Contents Standard Models

Bösendorfer—The Viennese Art of Piano Making The History—Father and Son ...................................................... 2 Model 130—The Upright Piano ................................................... 6 CS-Models—Conservatory Series .............................................. 8 Model 170—A Magical Beginning ........................................... 10 Model 185—The Baby Grand ....................................................... 12 Model 200—The Classic .............................................................. 14 Model 214—The Salon Grand .................................................... 16 Model 225—The Half Concert Grand ..................................... 18 Model 280—The Giant of the Stage ...................................... 20 Model 290 Imperial—The Commanding One .................... 22 CEUS—The Celestial ...................................................................... 24

Craftsmanship
Bösendorfer—A Tour Through the Factory Woodworking .................................................................................. 32 Plate Department ........................................................................... 38 Building the Inner Rim .................................................................. 42 Finish ................................................................................................... 52 Action .................................................................................................. 56 Finalizing, Voicing .......................................................................... 60 Intensive Quality Control ............................................................ 64

Special Models
Personalized Production—Out of Love for Design Model EDGE—The Prizewinner ............................................... 70 Johann Strauss Model—The Dancing Model ...................... 72 Franz Schubert Model—The Poetic One ............................... 74 Senator Model—The Serious One ........................................... 76 Franz Liszt Model—The Unshakable ...................................... 78 Louis XVI Model—The Contemplative One ........................ 80 Baroque Model—Opulence ....................................................... 82 Frédéric Chopin Model—The Romantic One ...................... 84 Design by F. A. Porsche—A Design Item .............................. 86 Vienna Model—The Traditional One ..................................... 88 Artisan Model—The Artistic One ............................................ 90 Anything is Possible—The World of Surfaces ..................... 92 Distinguishing Features .............................................................. 96 Bösendorfer Grand Pianos Overall View ............................... 97

Editorial · Editor, responsible for the content L. Bösendorfer Klavierfabrik GmbH, Bösendorferstraße 12, 1010 Vienna · Photos Bösendorfer, David M. Peters · Design FineStudios®

STANDARD MODELS

Bösendorfer— The Viennese Art of Piano Making
Bösendorfer ranks among the world’s oldest piano manufacturers, rich in tradition and world-famous for its unmistakably inspiring sound as well as the outstanding quality of its instruments. The selection of first-class materials and above all the extremely careful craftsmanship—most of which is still done by hand—distinguish each individual Bösendorfer. Our product range encompasses grand pianos in seven different sizes, from 170 to 290 cm in length, an upright “with the sound of a grand,” as well as the CEUS computer grand, with which you can record your playing and play it back like magic. Yet it is not magic that makes a Bösendorfer so special. In every Bösendorfer piano is not only the work of an entire year, but also the know-how that is passed on from one generation to the next. Acquiring a Bösendorfer is a lifetime dream for many people. For them, we build something very special, with devotion and professionalism: the “Bösendorfer among the grands.”

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The History Father and Son
Ignaz Bösendorfer, the son of Viennese master carpenter Jakob Bösendorfer and his wife Martha, was born in 1794. At 19, the young Bösendorfer commenced his apprenticeship with a Viennese organ and piano builder. A good master had found a brilliant student.
Ignaz Bösendorfer

Vienna, 1828: Franz Schubert was buried next to Beethoven a year after the latter’s death. Before them, this city on the Danube was already home to Mozart and Haydn. That year, Ignaz Bösendorfer requested a business license to start his own piano manufacturing company. He took over his master’s factory and began building his own instruments. At that time the young Franz Liszt, with his impulsive playing technique, wrecked nearly every piano made available to him. Upon the advice of several friends, he tried this with a Bösendorfer grand—which held up to

his playing! At a single blow, the “Bösendorfer” became famous as a concert grand. In 1830, the Emperor of Austria named Ignaz Bösendorfer “Imperial and Royal Piano Purveyor to the Court”— the first piano maker to be granted this honor. Numerous gold medals and first prizes followed. The increasing demand for his pianos led him to consider founding a new factory. Unfortunately he did not live to see this project realized; he died in 1859. His son Ludwig, born in 1835, took over the company. When Ludwig was 24 years old, his far-sighted father revealed to him the secret of Bösendorfer pianos. Ludwig, a highly gifted mu-

Vienna, 1892: Ludwig Bösendorfer presents his piano to His Majesty Emperor Franz Joseph I.

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Franz Liszt playing for Emperor Franz Joseph and Empress Elisabeth in the Redoute of Buda. Replica by Franz Schmaus and Karl Lafitte

Piano transport during Ludwig Bösendorfer’s time.

sician with an exceptionally good ear, improved the instruments such that the Bösendorfer name became inextricably linked to the terms “music” and “touching sound.” His demands for uncompromising quality continue to hold today for all of Bösendorfer’s employees, particularly in the Wiener Neustadt factory, where Bösendorfer pianos have been built since 1973.

At the same time, Bösendorfer is closely connected to musical culture: for over 40 years, up to just before the First World War, Bösendorfer Hall was the most frequented concert hall for chamber music in Vienna, due to its outstanding acoustics. Over 4500 concerts took place, by such luminaries as Anton Rubinstein, Franz Liszt, Eugen d’Albert, Johannes Brahms, Ernst von Dohnány, Max Reger, Arthur Rubinstein, Béla Bartók, Edvard Grieg, Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss. At the end of the 19th century, Bösendorfer pianos were built for the imperial court, for Empress Elisabeth, Empress Eugenie of France, the emperor of Japan, the czars of Russia and other prominent personalities. Today, Bösendorfer Hall is a popular performance venue for

Ludwig Bösendorfer

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chamber music and solo concerts. In our showrooms in Vienna, you can play an exquisite selection of our unique instruments. Since 1913, these pianos have been housed in one of the world’s most important musical centers: Vienna’s Musikverein, a popular meeting place for artists from all over the world. Here is a list—an incomplete one, of course—of some of the most prominent artists who play or have played Bösendorfer pianos, as well as personalities who own or have owned a Bösendorfer instrument: ABBA Tori Amos Vladimir Ashkenazy Charles Aznavour Wilhelm Backhaus Paul Badura-Skoda Béla Bartók The Beatles Leonard Bernstein Walter Berry Johannes Brahms Dave Brubeck Ferruccio Busoni José Carreras Jörg Demus Plácido Domingo George Duke Antonin Dvorák Duke Ellington Philippe Entremont Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau Emperor Franz Joseph I

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Peter Gabriel Richard Gere Emil Gilels Edita Gruberova Friedrich Gulda Thomas Hampson Anthony Hopkins Herbert von Karajan Alexei Kornienko Gidon Kremer Piano Duo Kutrowatz Jack Lemmon Yundi Li Valentina Lisitsa Franz Liszt Gianluca Luisi Lorin Maazel Nikita Magaloff Gustav Mahler Yehudi Menuhin Gabriela Montero Anne Sophie Mutter

Napoleon III (Eugenie) Garrick Ohlsson David & Igor Oistrach Alfredo Perl Oscar Peterson André Previn Hermann Prey Sviatoslav Richter Mstislav Rostropovich Gonzalo Rubalcaba Anton Rubinstein Fazil Say András Schiff Arnold Schönberg Frank Sinatra Vladimir Sokoloff Edna Stern Cheryl Studer Richard Wagner Wiener Philharmoniker Stevie Wonder Joe Zawinul

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The Upright Piano—Model 130 That sounds like a grand
Many people say Bösendorfer’s 130 CL model sounds like a grand piano; many think it is the best upright piano in the world. Naturally it benefits from all the expertise of our craftsmen just as our grand pianos do. By definition it has all the advantages of an upright piano over a grand piano: it is smaller and needs less space, it is easier to acquire and is more affordable. The precision installation of the mechanics is designed to deliver optimal playability and maximum control without loss of power transmission. Model 130 CL is a tremendously elegant design and its proportions are perfectly balanced. In other words, it is a beauty. It is probably the easiest way to share the exclusive, world-famous Bösendorfer name.

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“ Bösendorfer is the royal class of pianos.” Axel Zwingenberger 7

The Conservatory Series—CS Models The best tool has got to be a Bösendorfer
Those who desire to learn their craft properly should work with the best available tool from the very beginning. This is why we at Bösendorfer came up with something special: the CS series grand pianos. The finish is less labor-intensive and the design has been marginally simplified in order to help students obtain the best affordable tool. These pianos are available in sizes 170, 185, 200 and 214 and by no means fall short of our standard models technically or sonically. Owners of a Conservatory Series piano can be entirely certain they are playing an instrument that offers them the best prerequisites for a successful career. Only with the best instrument, one built for the highest demands and brilliant virtuosity, it is possible to develop and realize technical proficiency and artistic subtleties. We are convinced that our Conservatory Series will inspire those lovers of exquisite musical instruments who will now consider affording a Bösendorfer for the first time.

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“ Many of my best and most motivated students grew up with a Bösendofer. It imparts that inspiration, that energy, life-long joy in playing and stimulates an especially personal creativity.” Paul Badura-Skoda Recipient of the Bösendorfer Ring

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A Magical Beginning—Model 170 Small is relative
Beauty of sound cannot be measured in centimetres. Our 170 model, the smallest of Bösendorfer‘s grand pianos, is specially designed for smaller living spaces— which means you can even enjoy the inimitably rich sound of a Bösendorfer at home. But what does small mean? Our 170 model weighs 314 kilograms and has dimensions of 146 x 170 centimeters. A formidable presence. This piano is built by hand using the highest-quality materials. The sound quality in the bass, in particular, and the range of tonal colours are exceptional for a piano of this size. Its action allows the fastest of repetitions and it has a very precise playing feel. Our 170 model is traditionally finished in highly polished black but can also be finished in a variety of veneers including bird‘s eye maple, burr walnut, amboyna, rosewood, pyramid mahogany, pommele or any other desired finish. And the most beautiful thing of all: it is “a Bösendorfer of grand pianos.”

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Alan Gilbert Musical Director New York Philharmonic

The baby Grand—Model 185 A born cosmopolitan
Our 185 model brings worlds together: the world of the home and the world of public performance. It creates a bridge between private space and public space. Why? Because it can; it is, quite simply, capable of creating this link—in terms of both construction and performance. Its dynamic features make it ideal for more intimate performances in front of a small audience, whilst its sonorous sound is the unmistakable hallmark of a member of the great house of Bösendorfer. That same expertise has gone into its development; the same expert hands that create the full-sized concert grands have brought it to life. Its responsive touch and unique tonal character mean you will experience some exquisite musical moments in the company of your friends.

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Left: Upon closing, Bösendorfer fall boards are gently cushioned by a custom device. Right: Bösendorfer grands have six different music stand positions.

The Classic—Model 200 You will love it too
Music schools love it. Conservatories love it. And who knows? Maybe you will love it too. Our model 200 has been enormously popular for more than fifty years. By creating it, Bösendorfer has produced a piano that clearly longs for its tonal and dynamic affinities to come under scrutiny alongside those of its “big brothers,” which is why it is so often the choice of professional teachers at conservatories and music schools. But its compact size means it is equally at home in a private space. In playing terms, it has the famous, rich, moving Bösendorfer sound and everything else that makes a genuine Bösendorfer what it is: playability, superior quality workmanship and mechanical design in terms of repetition and stability, and optimal use of materials to create the best sound possible and lasting value.

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“ I perceive a Bösendorfer to be much more than merely a fine piano, but rather the ideal personification of Viennese musical culture. It is no coincidence that precisely this piano evolved in the city of Vienna, which has exerted an irresistible attraction to musical heroes from time immemorial, even to this very day.” Wilhelm Backhaus

The Salon Grand—Model 214 Ideal size and sound
Our salon grand model 214 is happiest demonstrating its concert capabilities at performances in medium-sized concert halls. This is where its strengths can come to the fore: optimal sound transparency, sheer delight in playing, precision of touch, unsurpassed fullness of sound, dynamic control and a sustained tonal character that will be warmly applauded. Salon grands rose in popularity at the start of the Biedermeier period (the style in painting, literature and furniture from around 1815 to 1848). During that era, an important role was played in Viennese musical life by elegantly furnished salons where the foremost composers of their day would present their works. During the 19th century, salons developed into exclusive gathering places for Austria’s aristocratic and bourgeois society. Our 214 model is, naturally, also eminently suitable for private spaces.

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“ And the Bösendorfer is the ideal partner for my Stradivari.” Anne Sophie Mutter

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The Half Concert Grand—Model 225 Inimitable sound
Our grand piano 225 model is built for the stage. Its inimitable sound derives from a combination of experience, skilled craftsmanship, technological expertise, musicality and benefits for the customer. After all, we only build what is of service to you. Anyone who has ever encountered its expressive diversity and inimitably rich, moving sound has experienced something very special indeed. Playing this instrument is an uplifting feeling; experiencing its musical spectrum is equally so. Its size and construction allow this piano to produce a rich palette of sound colours, from the softest pianissimo to the loudest fortissimo. Four additional sub-bass keys also extend the bass range to bottom F. It is thus no wonder that the model 225 is considered the best chamber music instrument of its size and is also highly valued for private use, despite its suitability for the concert stage.

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Plácido Domingo 19

The Giant of The Stage—Model 280 Heart, what more could you desire?
Our constant contact with the world’s greatest pianists and most eminent conductors enabled us to draw up a detailed “wish list” for the concert grand model 280. We have now made this profile a reality through a combination of many new technical developments and special respect for our great musical heritage. The Bösendorfer principle of construction views the entire instrument as a cohesive whole. This is what allows us to achieve our uniquely rich sound colors and characteristic singing timbre, of which our concert grand model 280 is living proof. A new model created for the 21st century, the concert grand is multi-talented. It can hold its own against the forces of a large orchestra yet has all the sensitivity required for an accompanying role in a chamber music setting. In the bass it has a clarity and fundamental tone that no instrument has achieved ever before. Tradition and innovation in association with the best pianists in the world: the stage is yours! 20

“ Congratulations! The new 280 model has the traditional qualities of a Bösendorfer piano, including the melodious sound, and also it has a rich resonance and very responsive key-touch.” Paul Badura-Skoda “ … the best concert grand piano I have ever played.” André Previn

“ I have always admired Bösendorfer grand pianos and have been playing on them for the past 35 years at concerts. I enjoy the clear, strong sound, the unmistakable bass and the wonderful touch of the keys. I am very happy to play the concert grand piano model 280 in the largest concert halls in the world.” Garrick Ohlsson

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The Commanding Flagship—Model 290 Imperial The DNA carrier
Our model 290, the Imperial, carries the Bösendorfer DNA, our heritage in its most pronounced form. Historically, the Imperial was the 19th grand piano model made by the Bösendorfer company. Originally built following a suggestion by the composer Ferruccio Busoni, the Imperial has 97 keys, hence eight full octaves. The powerful sound of this instrument also inspired other composers, including Bartók, Debussy and Ravel, to compose special works which can only be played faithfully on the Bösendorfer Imperial. With its powerful soundboard combined with the high percentage of mountain spruce, its sound is virtually orchestral. In the Imperial, the Bösendorfer resonance case principle—which treats the entire instrument as a sounding body—creates an unexcelled power and touching sonority. The model 290 is the only one of our standard models to have received an epithet when it was first built around 1900: Imperial (Latin “imperare”: to order or command). The Imperial’s commanding presence in some of the world’s great concert halls sets the standard by which other grand pianos are judged. 22

“This is the one!”
Oscar Peterson meets the Bösendorfer Imperial

The Celestial—CEUS Concealed high-tech
One of the cornerstones in the development of our new computer-controlled grand piano CEUS was a scientific study conducted at the Vienna University of Technology which yielded a remarkable result: it analyzed the various ways in which we perceive a musical interpretation either as mechanical or human and was able to relate it to the degree of hammer velocity and strike precision. The prime objective of the Bösendorfer designers therefore became to design a computer-controlled grand piano with recording and playback capabilities so finely tuned that it was able to render an interpretation of a performance, reproducing it with its entire authentic depth of feeling. The dynamic scales of the key movements are rendered absolutely authentically in all ranges from pianissimo to fortissimo. For the first time, the release of the key and consequently the setting of the damper has become perfectly recordable and reproduceable; all pedal movements are now able to be seen as they were originally performed. CEUS’s sampling precision is a factor of 150 (!) times better than that of comparable systems. We perform miniaturized distance measurement on every key. 24

“ Performing with Bösendorfer is always a great pleasure. Huge dramatic sound, different and deepest colors and melodious sound make the difference. I am very glad to have performed with Bösendorfer often. I hope this will last forever.” Fazil Say

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CEUS—Technical Characteristics
• CEUS is available for all Bösendorfer grand pianos from sizes 5’8” to 9’6”. Retrofitting into all Bösendorfer grand pianos is likewise possible (models 170 to 290). • Controlling CEUS is done via the keyboard and brass sensors built into the fall board. An external PC is not necessary for operating CEUS. • The self-playing system works entirely autonomously, without influencing the character and playing of the instrument. • CEUS records even the slightest movements of the keys and pedals via highly sensitive light sensors, saves them on an internal hard drive and outputs them via USB. • The reproducing system works in a specially developed internal format, which can handle the high resolution of the transmitted data. • CEUS is fully MIDI-compatible. • CEUS compensates for climate-induced changes in the action via its automatic calibration. • Serviceability of the instrument remains unchanged. • Accuracy of striking keys: any possible timing difference between recording and playback is under 2 milliseconds. • Hammer movement before striking keys: the timing for the final 3.7 mm between the hammer head and strings is measured directly at the hammer head with an accuracy of 0.001 milliseconds. • Key/pedal movement: key and pedal movements are sampled every 2 milliseconds at up to 2000 levels. • Dynamics: the intensity of key strike is sampled every millisecond at between 17,000 and 25,000 levels and interpolated to 250 levels. • Internal storage: 100 GB • Ports: USB, MIDI In/Out, ethernet

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Contents Standard Models
Bösendorfer—The Viennese Art of Piano Making The History—Father and Son ...................................................... 2 Model 130—The Upright Piano ................................................... 6 CS-Models—Conservatory Series .............................................. 8 Model 170—A Magical Beginning ........................................... 10 Model 185—The Baby Grand ....................................................... 12 Model 200—The Classic .............................................................. 14 Model 214—The Salon Grand .................................................... 16 Model 225—The Half Concert Grand ..................................... 18 Model 280—The Giant of the Stage ...................................... 20 Model 290 Imperial—The Commanding One .................... 22 CEUS—The Celestial ...................................................................... 24

Craftsmanship
Bösendorfer—A Tour Through the Factory Woodworking .................................................................................. 32 Plate Department ........................................................................... 38 Building the Inner Rim .................................................................. 42 Finish ................................................................................................... 52 Action .................................................................................................. 56 Finalizing, Voicing .......................................................................... 60 Intensive Quality Control ............................................................ 64

Special Models
Personalized Production—Out of Love for Design Model EDGE—The Prizewinner ............................................... 70 Johann Strauss Model—The Dancing Model ...................... 72 Franz Schubert Model—The Poetic One ............................... 74 Senator Model—The Serious One ........................................... 76 Franz Liszt Model—The Unshakable ...................................... 78 Louis XVI Model—The Contemplative One ........................ 80 Baroque Model—Opulence ....................................................... 82 Frédéric Chopin Model—The Romantic One ...................... 84 Design by F. A. Porsche—A Design Item .............................. 86 Vienna Model—The Traditional One ..................................... 88 Artisan Model—The Artistic One ............................................ 90 Anything is Possible—The World of Surfaces ..................... 92 Distinguishing Features .............................................................. 96 Bösendorfer Grand Pianos Overall View ............................... 97

CRAFTSMANSHIP

Bösendorfer— A Tour Through the Factory
People who can create a finished instrument by hand really do exist. They aren’t loners—these people are true team players who desire—each and every one of them—to build the greatest piano in the world, with the greatest dedication. A tour through the Bösendorfer piano factory in Wiener Neustadt, located south of Vienna, provides insight into the astonishing sound forge, which has been among the world’s absolute best since 1828. Accompany us through our factory on the following pages and participate in building a Bösendorfer grand piano!

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Woodworking

Plate department

Finalizing and voicing I

Finalizing and voicing II

Action

Finish

Building the inner rim

Management, Research & Development, Shipping and team members

Woodworking
We manufacture all parts for the basic construction of a Bösendorfer. Resonance Spruce, Resonance Spruce, Resonance Spruce Ever since the piano company was founded in 1828, Bösendorfer has had a clear goal: the touching sound. In order to reach this goal, the strictest quality criteria are established already in the selection of materials. This begins with the unique resonating wood spruce: no other piano has even remotely as high a percentage of spruce as Bösendorfer. Thanks to this wood’s ideal ability to carry sound along the grain, a sound velocity of about 4000 to 5000 meters per second is reached. In addition to spruce, red beech, maple, white beech, linden and alder are primarily used for constructing Bösendorfer pianos. Only trees felled in winter are used: the low humidity of the wood during this season is ideal. Only trees from the European Alps that have grown at an altitude of over 800 meters over sea level and thereby exhibit especially close and sonically ideal tree ring structures are used for a Bösendorfer. Moreover, hillside position and tree growth play a significant role in selection. Trees from northern hillsides are preferred due to their slow growth, and our wood experts accept only trunks whose symmetric branches prevent later twisting of the wood.

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The time factor Time is another significant factor in building the perfect instrument. Bösendorfer forgoes technology-based drying altogether and gives the wood the necessary time of up to five years to dry naturally in the large 4500 m2 lumberyard in order to obtain ideal properties for subsequent further processing. The wood is never exposed to the excessive heat of kilns which can compromise strength and acoustical properties.

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Next, the wood with a size between 20 and 80 mm is cut for the first time; the bark, cracks, perturbing branches, discolorations and embedded resin are thereby removed. The humidity of the wood, which is only about 12% after drying naturally, is then further reduced within 3 to 12 months in a climate-controlled interior space with a constant temperature of 26° C and a relative air humidity of 30%. Bösendorfer is the only manufacturer in the world that practices this especially careful wood drying process in two phases and entirely abstains from using technical kiln drying for reasons of quality. Once the lumber has reached the targeted humidity of 7 to 8%, the real piano construction may begin.

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Handcrafted from the very beginning Already in the machine house, the experienced craftsmen pay attention to the individual properties of the wood—a natural material after all—when cutting, planing, joining, glueing, milling and sanding, and they are thereby supported by state-of-the-art CNC machines, which guarantee absolute precision. For the soundboard, complete freedom from branches, and an especially regular tree ring structure as well as a consistent color are sought. The best results, both acoustically and visually, are thereby achieved and the continual striving for perfection made evident. For milling the individual parts—such as ribs, bridge, pin block and outer rim—over 1200 different jigs are used.

Left: Case part cutting Center: Drying house Right: Glueing of joint connections for the outer rim of resonance spruce with very small annular rings

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The pin block—guaranteeing tonal stability The extremely robustly designed pin block anchors the tuning pins. This construction receives the transferred string tension of up to 20 tons over generations. For the individual layers of the pin block, quartered maple and red beech are used. In the next step, the baseboard of red beech layers is fitted to the cast iron plate by hand in a complex process. Then the three maple layers are glued cross-grained to one another. The maple layers are then connected to the baseboard, and the finished piece is then fitted to the pin block. With a metal blade 0.2 mm in diameter, the precise fit between pin block and plate is checked. Next, the pin block, manufactured in an open construction method, is finished in a beautiful walnut veneer.

Left: Fitting in the pin block Right: Counter sinking tuning pin holes

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Plate department
Bösendorfer plates are the most elaborately made frames in the industry. The heaviest component of any instrument is the cast iron plate. The cast iron molds are cast at the highest precision. GG18 cast iron is used according to our specifications, according to particular elasticity, strength and absorption properties. The cast is then prepared in an intensive hand mold process. After the plates have been delivered, they are calibrated and assigned a work number. All additional parts of the instrument are from that point on individually fitted for this plate. Next, the plate is stored open-air over six months. This gives the iron sufficient time to rid itself of any stress that arose from the different cooling time. In the plate metalworking shop, the gray cast iron plates are ground to the exact size according to the moldings and tuning pin holes, and the mounting points for hitch pins, agraffes and screws are drilled.

Left: Plate storage Right: Fitting in the capo bar

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A special feature of Bösendorfer pianos is their independent capo bar (crossbars for the upper strings, which withstand the greatest string tension). The original string height can thereby be restored even after 100 years of use.

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After quality control, the plates are roughly ground, sprayed with polyester and polished by hand in several steps. Depending on the model size, this process takes between 15 and 25 working hours. After the basic paint work, the plate is sprayed with the bronze-colored paint typical of Bösendorfer. Finally, it is sprayed with a clear top-coat, the final of a total of 10 spraying procedures.

Left: Plate machine raw sanding Top right: Spraying on the 2nd grounding Bottom right: Fine hand wet sanding of 3rd grounding

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Building the inner rim
The sound gets body. The tonal character and the typical colorful timbre are directly related to the construction and design of the instruments. Our goal is to build a resonating body in a way derived from string instruments. To achieve this goal, we use massive resonance spruce exclusively, rather than soundinhibiting, laminated rims.

Top right: Modular glueing of the each case pieces Left: Contour milling of inner rim Bottom right: Setting level and crown bow of soundboard bearing

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The resonance case principle Bösendorfer is the only piano manufacturer in the world to build according to the Viennese piano making tradition. While competitors press the soundboard into a hardwood-veneered, rigid case and thereby maintain the curvature of the soundboard, the crown bow of the Bösendorfer soundboard is itself supporting and integrates the case and inner rim into the total sound. The inner rim is first assembled by gluing the individual rim parts: consisting of solid, red beech and resonance spruce. Via numerous slab structure bridgings and tenon joints, the individual timber elements and struts are interconnected. The instrument thereby is able to hold up under the enormous forces that act upon it over many generations. Bösendorfer uses special glues that withstand even the harshest demands of tropical countries. Upon completion, the inner rim, is connected to the outer rim. The entire outer rim of each Bösendorfer piano virtually consists of quarter-sawn spruce, which— without undue force, and with the aid of small notches—is gently set around and glued to the inner rim. The outer rim’s wood is thereby integrated into the total sound. This principle is one of the most important secrets of the unique Bösendorfer sound, with its incomparable palette of tone colors and the beauty of its tone.

Left: Positioning of the round planed main soundboard rib Right: Glueing on the outer rim of resonance spruce with very small annular rings

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Crowning the soundboard Bösendorfer crowns the soundboard of each grand piano with specially-cut and formed ribs instead of forcing the crown with compression from the rim—as is the customary practice of other manufacturers. This process ensures that the exact crown (soundboard curvature) of Bösendorfer soundboards remains unchanged throughout its lifetime for optimum tone. Subsequently, during the setting of down bearing in the most delicate handcrafted procedure, the height of the glued-on bridge is adjusted, through which the pressure exerted onto the soundboard from the strings is precisely regulated. This is necessary in order to place the soundboard under an optimal elastic tension which makes the perfect transfer of string vibrations possible. Before the final glueing of the soundboard to the soundboard brace, the bridges are then pierced in scrupulous precision work, the bridge pins inserted and the soundboard lacquered.

Left: Setting of down bearing Top right: Fitting the soundboard Bottom right: Notching the treble bridge

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Plate assembly and stringing Once the entire resonating case of the Bösendorfer has been created, the cast iron plate is inserted and everything is united into a static system via numerous connections with the inner rim and pin block. The piano is thus able to absorb the enormous tensile forces of the strings of up to 20 tons. Agraffes and hitch pins for the strings are installed, after which the felt strips are put in place to damp unwanted harmonics. Bösendorfer uses the complex system of single stringing for all its grand pianos, rather than the simple looped stringing. This makes optimal tunability possible and ensures improved tuning and stability. Each string end is looped by hand. The bass strings, produced in our own string manufacturing facility, are also made by hand.

Top right: Fixing plate to the pin block Left: Stringing: Knocking in tuning pins Bottom right: Stringing: adjusting string length to the appropriate number of winding turns

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At the beginning of the bass string, the core wire is wound in the opposing direction by hand with flatly rolled copper wire. This special method of bass string production, which produces unique sonic properties, can be found only at Bösendorfer.

Left: Manual fabrication of base string plait loop Right: Base string spinning

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Finish
Perfect finish in all versions The spectrum of design possibilities ranges from the hand-polished, high-gloss black grand piano to the “Artisan” model artfully crafted down to the finest detail. The experts in finishing work master the art of inlaid work, gold plating, carving and turning to perfection. Bösendorfer is proud of being able to present sensational creations to a global audience in cooperation with the world’s most famous designers and architects. These names include Hans Makart, Theophil von Hansen, Josef Hoffmann, Norbert Schlesinger and Hans Hollein. Our current collaboration with Audi Design may be named in this connection. Manufacturing a classic piano in black high-gloss polyester coating occurs in a timeintensive process. Up to 8 spraying procedures with polyester coating are necessary for a perfect finish, which after a drying period of over two weeks is polished by hand.

Top right: Spraying of thick film piano lacquer Bottom right: Case buffing Left: Lid fine polishing

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For veneered models suitable veneer panels are selected in painstaking detail, cut and provisionally held together with adhesive strips before being glued onto the instrument body and polished. Some models require comprehensive inlays that need to be prepared, and in special cases elements such as hand-carved figurines must be put in place. All models with veneered surface are manufactured in three different versions: high-gloss, semigloss and open-pore. Regardless of the finish, the customer acquires a masterpiece—as both a musical instrument and as piece of art, an instrument that can delight the eye of the beholder each and every day.

Putting together of joint veneers

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Action
Interface between pianist and sound The Bösendorfer action and hammer heads are made by the Renner company according to Bösendorfer’s own specifications (recognizable for instance by the hammer heads’ orange-colored inner felts). Every set of hammers is checked for quality and sound before being placed in use, and assigned to the various models—or rejected if necessary. The hammers’ points of contact are adjusted individually for every instrument before the hammers are glued and filed; the moldings are slightly abraded so that the back checks grip better. Keyboards manufactured to Bösendorfer specification are now sourced exclusively from the select keyboard specialists Laukhuff und Oberhessische Klaviaturenbau. The keysticks are made of spruce (horizontal grain orientation) and the key plate is made of spruce and oak. The action assembly is then mounted to the key plate—precisely matched to that particular piano’s dimensions—with structural woods. The action’s several thousand parts are fitted to the individual instrument and precisely aligned.

Left: Drilling of hammer heads Right: Sideways back check fitting for even spacing on hammer tails

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Attaching the dampers The rows of dampers are individually grouped, drilled and underlaid with felt cloth according to the action. The damper wedges are cut and glued. In the bass section, single and bichord wedges are used; in the midrange trichord wedges are used and flat in the treble plat dampers. The lower damping is prepared for fitting and subsequently the sostenuto rail bracket tightened. Next, attaching the individual dampers occurs with great sensitivity, as they need to lift absolutely simultaneously when the sustain pedal is depressed. Finally, the piano is completely tuned for the first time and inspected by a master craftsperson.

Left: Setting of damper heads and aligning them to the strings Top right: Whippen truing Bottom right: Key height leveling

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Finalizing, voicing
All tonal and action aspects must be perfected and adapted to the customer’s desires. Piano-playing machine Once the instrument has been tuned a third time, the first several-hour-long stress test is performed: the piano-playing robot simulates an intense performance by a pianist. All moving parts are stressed and subsequently meticulously fine-tuned once again in the finalizing and regulation department. This detail-focused preparatory work is valued by customers and partners the world over, since brand-new Bösendorfers are thereby ready for concert use immediately upon delivery. Only after one additional and final tuning along with a rigorous final inspection may the instruments move on.

Left: Automatic playing process Right: Angle setting of back checks

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Voicing “Voicing” refers to the intonation or timbre aspects of each instrument—most specifically, the work performed on the hammer heads. This activity is one of the most sensitive procedures in the entire manufacturing process. Through experience and ability the seasoned and experienced voicer brings out the instrument’s tonal virtues and in accord with the customer’s desires. Every instrument has in its nuances particular tonal virtues due to the use of natural materials such as wood and felt. These virtues are recognized and cultivated by the experienced concert technician. The prerequisite for this work is a perfectly regulated and tuned instrument. Via selective needling of the hammer head with needles of varying strengths, at different angles and parts of the hammer head, the tension within the felt is altered and manipulated. This controlled influence has immediate effects on the tone colors and is decisive in determining whether an instrument has a bright or a dark timbre. Another important area is adjusting the hammers to the strings. With a sandpaper file, the hammer head is brought into the ideal shape and the tip simultaneously filed. The goal of this work is for the hammer head to strike both or all three strings simultaneously. This work is performed in several steps and increasing gradations of detail. The una corda or soft pedal must now be checked and adjusted for effectiveness and evenness. Bösendorfer uses a procedure that involves fine needling to the felt surface, enabling the softest pianissimos.

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Lastly, the hammer head is ironed to adjust to its contour. The result is an instrument that in its tonal beauty and balance is convincing throughout its entire compass. Through the constant change in climatic influences—such as summer, winter, or via the normal wear of the felt during playing—changes in voicing appear over time. These can be rectified by an expert technician, as needed. Finally, the instrument is provided with a stable concert tuning

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Intensive Quality control
Each Bösendorfer instrument must meet strict QC standards before its debut— attesting to an unprecedented reputation that has lasted over 180 years. Regular quality control Since the company’s founding by Ignaz Bösendorfer, quality has continued to be of paramount importance. It is not by coincidence that Bösendorfer was the only one of 150 contemporary piano Austrian builders that continues to this day. The success principle of personal responsibility has remained unchanged: work by the best masters of their fields is rechecked by department supervisors after completing every single production step and only the best is acceptable. Executive experts and inspection masters sign a process slip that accompanies the instrument from its initial manual work through to final inspection. Final inspection The final inspection upon completed construction and tonal adjustment to customer expectations is performed by Bösendorfer’s technical director himself. This final painstaking inspection assures that the instruments leave the factory in impeccable condition. The process slip is then finalized and filed in Bösendorfer’s archive, which has been maintained for over 100 years and survived both World Wars.

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Packing and shipping The risk of damage to instruments in shipping is considerably high. The enormous weight and the instruments’ sensitivity are a challenge even for the best international freight services. Bösendorfer therefore uses the best, most stable and state-of-the-art packing materials, such as glue-free adhesive membranes for protecting the piano lacquer and vacuum packaging for overseas transport. For particularly risky transports, the most stable, special wooden boxes possible are manufactured, with a weight of 280 kg (about 620 pounds). Finally, a highly sensitive impact sensor is installed on the exterior of every piano crate in order to assure that the instrument arrives at its destination in perfect condition.

Left: Massive wooden crate for horizontal transportation Center: Heavy-duty standard packaging on wooden skid, legs and lyra are boxed seperately

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Contents Standard Models
Bösendorfer—The Viennese Art of Piano Making The History—Father and Son ...................................................... 2 Model 130—The Upright Piano ................................................... 6 CS-Models—Conservatory Series .............................................. 8 Model 170—A Magical Beginning ........................................... 10 Model 185—The Baby Grand ....................................................... 12 Model 200—The Classic .............................................................. 14 Model 214—The Salon Grand .................................................... 16 Model 225—The Half Concert Grand ..................................... 18 Model 280—The Giant of the Stage ...................................... 20 Model 290 Imperial—The Commanding One .................... 22 CEUS—The Celestial ...................................................................... 24

Craftsmanship
Bösendorfer—A Tour Through the Factory Woodworking .................................................................................. 32 Plate Department ........................................................................... 38 Building the Inner Rim .................................................................. 42 Finish ................................................................................................... 52 Action .................................................................................................. 56 Finalizing, Voicing .......................................................................... 60 Intensive Quality Control ............................................................ 64

Special Models
Personalized Production—Out of Love for Design Model EDGE—The Prizewinner ............................................... 70 Johann Strauss Model—The Dancing Model ...................... 72 Franz Schubert Model—The Poetic One ............................... 74 Senator Model—The Serious One ........................................... 76 Franz Liszt Model—The Unshakable ...................................... 78 Louis XVI Model—The Contemplative One ........................ 80 Baroque Model—Opulence ....................................................... 82 Frédéric Chopin Model—The Romantic One ...................... 84 Design by F. A. Porsche—A Design Item .............................. 86 Vienna Model—The Traditional One ..................................... 88 Artisan Model—The Artistic One ............................................ 90 Anything is Possible—The World of Surfaces ..................... 92 Distinguishing Features .............................................................. 96 Bösendorfer Grand Pianos Overall View ............................... 97

SPECIAL MODELS

Personalized Production— Out of Love for Design
When Ignaz Bösendorfer founded the Bösendorfer piano company in 1828, piano building was in a phase of strong growth and development. Instrument manufacturers were confronted with the constantly increasing demands that pianists made on their instruments. A unique atmosphere for the piano’s rapid development arose in Vienna’s exceptionally creative musical environment. Ludwig Bösendorfer’s collaboration with artists such as Franz Liszt and Anton Rubinstein, who during their lifetimes were closely connected to the Bösendorfer company, was legendary. Responding to the challenges of sound, playability and formal design were always primary concerns for Bösendorfer as a piano manufacturer and remains so to this day. A piano manufacturer worthy of the name (Latin manus—hand, and facere—making) can also give proof of its ability by building special models and one-of-a-kind instruments. At Bösendorfer, instruments are made by genuine craftspersons!

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The Prizewinner—Model EDGE Configure your dream piano
The model EDGE was proclaimed winner of the first international Bösendorfer Piano Design Award in 2006 by Edelweiss Industrial Design. Part of their philosophy is turning products into an enduring positive experience for consumers. EDGE exhibits a number of distinctive features: • The music desk can be pulled in very close to the pianist. • The fabric-covered music stand padding elegantly allows for pleasing transmission of the piano sound. • Even when the lid is closed, dampened sound can still be projected outward thanks to the increased spacing. At the same time, the larger slot serves as a wide grip that makes opening the lid easy. • The elegant lyre is both durable and discreet. • The modern piano legs are perhaps most remarkable; they echo the piano’s origins as a table instrument. • The matching seat features an improved pneumatic spring action. Elegance and modernity— A great combination for a “grand” piano! 70

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The Dancing Model—Johann Strauss Model Let’s waltz!
Viennese musical history and the Bösendorfer piano factory are inextricably linked. Instruments made by Bösendorfer, the imperial and royal supplier of pianos, were owned not only by royalty and the nobility, but also by the great musicians of their day, including Johann Strauss II. Johann Strauss’s formal title was “court ball director,” but he was more popularly known as the “waltz king.” With Strauss’s music, the popularity of the Viennese waltz spread rapidly. Austria came to be identified with this music—and still is today. The “Blue Danube,” for instance, composed by Strauss in 1867, is Austria’s unofficial national anthem. The Johann Strauss model produced by Bösendorfer today is inspired by the instrument on which the great master wrote his compositions, which is still in the Strauss memorial rooms in Vienna. With this instrument you are acquiring a piece of Viennese musical history.

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“To my esteemed friend, the most perfect tarot player, the great Ludwig Bösendorfer, with pleasant memories.” Johann Strauss Ischl, Austria, August 24, 1897

The Poetic One—Franz Schubert Model Inexhaustible richness
Franz Schubert died on 19 November 1828 at the age of 31 and was laid to rest in Vienna beside Ludwig van Beethoven, as he had wished. A few months earlier, Ignaz Bösendorfer had received his licence to take over his master’s workshop and start producing instruments under his own name. The time at which young Ignaz Bösendorfer was realising his dreams was an exceptionally rich and sensitive one in terms of music. It also coincided with the period 1815 to 1848, whose style of painting, literature and furniture has been known since the beginning of the 20th century as Biedermeier. Schubert’s works always revealed an effervescent inventiveness coupled with an inexhaustible richness of melody and harmony. Created as a homage to this great musician, our Franz Schubert model combines Biedermeier-period and contemporary style elements.

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“The keys become singing voices underneath the hands.” Franz Schubert

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The Serious One—Senator Model Pointing the way
The exceptionally majestic casework of the Bösendorfer Senator model is created by using a combination of two different woods. The external rim, the lid and the fallboard are in polished pyramid mahogany with pear-wood inlays. Our pyramid mahogany is sourced from controlled forest concession areas in West Africa where mature mahogany trunks are felled in keeping with environmentally sound forestry practices. Rough pyramids are created from suitable forks in the wood at the sawmill. Veneers made from this wood are particularly beautiful because of the unique smooth cut and the striking, decorative pyramid design which reflects the light. Over time, the initial light red to reddish-brown colouring darkens to the characteristic warm mahogany tone with its golden shimmer. For centuries, mahogany has been an elegant and expressive wood for fine period furniture. The superb workmanship of this noble wood by Bösendorfer turns every instrument into an individual masterpiece. The Bösendorfer Senator model is as individual as you are.

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Leonard Bernstein

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The Unshakable—Franz Liszt Model Ennobled by the master
As Ignaz Bösendorfer started his own piano manufacturing business in 1828, the young Franz Liszt, with his impulsive playing technique, was wrecking nearly every piano made available to him. Upon the advice of several friends, he tried doing this to a Bösendorfer grand—which withstood his playing! At a single stroke the Boesendorfer became famous as a concert grand, and this at a time when there was no shortage of piano makers. At the time the Bösendorfer company was founded, there were over 150 piano builders active in Vienna alone… The Bösendorfer model Liszt came about in honor of the exceptional pianist and composer Franz Liszt. The Bösendorfer model Liszt is veneered in Vavona—a premium veneer which needs to be dried exceptionally slowly in order to avoid cracks in the grain, and which can only be handled with very sharp tools and the greatest care. During Franz Liszt’s time, playing music at home was extremely popular and small pianos of this scale could be found in many households.

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“ You have already learned of the superb success of the concert given by Prince Geza Zichy. His playing was wonderful, and the Bösendorfer grand piano too. Humbly yours” Franz Liszt 27 January 1879, Budapest

The Contemplative One—Louis XVI Model Of lasting value
The European transitional style between late Baroque and Classicism is called “Louis-seize” after Louis XVI of France. Classicism’s return to the world of antiquity led to a taste for naturalistic forms, such as baskets of flowers, willow boughs, garlands of fruit, ribbons, swags and classical ornaments. Marie Antoinette herself—wife of Louis XVI—is said to have sparked off the rediscovery of naturalistic décor. Rediscovery and a return to the past, the search for meaning and lasting value and things that can be relied on in life: these are all recurring themes to which thinking people have come back time and again throughout the ages. Since 1828, music lovers have known that there is one thing they can rely on: our determination to build the best pianos and grand pianos in the world. The value of a Bösendorfer lasts longer than a lifetime…

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Gabriela Montero

Opulence—Baroque Model Timelessly beautiful
We call the European stylistic period in the 17 th and 18th centuries, whose creative energy extended to all of Austria’s regions and fields of activity, the Baroque. From the seat of imperial representation all the way to peasant arts and crafts, everywhere the Baroque marked—and continues to mark—Austria’s artistic and cultural landscape like no other style. The pinnacles of European achievement arose from mutual competition. A typical characteristic of the Baroque era was the quest to ascribe at least as much importance to form as to content. It’s easy to love the Bösendorfer model Baroque. At Bösendorfer, since we don’t need to consider assembly lines and robots, genuine artisans are still engaged in instrument making! That is also the reason for the attention to detail, beginning with the piano bench all the way to the music stand. Baroque is simply timelessly beautiful.

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“Bösendorfer is a symbol of European musical culture. Through these excellent instruments, the remote voices of Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven and Schubert speak directly to us. To play their music on a Bösendorfer concert grand piano is a special pleasure and a real privilege.” András Schiff

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The Romantic One—Frédéric Chopin Model My second self
“The piano is my second self” declared Frédéric Chopin. He certainly knew what he was talking about; almost his entire oeuvre was composed for the piano. To mark the 150th anniversary of Chopin’s death, we created an exclusive masterpiece using the superior technical workmanship for which Bösendorfer pianos are renowned. Many of the lovingly crafted carvings were inspired by pianos on which Chopin played during his tour of England and Scotland in 1848. These beautiful details reflect the care lavished by English piano builders on producing their works of art. The name board of this piano has a hand-engraved plaque in gold-plated solid silver, which features the composer’s signature. This model is available in a variety of sizes, veneers and finishes. Our Chopin model is an investment with a truly unique character.

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“The piano is my second self.” Frédéric Chopin

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A Design Item—Design by F. A. Porsche Welcome to the 21st century
In close cooperation with the world-famous Porsche Design company, we have created a masterpiece, a contemporary approach to grand piano design. In keeping with the Bösendorfer motto—“cherish traditions, transcend limits”—this new interpretation incorporates ground-breaking new features that will have a lasting impact on the development of grand piano design. While the body of the instrument has maintained its traditional curved form, a thinner, lighter lid is inserted flush into the piano rim. The lid is made of a lightweight high-tech honeycomb material allowing it to be opened and closed by a gas spring mechanism. The hinged front portion of the lid has been replaced by the front crosscover into which a fold-out music desk has been inserted. The sound volume can be adjusted through variable opening of two aluminum sliders placed on either side of the music desk. The music shelf is also made of aluminum. The simple shape of the lyre, which resembles a fourth leg, is of equally serene elegance, combining form and function in a masterly fashion. Aesthetics and sound in step with their times. Welcome to the 21st century. 86

Philippe Entremont

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The Traditional One—Vienna Model Homage to the music capital of the world
Vienna and music are inseparable. Vienna is inextricably linked with Ludwig van Beethoven, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Joseph Haydn, Franz Schubert and Arnold Schoenberg, to name but a few. World-famous icons such as the Viennese waltz, the Vienna Boys’ Choir and the Vienna Philharmonic epitomise Vienna’s image as the music capital of the world. Vienna is also the city where Ignaz Bösendorfer founded his company on 25 July 1828 after completing his apprenticeship as a piano builder. The company has always kept one thing close to its heart: the determination to build the best grand pianos in the world. We view the Bösendorfer Vienna model as a homage to the city which loves and lives music like no other city in the world. With its fine carved and inlay work in the noblest materials, amboyna wood veneer and 19th-century-inspired stylistic features, this grand piano combines the very roots of musicality with 21st-century technical and craftsman expertise.

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“ There are pianos, and then there is Bösendorfer.” Joe Zawinul

Joe Zawinul

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The Artistic One—Artisan Model Art’s great mystery
The Bösendorfer Artisan model, a stunning display of fine hand inlay techniques, is a beautiful work of art even before a single note has been played. As long ago as the second millennium BC, inlaid work featuring geometric and figurative designs was produced in the Orient as facing for very special objects. The design hallmark of the Artisan is its discreet floral ornamentation worked—by hand, of course—with a variety of excellent woods such as walnut, maple, pearwood, cherry-wood, mahogany, aruba and burr amboyna. For as long as anyone can remember, creative minds in all walks of life have grappled with art’s great mystery and the question of what makes art art? The Bösendorfer Artisan model could—by its very name—symbolise the quest for the great mystery of art.

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“Bösendorfer: the shortest path from a Keyboard to the heart of Music!” Andrea Padova

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Anything is possible—the world of finishes
In principle any veneer can be used. The following considerations are important in connection with veneers: 1. Veneer pattern 2. Horizontal/vertical grain The direction of the veneer grain can vary. Generally, veneers with lengthwise grains, such as Aruba, are applied vertically. However, it is also possible to use the veneer horizontally. 3. Veneer treatment The veneer’s treatment relates to the color. Every veneer can be treated differently. Therefore, it’s especially important for the customer to provide the dealer with a color sample in order to ensure that the color precisely matches. Bösendorfer also offers the possibility of producing two to three sample boards so that the customer can decide which veneer treatment he or she desires. Below are several examples of commonly used veneers. There are of course other possibilities as well, such as Aruba or intarsia work composed of various veneers. This can be seen in the Chrysler model on the following double-page spreads.

Rosewood

Burr walnut

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Walnut

Pommele

Bubinga

Mahogany

Amboyna

Bird’s eye maple

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“To my beloved piano company with best wishes for the future. In longstanding solidarity” Dr. Rainer Keuschnig Pianist for the Vienna Philharmonic

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Tori Amos

Distinguishing Features a BöSEnDORFER is special
1 To achieve the highest sound quality, we use naturally dried woods exclusively. No other piano contains even remotely so high a proportion of Austrian spruce. 2 No other piano is equipped with a independent capo d’astro bar in the treble. This enables precise adjustment and guarantees that the original sound of your personally selected Bösendorfer will last for generations. 3 The individual stringing ensures that the piano holds its tuning for the longest possible time. 4 The Bösendorfer resonance case principle treats the entire instrument as a resonating body and thereby achieves Bösendorfer’s unique richness of tone color and its typical singing timbre.

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Bösendorfer 
Model 290 Imperial
97 keys Length: 9’6” | 290 cm Width: 5’6” | 168 cm Weight: 1.256 lbs | 570 kg

Grand Pianos Overall View
Model 280
88 keys Length: 9’2” | 280 cm Width: 5’3” | 160 cm Weight: 1.168 lbs | 530 kg

Model 225
92 keys Length: 7’4” | 225 cm Width: 5’3” | 159 cm Weight: 923 lbs | 419 kg

Model 214
88 keys Length: 7’ | 214 cm Width: 4’11” | 151 cm Weight: 826 lbs | 375 kg

Model 200
88 keys Length: 6’7” | 200 cm Width: 4’11” | 151 cm Weight: 753 lbs | 342 kg

Model 185
88 keys Length: 6’1” | 185 cm Width: 4’11” | 151 cm Weight: 727 lbs | 330 kg

Model 170
88 keys Length: 5’7” | 170 cm Width: 4’11” | 151 cm Weight: 692 lbs | 314 kg

Model 130

88 keys Length: 5’ | 152,5 cm Depth: 2’1” | 64 cm Height: 4’4” | 132 cm Weight: 656 lbs | 298 kg

L. Bösendorfer Klavierfabrik GmbH Bösendorferstraße 12 · A 1010 Vienna · Austria Telephone +43 / 1 / 504 66 51-0 Fax +43 / 1 / 504 66 51-139 mail@boesendorfer.com www.bosendorfer.com

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