Defination of Stress

• • A disruptive condition that occurs in response to adverse influences from the internal or external environments A condition in which the person responds to changes in the normal balanced state A state of tension experienced by individual due to extraordinary  Demands  Constraits  Opportunities at organizational workplace.

Tension would be internally or also externally.
Internally means within the behavior that make stress on the psychological state of the person. Including:       Job related dis-satisfaction Anxiety Irritability Substance abuse Boredon Depression Lack of confidence.

Externally that changes the person externally. Individual stress Management, it could be reduced by:     Physical exercise Time management Social support Clinical and Professional counseling.

What is stress?
For many people stress means worry. If they are worried about something (whether it be taking an exam or organising a wedding) they say they feel stressed. But often stress is not just a feeling. It can be physical too. Symptoms of stress vary from the psychological, in the form of anxiety and depression, to the physical, in the form of headaches, insomnia, bowel problems and impotence. In its severest forms stress can lead to hypertension, heart attacks and mental breakdown. Nowadays it is also being blamed for causing cancer.

Stress Formula
• S = P >R

Stress (S) occurs when the Pressure (P) is greater than the Resource (R

Types of Stress

Eustress .
• • Eustress is one of the helpful types of stress When a person needs to have some extra energy or creativity, eustress kicks in to bring them the inspiration they need.

Distress .
• • Distress is one of the negative types of stress This is one of the types of stress that the mind and body undergoes when the normal routine is constantly adjusted and altered

Acute stress .
• • Acute stress is the type of stress that comes immediately with a change of routine Acute stress is the body's way of getting a person to stand up and take inventory of what is going on, to make sure that everything is OK

Chronic stress .
• • Chronic stress will occur if there is a constant change of routine for week after week. This is the type of stress experienced by someone who constantly faces moves or job changes.

Stressors
A stimulus or situation that causes stress.

Any factor, thing, elements, and variable that cause stress are called stressor.

TYPES OF STRESSOR
There are two types of stressor. 1. Work related stressor. 2. Non work and personal stressor.

1. WORK RELATED STRESSOR

Task demands:

It could be that hove much you have stress about the task in the organization and how much he/she is efficient to perform a task.

• Role ambiguities:
The person who is performing the task he/she doesn’t know about his/her job, what to do and how to do. Means not know or unclear.

Role confliction:

There would be confliction between the boss and the employee or between the employees.

• Interpersonal problems:
Problems like personal or any financial matters.

• Ethical dilemmas:
The values, rules and regulations of the organization.

Career development:
Including the career of the individual that is high or low development.

Physical setting:
The working environment of the organization.

2. NON WORK AND PERSONAL STRESSOR
• Economic difficulties: • Personal affairs: • Family events:
Difficulties including the finance or financial problems.

It including the dual earnings or any other matters that relates to personally.

Birthday parties and any other events like marriage, picnics etc.

• Individual needs:

Individual needs are intrinsic that related to internally.

• Individual capabilities: • Individual personality:

How much a person is capable to perform the task, person and job?

Politeness, tolerance and attitude of the person individually.

What Causes Stress?
We may think of stressful events as unpleasant ones, such as losing a job or having difficulties at home or at school. But changes for the better can also cause stress, like a new baby, a wedding, and a new house. In an ideal world, maybe we could get away from stressful situations, or change them. Too often we can't do that - but we can learn to control our response to those situations. And we can develop techniques that will reduce the effects of stress on our mental and physical health.

Common external causes of stress
Not all stress is caused by external factors. Stress can also be self-generated:
• • •

Major life changes Work Relationship difficulties

• • •

Financial problems Being too busy Children and family

• Common internal causes of stress
Not all stress is caused by external factors. Stress can also be self-generated:
• • •

Inability to accept uncertainty Pessimism Negative self-talk

• • •

Unrealistic expectations Perfectionism Lack of assertiveness

Which Is Your Leading Cause of Stress?
1. Finances Most studies agree that finances are a leading cause of stress. In an online poll conducted in 2005 by LifeCare, Inc., 23 percent of respondents named finances as the leading cause of stress in their lives. Financial stress has led the list in many modern polls. Some who name finances as the leading cause of stress cite major purchases they have to make, such as a home or car. Others are stressed by a loss of income, or mounting credit card debt. For some, financial stress will eventuate in bankruptcy. While college students stress over paying for an education, Baby Boomers and older senior citizens find that retirement income can be a major cause of stress. 2. Work Closely tied to finances as a cause of stress is work. Our jobs or careers seem to cause constant stress. In the LifeCare poll, 21 percent of those responding listed this as the leading cause of stress in life. How is the workplace a cause of stress? We worry about getting and keeping adequate employment. We worry about new types of work or new responsibilities. We struggle to climb a career ladder, overwhelmed by the demands. Work conditions may change, or we may have interpersonal trouble at work. Students, especially teenagers and college age students, cite school work as a cause of stress. Sometimes, work stress is brought on by others. Sometimes, we bring it on ourselves. 3. Family Family, wonderful though each member may be, is also a leading cause of stress. Arguments erupt with a spouse or other family member. Parents divorce. Children marry. The ebb and flow of family life is filled with stress. A child moves out – an aging parent moves in.

Family health is also a leading cause of stress. A sick family member, a serious injury, pregnancy, miscarriage, or abortion all cause stress. Family changes of other kinds bring stress, too. Adoption, relocation, and job changes for just one family member can cause stress for all. 4. Personal Concerns Personal concerns that are only indirectly created by others are another top cause of stress. Lack of control tops the list of personal concerns. Every human has a deep-seated desire for control over his or her own life. When control is weak or missing in a given area, we experience stress. To many people, a lack of control over their own time is a leading cause of stress. We want to determine when we do tasks around the home, or at work. Holding a job, participating in the children’s carpool to school, driving family to soccer practices, shopping, and scout meetings while trying to keep the household running can create major stress. You would like to control your time, rather than let others’ demands control it, but that is not always possible. We may be involved in legal proceedings that cause stress. We may be wrestling with a bad habit. We may be going through changes. Personal change of any kind can be a cause of stress. 5. Personal Health and Safety Most people find that personal health is a leading cause of stress. For some, the stress is linked to obesity, and a desire to lose weight. For others, the stress is a personal bas habit that affects health and must be changed. For example, smoking, abuse of alcohol or other drugs. Illness or injury, whether less or more serious, can be a leading cause of stress for many people. Incontinence can be an ongoing concern. Personal health is more or less stressful according to the degree of seriousness and our personal outlook on health. Personal safety is also a leading cause of stress. Women, more than men, tend to stress about their own and others’ safety. Adults tend to stress more than young people, who may act invincible. Crime is a factor, as is 6. Personal Relationships Whether it is a friendship, dating, separation, marriage, divorce, or re-marriage, a relationship can be a leading cause of stress for many. We all want love, and that is potentially available in relationships, but getting from A to B can be very stressful. Some resort to online relationships that are easier to handle. Others withdraw and become recluses. Either way, the demands on time, finances, and emotions can cause ongoing stress. 7. Death Probably the most wrenching cause of stress is the death of a loved one or close friend. Even the death of a pet can be stressful. Children are always a source of stress for parents, but when a child dies, the stress is overwhelming. The same is true when a lifetime spouse passes on.

8. Win or Lose Causes of stress change as we age. The stressed child who threw tantrums becomes a young student, stressed by the school bully. The young student becomes a teenager, stressed by acne, hormones, and dating. The teenager becomes a young adult trying to handle the stresses of leaving home, adjusting to college life, and managing finances. Life progresses to first jobs, marriage, children, and so on. Even if you move to a secluded cabin in the woods, stress will follow you. Gaining knowledge of the leading causes of stress is important. Using that knowledge to win over unhealthy stress is vital.

Strategies for Managing Stress:

Stress management strategy #1: Avoid unnecessary stress

• • • • •

Learn how to say “no” Avoid people who stress you out Take control of your environment Avoid hot-button topics Pare down your to-do list

Stress management strategy #2 Alter the situation

• • • •

Express your feelings instead of bottling them up Be willing to compromise Be more assertive Manage your time better

Stress management strategy #3 Accept the things you can’t change

• • • •

Don’t try to control the uncontrollable Look for the upside Share your feelings Learn to forgive

Stress management strategy #4 Adapt to the stressor

• • • •

Reframe problems Look at the big picture Adjust your standards Focus on the positive

ADAPTATION

The process through which a person changes in response to stress

• According to Location

1. Physical

e.g. (Cold,Heat, chemical agents)

2. Physiologic

e.g. (pain and Fatigue)

3. Psychosocial e.g. (Failing exams and losing a job)

• According to involved persons

1. Day to day stressors 2. Major complex occurrences involving large groups 3. Less frequent stressors involving few groups

• According to Duration

1. Acute time limited stressor 2. Stressor sequence 3. Chronic intermittent stressor 4. Chronic Enduring Stressor

SYMPTONS OF STRESS

Heart Disease Hypertension Depression Headache Sick often Irritable Memory loss Cancer Diabetes Neck and back pain

Many health problems are caused or exacerbated by stress, including:
• • • •

Pain of any kind Heart disease Digestive problems Sleep problems

• • • •

Depression Obesity Autoimmune diseases Skin conditions, such as eczema

Manifestations of Stress
Physiologic     Sweat production Heart rate & Cardiac output inc Skin is Pale Dry mouth

Psychological

 

Depression Extreme feeling of sadness, despair, dejection, lack of worth, or emptiness

Emotional Symptoms

• • • •

Tiredness Sadness Emptiness Numbness

Behavioral Signs

• •

Irritability Inability to concentrate Difficulty in making decisions Crying Sleep disturbance Social Withdrawal

• • •

Physical Signs

• • • • •

Loss of appetite Weight loss Constipation Headache Dizziness

Anxiety

State of mental uneasiness, dread, or foreboding or a feeling helplessness related to impending or anticipated threat to self or significant relationships

Fear

Emotion or feeling of apprehension aroused by impending or seeming danger pain or a perceived threat

Anger

 

Emotional state consisting of a subjective feeling of animosity or strong displeasure Can be Verbal or Non verbal
  

Hostility – overt antagonism harmful or destructive behavior Violence – exertion of physical force to injure or abuse Aggression – unprovoked attack, or a hostile, injurious or destructive action or outlook

Relaxation Techniques
Abdominal Breathing Music Taking a walk Petting an animal

Taking a break/vacation Getting a massage
Praying

Why do we get it?
There are four main reasons why people get stressed. One is purely physical - changes in our bodies through adolescence, the aging process, being ill, etc. can cause people to feel stressed. Another cause of stress can be our reaction to our environment. A particularly noisy or polluted environment, for example, can lead to stress. Other causes of stress can be found in the demands people make of us. For example, being required to meet deadlines, give presentations or organise an important family get-together can put a lot of strain on some people. Also in this category we find challenges such as financial difficulties, marital problems and the loss of a close friend or relative, all of which can cause immense stress. Another reason why people get stressed is that their thought patterns enable stress to take hold. What some people may regard as a challenge others may perceive as a serious problem. Hence they will feel stressed about it, their brains triggering a stress response in their bodies which will produce stress symptoms. It seems that the main thing which triggers stress is change. Any changes in our lives (be they bad or good) can cause a person to feel stressed and lead to related physical symptoms.

How Do I Know I am Stressed
• • • • We all suffer from feeling stressed sometime. We feel stress for lots of reasons. A crisis can make us feel stressed, but so can everyday issues, like worrying about work or money, relationship or family problems. Although a certain amount of stress is normal, too much can contribute to physical and psychological health problems.

How Can I Manage Stress Better?

• • • • • •

1. Become aware of your stressors and your emotional and physical reactions. 2. Recognize what you can change. 3. Reduce the intensity of your emotional reactions to stress. 4. Learn to moderate your physical reactions to stress. 5. Build your physical reserves. 6. Maintain your emotional reserves.

What are the effects of stress?
Stress, apparently, has a major impact on society. It has been estimated that over 30 million working days are lost every year through stress. And that is just in the UK! However the problem is not confined to the UK. In fact the number of working days lost through stress-related problems is so great that the World Health Organisation has dubbed stress 'a global epidemic'. The WHO may well be right: according to some statistics more than 75% of patients in doctors' surgeries are there because of stress-related problems or illnesses. Work seems to be a major cause of stress: it is often said that most heart attacks happen on Monday mornings when people get to work.

How to Reduce, Prevent, and Cope with stress
• • • If you’re living with high levels of stress, you’re putting your entire well-being at risk. Stress wreaks havoc on your emotional equilibrium, as well as your physical health. It narrows your ability to think clearly, function effectively, and enjoy life.

So what's the cure?

The symptoms of stress are so varied that there isn't just one way of curing it. Surgeons cannot simply x-ray a patient suffering from stress, locate the source of the complaint and then operate to remove it! Doctors' responses range from doling out anti-depressants and other medicines to recommending meditation and yoga. If anyone ever develops a pill to cure stress they will no doubt make a lot of money

Summary
Stress is a person’s physical and emotional response to change. Although most people tend to think of all stress as bad, it can be either positive or negative. An example of positive stress is having a new baby. The death of a loved one is an example of negative stress Stress can also be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term) in nature. Acute stress may occur after hearing a sudden, loud noise, whereas chronic stress may stem from ongoing financial problems. Chronic stress is associated with a number of conditions, including insomnia, major depression and digestive problems. Reactions to a specific stressor (an agent that causes stress) vary among individuals. However, stress affects everybody in predictable, physical ways. It causes the release of certain chemicals that raise the blood pressure and heart rate, increase the metabolic rate, and prepare the body for a “fight or flight” response Stress can be caused by a number of factors including life events, such as being laid off from work, and daily events, such as traffic congestion. Genetic predisposition may also play a role in how a person copes with stress. Symptoms of stress can be either behavioral or physical. Behavioral symptoms of stress include either difficulty sleeping (insomnia) or excessive sleeping (hypersomnia), nightmares and irritability. Physical symptoms of stress include anxiety, depression and headaches. Individuals should seek assistance from a physician if symptoms of stress are alarming in nature (e.g., pounding heart, shortness of breath) or impede daily functioning. Because of the many physical dangers of stress, stress management has been proposed as a vital component in the treatment of many stress-related conditions.

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