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I. Reported Speech/ Indirect Speech refers to using a noun clause to report what someone has said.

No quotation marks are used. Notice the


changes in the verb forms from quoted speech to reported speech in the following examples.
Quoted speech/Direct Speech
Reported Speech/Indirect Speech
1. She said, I watch TV every day.
1. She said (that) she watched TV every day.
2. She said, I am watching TV every day
2. She said she was watching TV.
3. She said, I have watched TV
3. She said she had watched TV
4. She said. I watched TV.
4. She said she had watched TV.
5. She said, I will watch TV.
5. She said she would watch TV.
6. She said, I am going to watch TV.
6. She said she was going to watch TV.
7. She said, I can watch TV.
7. She said she could watch TV.
8. She said, I may watch TV.
8. She said she might watch TV.
9. She said, I might watch TV.
9. She said she might watch TV.
10. She said, I must watch TV.
10. She said she had to watch TV.
11. She said, I have to watch TV.
11. She said she had to watch TV.
12. She said, I should watch TV.
12. She said she should watch TV.
13. She said, I ought to watch TV.
13. She said she ought to watch TV.
14. She said, Watch TV !
14. She told me to watch TV. (positive command)
15. She said, Dont watch TV!
15. She told me not to watch TV. (negative command)
16. She said, Do you watch TV ?
16.. She asked (me) if I watched TV. (yes/no question)
17. She said, Why do you watch TV?
17. She asked (me) why I watched TV. (wh question)
General Guidance On Tense Usage In A Noun Clause
1. If the reporting verb (the main verb of the sentence, e.g., said) is in the past, the verb in the noun clause/ quoted sentence
will usually also be in a past form.
2. This formal sequence of tenses in noun clauses is used in both speaking and writing. However, sometimes in spoken
English no change is made in the noun clause verb, especially if the speaker is reporting something immediately or soon
after it was said.
Immediate reporting. A : What did the teacher just say? I didnt hear him.
B : He said he wants us to read Chapter Six.
Later reporting.
X : I didnt go to class yesterday. Did Mr. Jones make any assignments?
Y : Yes. He said he wanted us to read chapter Six.
3. Also, sometimes the present tense is retained even in formal English when the reported sentence deals with a general truth:
She said that the world is round.
4. When reporting verb is simple present, present perfect, or future, the noun clause verb is not changed.
She says, I watch TV every day.
She says she watches TV every day.
She has said, I watch TV every day.
She has said that she watches TV every day.
She will say, I watch TV every day.
She will say that she watches TV every day.
(adapted from Understanding and Using English Grammar: Azar, Betty Schrampfer)
Special Notes :
- The most popular verbs used as Reporting Verbs in questions form are: ask, wonder, want to know.
We should change the Pronouns in the direct speech into an indirect form. It depends on the person to whom we speak or say.
I becomes He; she./ My becomes His; her./ Me becomes him; her./ ( You (as subject)becomes I;
she; he; they; we)/ You (as object) becomes me; him; her; them; us/ Your becomes his, her,
their, or us. Personal Pronouns We becomes they; our to their and us becomes them.
E.g.:
She said, Are you happy?
Tony said. I always have my breakfast at seven.
-She asked if/whether I was happy.
-Tony said that he always had his breakfast at seven.
John asked Amir, Do you eat breakfast? Bill asked Tina, Where did Andi find you?
-John asked Amir if he ate breakfast.
- Bill wanted to know where Andi had found her.
Joyo asked Susi and Susan, How do you go to your school?
-Joyo asked them how they went to their school.
They said, Are we invited?
- They wanted to know if they were invited.
We need to change adverb of time:
Direct Speech
Today
Yesterday
The day before yesterday
Tomorrow
The day after tomorrow
Next week/year
Last week/ last year

They said, He hit us and stole our bag.


- They said he had hit them and stolen their bag.
Indirect Speech
That day
The day before
Two days before
The next day/ the following day
In two days time
The following week/year
The previous week/year

Say and Tell


If you say who you are talking to, use tell (tell is followed immediately by a (pro) noun object, e.g.: me, us, John, someone, and then by a noun clause.
Examples: Ann told me that she was hungry.
Ann told us that she was hungry.
Why did you tell the police?
Sonia told me that you were ill.
Say is followed immediately by a noun clause.
Examples: Sonia said that you were ill. What did you say?
Ann said that she was hungry.
Using Ask - If/whether
Sam said to me, Are you hungry?
Sam asked (me) if/whether I was hungry.
[after ask we can omit (pro) noun]
Tell/ask somebody to do something (command and request)
We also use the infinitive (to do/to stay, etc.) in reported speech, especially with tell and ask
(for orders and requests).
Direct
: Stay in bed for a few days, the doctor said to me.
Reported : The doctor told me to stay in bed.

Direct
: Dont shout! I said to Jim.
Reported : I told Jim not to shout.
Direct
: Please dont tell anybody what happened, Ann said to me.
Reported : Ann asked me not to tell anybody what (had) happened.
Change the following sentences into indirect speech.
1. Ed asked me, Why didnt you come to Vals wedding party last week?
2. Gerald and Kim said, We are going to renovate our house immediately.
3. Tom and David begged, Please lend us some money.
4. The reporter interviewed me, Did you catch a clear sight of the robber?
5. I strolled as much as I could when I was in the country, Sam told.
6. Fred came and asked, Dan, were you also questioned by those two strangers?
7. This is the lagoon Ive told you many times, Zack said to me firmly.
8. He suddenly whispered, Are you here to face your destiny?
9. We have always been ready to take any possible consequences, they assured the leader.
10. Jim asked, Pam, what did you do when I was away on business last Wednesday?

Find the best option !


1.Tatang: Im not fond of playing football.
Andi : Dont you play at all?
What did Andi say?
A. He told Tatang that he was not fond of playing football. D. He wanted to know whether he
didnt
B. He asked Tatang not to play football
play at all.
C. He asked Tatang why he didnt play football
E. He said that he didnt play
football.
2. Lora : Its nine oclock, but Fithri hasnt come yet.
Mency: Did you remind her to come yesterday?
Mency asked Lora if.
A. you reminded her to come yesterday D. She reminded her to come yesterday
C. I reminded her to come yesterday
B. She reminded you to come yesterday E. She had reminded her to come the day before.
3. Dont be lazy! He asked me.
He asked me
A. dont be lazy
B. not to be lazy
C. arent be lazy D. not be lazy E. didnt be lazy
4. The teacher asked the lazy student.the English classes.
A. Why hadnt he attended C. hadnt he attended E. how often he had attended
B. when had he attend
D. that he attended
5. I asked Bob
A. Where he did come from?
C. From which he came? E, From here is he?
B. From where was he coming? D. Where he came from?
6. I forgot to ask.
A. why the boys were absent.
C. when were the boys absent E. were the boys absent
B. If the boys absent
D. that the boys were absent
7. What did the cashier of the bookstore tell you?
She told me in credit card.
A. not paying B. Not pay C. Lets not pay D. Not to pay E. Did not pay
8. The secretary asked me.with Mr. Sigit.
A. did I have an appointment
C. whether I had an appointment E. that I had an appointment
B. how was my appointment
D. when is your appointment.
9. The librarian asked me
A .why had I returned the books?
C. when did I return the book? E. where was the book I
had
B. Whether I had returned the book D. that I returned the book
returned.
10. He told us .homeless by the flood last week.
A. if many people were made
C. whether many people were made E. that many people
made
B. were many people were made
D. that many people were made
11. Didnt your mother ask you .too much money on cigarettes?
A. not waste
C. that you didnt waste E. dont waste.
B. whether you didnt waste
D. not to waste
12. He said to me Dont spend too much money!
A. He said to me that I spend too much money
D. He asked me that I spent too much
money.
B. He asked me whether I spent too much money E. He told me not to spend too much
money

C. He ordered me that I spent too much money


13. John asked .
A. where Mary lived.
C. Mary lived here
B. Mary did live here
D. Where did Mary lived
E. Where Mary did live
14. Did she leave a message for me?
Yes she said .tonight.
A. she called you
B. you called her C. I would call you D. she would call her E. she would
call you.
15. Did Hasan decide to study hard?
Yes, he told me
A. he had decided to study hard. C. that he had decided to study hard E. he studied hard
B. He decided to study hard
D. that he decided to study hard
16. My friend said to me, Can I find you a hotel? It means:
A. My friend asked me if I could help him find a hotel B. my friend said that I could help him
find a hotel
C. wondered it my friend could help me find a hotel
D. My friend asked me to find a hotel
for him
E. My friend asked me whether he could help me find a hotel
17. Can John come to the party tonight?
Yes, he asked me
A. if he could go with us
C. going with us
B. can he go with us
D . whether he goes with us E. He went with us
18. Did she leave a message for me?
Yes, she said tonight.
A. she called you
C. you called her
E. I would call you.
B. she would call her
D. she would call you
19. Ive been writing letters, Don answered.
A. Don answered that he had been writing letters. D. Don answered that he was writing
letters
B. Don answered that he has been writing letters.
E. Don answered that the has been
written letters.
C. Don answered that he wrote letters.
20. John said to me, Why do they go abroad so often?
John asked me ..
A. If they went abroad so often C. why do they go abroad so often E. Why they went abroad
so often
B. did they go abroad so often.
D. Why do they do