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An Introduction to

Digital Audio
Second Edition
John Watkinson

Focal Press
An imprint of Elsevier Science
Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP
225 Wildwood Avenue, Woburn, MA 01801-2041
First published 1994
Reprinted 1995, 1998, 1999
Second Edition 2002
Copyright 1994, 2002, John Watkinson. All rights reserved
The right of John Watkinson to be identified as the author of this work has
been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any material form (including
photocopying or storing in any medium by electronic means and whether
or not transiently or incidentally to some other use of this publication) without
the written permission of the copyright holder except in accordance with the
provisions of the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988 or under the terms of
a licence issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road,
London, England W1T 4LP. Applications for the copyright holders written
permission to reproduce any part of this publication should be addressed
to the publisher

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data
Watkinson, John.
An introduction to digital audio/John Watkinson 2nd ed.
p.cm.
ISBN 0 240 51643 5 (alk. paper)
1. Sound Recording and reproducing Digital techniques.
TK7881.4 W3834 2002
621.389'3 dc21

I. Title.

2002026543

ISBN 0 240 51643 5


For information on all Focal Press publications visit our website at:
www.focalpress.com
Composition by Genesis Typesetting, Rochester, Kent
Printed and bound in Great Britain by

Contents

Preface to the second edition

xi

Chapter 1

1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
1.10
1.11
1.12
1.13

Audio as data
What is an audio signal?
Why binary?
Why digital?
Some digital audio processes outlined
Time compression and expansion
Error correction and concealment
Channel coding
Audio compression
Disk-based recording
Rotary-head digital recorders
Digital audio broadcasting
Networks
Reference

Chapter 2
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
2.10
2.11
2.12
2.13

Introducing digital audio

Some audio principles

The physics of sound


Wavelength
Periodic and aperiodic signals
Sound and the ear
The cochlea
Mental processes
Level and loudness
Frequency discrimination
Frequency response and linearity
The sine wave
Root mean square measurements
The deciBel
Audio level metering
References

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Contents

Chapter 3
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17

Binary codes
Introduction to digital logic
The computer
Timebase correction
Multiplexing
Gain control
Digital faders and controls
A digital mixer
Filters
FIR filters
Sampling-rate conversion
Transforms and duality
The Fourier transform
The discrete cosine transform (DCT)
Modulo-n arithmetic
The Galois field
The phase-locked loop
References

Chapter 4
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16
4.17
4.18
4.19

Conversion

Introduction to conversion
Sampling and aliasing
Reconstruction
Filter design
Choice of sampling rate
Sample and hold
Sampling clock jitter
Aperture effect
Quantizing
Quantizing error
Basic digital-to-analog conversion
Basic analog-to-digital conversion
Alternative convertors
Oversampling
Oversampling without noise shaping
Noise shaping
Noise-shaping ADCs
A one-bit DAC
One-bit noise-shaping ADCs
References

Chapter 5
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4

Digital principles

Compression

Introduction
Lossless and perceptive coding
Compression principles
Codec level calibration

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Contents vii

5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.11
5.12
5.13
5.14

Quality measurement
The limits
Some guidelines
Audio compression tools
Sub-band coding
Transform coding
Compression formats
MPEG Layer I
MPEG Layer II
MPEG Layer III

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183

References

191

Chapter 6
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
6.13
6.14
6.15
6.16
6.17
6.18
6.19
6.20
6.21
6.22
6.23

Introduction
Types of transmission channel
Transmission lines
Types of recording medium
Magnetic recording
Azimuth recording and rotary heads
Optical and magneto-optical disks
Equalization and data separation
Slicing and jitter rejection
Channel coding
Simple codes
Group codes
Randomizing and encryption
Synchronizing
Basic error correction
Concealment by interpolation
Parity
Block and convolutional codes
Cyclic codes
Introduction to the ReedSolomon codes
Correction by erasure
Interleaving
Product codes
Appendix 6.1 Calculation of ReedSolomon generator
polynomials
References

Chapter 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6

Digital coding principles

Transmission

Introduction
The AES/EBU interface
Channel status
User bits
MADI Multi-channel audio digital interface
Fibre-optic interfacing

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viii

7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16
7.17
7.18
7.19

Contents

Synchronizing
Asynchronous operation
Routing and networks
Networks
FireWire
Broadband networks and ATM
Introduction to NICAM 728
Audio in digital television broadcasting
Packets and time stamps
MPEG transport streams
Clock references
Program Specific Information (PSI)
Introduction to DAB
References

Chapter 8
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11

Digital audio tape recorders

299

Rotary versus stationary heads


PCM adaptors
Introduction to DAT
DAT specification
DAT block diagram
Track following in DAT
DAT data channel
Multi-channel rotary-head recorders
Stationary-head recorders
DASH format
DCC Digital Compact Cassette
References

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299
300
306
307
309
311
314
316
318
320
324

Chapter 9
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
9.9
9.10
9.11
9.12
9.13
9.14
9.15
9.16
9.17

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Magnetic disk drives

Types of disk drive


Structure of disk
Principle of flying head
Reading and writing
Moving the heads
Rotation
Servo-surface disks
Soft sectoring
Winchester technology
Rotary positioners
The disk controller
Defect handling
Digital audio disk system
Arranging the audio data on disk
Spooling files
Broadcast applications
Sampling rate and playing time
References

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Contents ix

Chapter 10 Digital audio editing

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10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7
10.8
10.9
10.10

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Introduction
Editing with random access media
Editing on recording media
The structure of an editor
Timecode
Locating the edit point
Editing with disk drives
Editing in DAT
Editing in open-reel digital recorders
Jump editing
References

Chapter 11 Optical disks in digital audio

361

11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.10
11.11
11.12
11.13
11.14

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369
372
376
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383
385
386
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397
398
405

Types of optical disk


CD and MD contrasted
CD and MD disk construction
Rejecting surface contamination
Playing optical disks
Focus and tracking systems
Typical pickups
CD readout in detail
How optical disks are made
How recordable MiniDiscs are made
Channel code of CD and MiniDisc
Error-correction strategy
Track layout of MD
Player structure
References

Glossary

406

Index

409