undeformed:

But,

in length for a line element

initially parallel to ANY unit

vector m is given in terms of

direction cosines, mi, and the

displacement gradient components by

Finally:

Same idea,

But sum on i

Vector components of m:

Example

Along the direction m = (e1 + e2 + e3) / 31/2

Solution: equal components mi = 1 / (3)1/2

No Change in Vector

Given:

a vector v;

2 sets of cartesian basis vectors:

{ e1, e2, e3} and {e1, e2, e3}

components of v wrt {ei}: {vi} ;

components of v wrt {ei}: {vi} ;

The components of v in the two bases?

Vector Components

Note: the matrix

[Qij]is said to be orthogonal:

Determinant of [Qij] = 1

Matrix transpose is matrix inverse:

[Qij]-1 = [Qij]T = [Qji]

Note: the matrix

[Qij]is said to be orthogonal:

Determinant of [Qij] = 1

Matrix transpose is matrix inverse:

[Qij]-1 = [Qij]T = [Qji]

Transformation of

Vector/vector operation

(unprimed components):

Pre-multiply by [Q]:

Vector/vector operation

in primed components:

This must always hold so that

the cartesian components

of any second-order

tensor, including ij

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