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PublicPolicyisthedecisionsandnondecisionsofthegovernment

The3majortheoriesoftheroleinterestgroupstakeinmakingpublicpolicyare
pluralism,theeliteclasstheory,andhyperpluralism
Pluralismiswheremanydifferentgroupstrytoinfluencepublicpolicybyconvincing
andbargainingwithothergroupstomakedeals,nosinglegroupgets100%ofwhat
theywant,nordotheygetnothing
Theeliteclasstheoryiswherefewgroupsgeteverythingtheywant,butwealthisthe
sourceofpoliticalpower
Hyperpluralismiswhenmanydifferentgroupstrytoinfluencepublicpolicy,theyhave
contradictorypolicies,andthepublicpolicybecomesparalyzed
Liberalsareindividualswhosupportgovernmentinvolvementineconomicmattersbut
opposeinothermatters
Conservativesareindividualsthatopposegovernmentinvolvementwitheconomic
matters
ThesignificanceofShaysrebellionisthatitleadtoacallforastrongernational
government
Theseparationofpowersisthedividingrulemakingofgovernmentinto3parts
Checksandbalancesiswhereeachbranchofnationalgovernmenthassomepowers
overtheother2branches
TheSupremacyclauseiswhereifthenationalgovernmentsayssomethingandthe
statesdisagree,thenationallawissupreme.itsinarticle6oftheconstitution.natl
govt>stategovt
Amandateistheprerequisiteorrequirementtogetagrant
Therecenttrendregardinggrantsisthatthenationalgovernmentisusingmore
categoricalgrantsandlessblockgrants
CivillibertiesarelegalprotectionsUScitizenshaveagainsttheirowngovernment
Thepartofthe14thAmendmentthatisthefoundationofstatecivillibertiesistheDue
ProcessClause
RulesregardingPrayerinpublicschoolsarethattheymustbestudentledand
voluntary
3typesofspeechthatarenotprotectedare:privateproperty,commercialspeech,and
tv&radiostations
ThepresumptionregardingspeechintheUSAisthatallspeechintheUSis
presumedtobeprotectedbythefirstamendment
ProbableCausearefactsthatwouldleadareasonablepersontoconcludethatthis
otherpersonhadcommittedorwasintheactofcommittingaspecificcrime,itis
requiredforallsearches,seizures,orarrests
SocialSecurityisincrisisbecausemorepeoplearetakingoutnowthaneverbefore
Thebiggestcriticismofpublicopinionpollingisthatitcanhaveaquestionbiaswhere
thequestioncanalterthepoleandtheresultsfromslightlyrephrasing,oritcan
precludeparticipationbecausemediawantstobethefirsttotell
Thetwoeventsthatmadereportersthinkthepresidentwaslyingwerethevietnam
warandthewatergatescandal,whichcausedinvestigativejournalismtobegin

Journalistssometimesencouragethegovernmenttodomorewhentheywanttosway
publicopiniontoswaycongress
Journalistssometimesdiscouragethegovernmentfromdoingmorewhentheyuse
yellowjournalismtospreadscandals,corruption,andgossip
PoliticalPartiesinfluencepublicpolicybyrunningcandidates
Thesinglebiggestinfluence3rdpartieshavehadonAmericanpoliticsisthatthey
bringupissuesthatbiggerpartiesotherwisewouldnot
Thetechnologythathashadthebiggestimpactonpoliticalcampaignsisthetelevision
Inanonelectionyear,interestgroupscanaidofficialsbypublicizingtheofficials
Interestgroupsaffectpublicpolicybyfocusingononeorfewissues,aninterestgroup
iswheretwoormorepeoplewhoshareinterestareaffectedbypublicpolicyex:
PETA,NAACP
ElectronicmediahaschangedpoliticsinAmericabymakingitfasterandmore
accurate
Theaverageinternetuserisnotmuchbetterinformed/knowledgeablethanothers
becausepeopleuseitforentertainmentandnoteducation
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1stAmendmentFreedomofreligion,speech,press,andassembly
4thAmendmentRighttobesecureagainstunreasonablesearchesandseizures
5thAmendmentRestrictsgovernmentfromforcingyoutogiveevidenceagainst
yourselfruleagainstselfincrimination&yoursilencecantbeusedagainstyou
6thAmendmentcriminaltrial:righttoaspeedyandpublictrial
7thAmendmentciviltrial:rightoftrialbyjuryshallbepreserved,andnofacttriedby
ajuryshallbeotherwisereexaminedinanyCourtoftheUS
8thAmendmentprohibitsstateandnationalgovernmentfromusingcrueland
unusualpunishments
9thAmendmenttheenumerationintheConstitutionofcertainrightsshallnotbe
construedtodenyordisparageothersretainedbythepeople
10thAmendmentpowersreservedtotheStatesortothepeople
13thAmendmentslaveryisprohibited
14thAmendmentEqualityforallpersons.U.S.citizensmaynotbedeprivedoflife,
liberty,orproperty,withoutthedueprocessoflawnordenytoanypersonwithinits
jurisdictiontheequalprotectionoflaws
15thAmendmentgaveallmentherighttovote
16thAmendmentpowertolayandcollecttaxesonincomes
17thAmendmentRightto2SenatorsfromeachStatefor6yearsea.Senatorshall
haveonevote
18thAmendmentCantmanufacture,sale,ortransportintoxicatingliquorsintoorout
oftheUS
19thAmendmentRighttovotecantbedeniedbasedongender
21stAmendmentRepealsthe18thamendment
22ndAmendmentPresidentscanonlybeelectedtwice
25thAmendmentPresidentcandeclaredisabled

26thAmendmentMustbe18tovote
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Bakerv.Carreverydistrictmustcontainthesamenumberofconstituents
McCullochv.MDwhencongressusesimpliedpowers,theystillhavetotieittoan
enumeratedpower
Marburyv.MadisonSupremecourthasfinalauthority,judicialreview
Gibbonsv.Ogdencongresshadexclusivenationalpoweroverinterstatecommerceandto
argueotherwisewouldleadtocontradictingpolicies
U.S.v.Lopezcongressmaynotusethecommerceclausetoregulatepublicschools
Gitlowv.NYthedueprocessclauseofthe14thamendmentappliestheBORstothestates,
whichiscalledselectiveincorporation
Schneckv.USonlyspeechyoucangetintroubleforisclearandpresentdanger,threat
mustbespecificandimmediate
Millerv.CAmaterialmustexcitesomeonesexuallyandexistJUSTforthepurposetoexcite
someone
NYTimesv.Sullivancelebritiessuingnewsmediaforlibelmustprovefalseandhurtful
Mappv.Ohioanyevidenceobtainedillegallywillnotbeusedagainstintrialpurposeisto
discouragepolicemisconduct
Reedv.Reedfirsttimethesupremecourtsaidgendersmaynotbetreateddifferentlyunder
theconstitution
Craigv.Borenlawspertainingtogendermustgothroughjudicialreviewbeforebeing
passed
Harrisv.Forkliftsystemunwelcomereferencesingenderorsexisstillharassmentknownas
hostileenvironment
UCRegentsv.Bakkenoracialquotas
Mirandav.AZWhenpolicearrestsomeone,musttellarrestee3things:righttonotanswer
anyquestions,theconsequenceoftalking:ITWILLBEUSEDAGAINSTYOU,&youcan
havealawyerpresent
Gideonv.Wainwrightindividualscanhaveastateappointedlawyeriftheycantaffordone
oriftheyfacethepossibilityofjailtime
Furmanv.Georgiasupremecourtsaidthatthedeathpenaltyisnotunusual,eventhoughit
iscruel
NCv.WoodsoncertainpenaltiesAREcruelandunusual
Griswoldv.ConnecticutfirsttimesupremecourtfoundarighttoprivacyintheBOR
Roev.Wadeprivacyrightforherbody(uterus)vs.liferightofthefetus
Nearv.Minnesotacensorshiponlyallowedifitsamatterofnationalsecurity
PlannedParenthoodv.Caseyreemphasizeastatesinterestinprotectinglifestatescan
requirea24hrwaitingperiod,mayreceiveparentalconsentandproofofnonviabilityto
surviveoutsideofmomstatesmayrequirewomentogetconsentfromhusbandsand
husbandsONLY
DredScotv.SanfordAfricansarenotcitizens,theygetnorightsindividually
Plessyv.FergusonwhitesonlyandcoloredonlyrailroadcarsinLouisianawhilethe14th
amendmentrequiresequalquality,doesnothavetobethesame

Korematsuv.USchallenginginternmentofJapaneseAmericansduringWWIIstatesthat
treatpeoplediff.becauseoftheirracewillbecomeinvalid.Inherentlysuspectakapresumed
invalid:StatelawsbasedonraceakaRacialClassificationLaws
Brownv.BoardofEducationoverturnsPlessyv.Ferguson,endssegregationinpublic
schools
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The1964CivilRightsActprohibitsdiscriminationinhousing,employment,andpublic
accommodationsifsuchunequaltreatmentisbasedonrace,religion,gender,ethnicity,or
nationalorigin(alsocoversgender)
TheVotingRightsActMeanttoenforcethe15thAmendment,specificallyprohibits
grandfatherclause&literacytests
TheWarPowersActLimitsthepresidentsabilitytowagewarwithoutcongress
TheAmericanswithDisabilitiesActemployersmustprovidedisabledemployeeswith
reasonableaccommodations
TheSimpsonMazzoliActemployersmustdocumentemployeesiftheyareimmigrants
TheFederalElectionCampaignActcampaignshavetodisclose2thingsaboutfunding:
whereitcomesfromandwhatitwasspenton
TheEqualRightsAmendmentamendmentpassedtoguaranteeequalrightsforwomen
TheCommerceClauseallowscongresstoregulatetradearticle1section8
FullFaithandCredit/PrivilegesandImmunitiesstatesmustacknowledgethelicenses
anddecisionsoftheotherstatesstatelawsmusttreatallamericansthesame
Federalismtherearetwodifferentlevelsofauthority:nationalandstates
Grantsmoneygivenfromthenationalgovernmenttothestates
TheDueProcessClauseappliestheBillofRightstothestatesselectiveincorporation
TheEqualProtectionClause14thamendmentnordenytoanypersonwithinits
jurisdictiontheequalprotectionofthelawsstatelawsmaynotdiscriminate
TheLemontestlawmusthaveanonreligiouspurposeandmaynothaveaproreligious
effect
TheExclusionaryRuleanyevidenceobtainedillegallywillnotbeusedagainstintrial
TheRighttoPrivacytherighttoexcludeothersnotexplicitlymentionedanywherein
BORs4thamendmentinvolvesprivacyviewedtobea9thamendmentlistedright
GrandfatherClausesandLiteracyTestsifyourgrandfathercouldvote,thenyoucantoo
teststhathadtodowithreading.specificallyprohibitedbytheVotingRightsActof1965
AmericanEthnicGroupswhite:caucasian/whiteeuropeansmakeupmorethanhalfofour
populationlatino:2ndlargestethnicgroupinamerica,15%ofUSpopulation,usuallyhave
jobsthatgetpayedlittleafricanamerican:kidnappedforslavelabor,currently10%12%of
USpopulation,havebeenexertingmorepoliticalinfluenceoverpast40yearsasian:came
becauseamericahashigherpayingjobs.professionals,buthigherpayingthantheirhome.
mostskilled/educatedimmigrantgroup,secondwealthiestnativeamericans:poorestofall
groups,economicallyworstoff,leasthealthy,leasteducated
PoliticalSocializationhowpeoplelearnvaluesregardingpublicpolicy(family,TV,school)
PublicOpinionPollingaskasampleofpeopleandpredicttherestoftheanswers
MediaEventshighlyscriptedeventsjusttobecoveredbythemedia

WireServicesnewspapersbegantousethetelegraphtosharestoriesusedtelegraph
wires
USAvs.EuropeUShasmorepartiestochoosefromEuropepartiesaremoreformalized
UShasasmallertaxratethananyEuropeannation,wegetlessinservicesforthemoneywe
putin
DownsTheoryTheresapoliticalspectrumofextremityonpoliticallevel,mostAmericans
nearmiddleinordertowin,policiesmustbenearthemiddle
PartyRealignmentvoter/groupofvotersstopsupportingoneparty&startssupporting
another
PartyDealignmentwhenyougofromsupportingapartytonotsupportingany
DividedGovernmentwhenthepresidentisamemberofoneparty,butcongressis
dominatedbytheotherparty
PartyPlatformpartystanceonanissueforthenext4years
Coalitionsindividualsgatheredaroundsameparty/issue,buthavelittleornothingelsein
common
SplinterPartytakesmembershipfromoneofthetwomajorparties
PrimaryElectionsregisteredvoterscasttheirvotesforwhotheydlikeaspartycandidates
Factorsinfluencingwhetherornotapersonvotesthehigheronessocialclass,the
morelikelytheyaretoparticipatetheolderyouare,themoreyouwanttoparticipateage,
education,income,howinvolved/difficulttheprocessisGENDERHASNOIMPACT
FactorsinfluencingforwhomapersonvotespoliticalpartyID&thecandidates
themselves:appearance,personality,specificpolicies
Differencesbetweenpoliticalpartiesandinterestgroupspoliticalpartiesruncandidates,
interestgroupsdonotinterestgroupsarefocusedonmoreissues
IronTriangleGovernedby3maingroups,ifoutsidethegroup,doesnthaveasay
OlsonsLawbiggerinterestgroupshavemorefreeriders
DifferencesbetweentheHouseandtheSenatemorerulesintheHousethanSenate
FilibusteringisONLYallowedinthesenate(unlimitedamountoftimeforspeechtokillabill)
senatehasmorerequirementsmorepoliticalpartycontroloverhousemembersthansenate
alltaxlawsMUSTstartinthehouseHouseONLYpicksthepresidentiftheresnoelectoral
winsenateONLYconfirmspresidentialtreatiesandappointments
Incumbencysomeonethatholdsaspotinoffice,ortheperiodthataspotinofficeisbeing
held
PoliticalActionCommitteesagroupofvotersorganizetoraisemoneyforcandidateor
cause
CongressionalCommitteessmallgroupsofcongressmenthatareexpertsinaparticular
areaandtosplitworkload
CongressionalCaucusesgroupsofcongressmenthatvotearoundtheirothercaucuses
ratherthanparties
Impeachmenttoremovefromofficeaccusethatmayleadtoimpeachment
PresidentialTraditionsinvolvedinforeignaffairs,cabinet,involvedineconomy
PresidentialApprovalratingpolledandtrackedbymedia.mostimportantfactorpolicies,
politicalparty

FederalRevenueincometaxes,socialinsurancetaxes,andmoneyborrowed
Entitlementssocialsecurity:designedtoberetirementpensionmoney,medicare:health
careforoldpeople,affordablecareact:obamacare:healthcareforALLamericans
Patronagesupport,encouragement,privilege,orfinancialaidgivenbyanorganization
Incrementalismideathatthebestwaytobudgetforagencyistouselastyearsbudgetand
bumpitupalittlebit
BecomingaFederalJudgemustbeappointed
Thewaysjudgesareprotectedfrompublicopiniontheydontgetelectedtheyre
appointed
JudicialActivism/JudicialRestraintjudicialactivism:judicialrulingssuspectedofbeing
basedoffpersonalorpoliticalconsiderationsratherthanexistinglaws
judicialrestraint:encouragesjudgestolimittheexerciseoftheirownpower
TheElectoralCollegemethodbywhichpresidentandvicepresidentarechosennotused
foranythingelse
SelectiveIncorporationTheDueProcessClauseofthe14thamendmentappliesthe
BORstothestates
TheCivilRightsMovementmassprotestmovementagainstracialsegregationinthesouth
TicketSplittingwhenapersonvotesforcandidatesinmorethanonepartyinthesame
election
PorkBarrelingcongressionalcongressmentakeallthetaxmoneyanduseitfortheirown
constituents
PocketVetowhenapresidentdoesnotactonabillandcongressisnotinsessionthatday