EXTRADOSED BRIDGES
by
ABSTRACT
The purpose of this thesis is to provide insight into how different geometric parameters such as tower
height, girder depth, and pier dimensions influence the structural behaviour, cost, and feasibility of an
extradosed bridge.
A study of 51 extradosed bridges shows the variability in proportions and use of extradosed bridges,
and compares their material quantities and structural characteristics to girder and cablestayed bridges.
The strategies and factors that must be considered in the design of an extradosed bridge are discussed.
Two cantilever constructed girder bridges, an extradosed bridge with stiff girder, and an extradosed
bridge with stiff tower are designed for a three span bridge with central span of 140 m. The structural
behaviour, materials utilisation, and costs of each bridge are compared. Providing stiffness either in the
girder or in the piers of an extradosed bridge are both found to be effective stategies that lead to
competitive designs.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to thank Professor Gauvreau for the opportunity to study under his guidance and be part of
a dynamic and ambitious bridge research group. Professor Gauvreau has served as an inspiration and
mentor to me in my career.
Thanks to my research colleagues for their insightful discussions and feedback: Mike Montgomery,
Jimmy Susetyo, Ivan Wu, Jeff Erochko, Lydell Wiebe, Brent Visscher, Jamie McIntyre, Lulu Shen, Eileen
Li, Sandy Poon, Davis Doan, and especially Jason Salonga.
Finally, thanks to my family and Mary Jane for encouraging and supporting me through my graduate
studies.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
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ABSTRACT
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
viii
LIST OF FIGURES
xiii
LIST OF TABLES
1.1 Introduction
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3.1 Loads
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3.1.2 Temperature
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3.8 Erection
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5 CONCLUSIONS
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6 REFERENCES
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122
DRAWINGS
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CANTBS2. Cantilevered PT Bridge, Internal Tendons  P.T. Tendon Duct Locations & Typical
Reinforcement
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EXTGS2. Extradosed Bridge, Stiff Girder  P.T. Tendon Duct Locations & Typical Reinforcement
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EXTTS2. Extradosed Bridge, Stiff Tower  P.T. Tendon Duct Locations & Typical Reinforcement
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B.3 Girder Bridge PT Design A  Detailed Model ULS Moment Capacity Check
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B.6 Girder Bridge PT Design B  Detailed Model ULS Moment Capacity Check
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B.7 Stiff Girder Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model SLS Stress Checks
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B.8 Stiff Girder Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model ULS Moment Capacity Check
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B.10 Stiff Tower Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model SLS Stress Checks
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B.11 Stiff Tower Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model ULS Moment Capacity Check
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LIST OF FIGURES
1
11 Comparison between cantileverconstructed girder, extradosed, and cablestayed bridge types.
19 Santiago Calatravas concepts for crossing deep Alpine valleys. From left to right: Variant 1,
Variant 2 model, Variant 7 sketch and detail presented by Menn at the IABSE Symposium
in Zurich in 1979 (Calatrava 2004).
111 Poya Bridge, Switzerland: a) Menns 1989 proposal (Menn 1996) and b) cablestayed design
selected in 2006 for construction (Mandataire Projet Poya 2005).
10
112 Millau Viaduct tower options (Virlogeux 2004). Drawn by Sir Norman Foster after
discussions with Virlogeux.
11
11
12
13
116 North Arm Bridge, Canada Line LRT, Vancouver (photo courtesy of Stephen Rees)
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117 Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge in New Haven, Connecticut (Stroh et al. 2003)
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22 Extradosed Bridges separated span to depth ratio at a) pier and b) midspan.
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24 Haunching in extradosed bridges shown a) in groups by span length and b) as the pier to
midspan depth ratio by span.
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30
26 Average girder concrete thickness of cantileverconstructed girder, extradosed and cablestayed
bridges.
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28 Mass of steel in cantilever constructed girder bridges: a) longitudinal prestressing steel, and b)
reinforcing steel (plots are based on data from SETRA 2007, Lacaze 2002, DEAL 1999).
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29 Moment of inertia of girder at midspan for extradosed and cablestayed bridges (per 10 m
width).
33
210 Odawara Extradosed Bridge details of tower saddle and arrangement of prestressing bars in
tower from FEM analysis (Kasuga et al. 1994).
33
211 Odawara Extradosed Bridge: a) strand supply system; b) saddle structure at the pier top, and
c) anchorage structure at the main girder. (Toniyama & Mikami 1994).
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212 Ibi River Bridge Prestressing Tendon Layout in CrossSection (Kutsuna et al. 1999).
35
213 Nonlinear Behaviour of the Ibi River Bridge up to ultimate load (Kutsuna et al. 2002).
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36
215 ShinMeisei Birdge a) photo of steel shell of tower; b) elevation of composite tower and c)
details of composite tower (drawings: Iida et al. 2002, photo and rendering: Kasuga 2006).
36
216 North Arm Birdge a) deck level extradosed cable anchorage; b) precast tower, and c) tower
anchor segment (from Griezic et al. 2006).
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39
218 Snniberg Bridge a) deck crosssection and b) prestressing and reinforcement (adapted from
Tiefbauamt Graubnden 2001).
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39
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220 Sunniberg Bridge a) bending moments and deflections of the edge beam through one stage of
construction, and b) forces and deflections of the main span inner edge beam of the final
structure due to permanent and live loads (adapted from Figi et al. 1998).
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31 CL625 Live Loading: Maximum of CL625 Truck (including DLA) or CL625 Lane Load.
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33 multiple lane loading effect by deck width according to CHBDC 2006 and ASCE 1981, for two
planes of cables and for single plane central cable suspension.
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34 Comparison of Temperature Gradients (adapted from Priestley 1978, AASHTO 2004).
52
35 CHBDC CL625 Live load envelopes for a main span of 100 m.
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54
36 Comparison of span to depth ratio and effect of the roadway height above ground on the overall
proportions of 3 span cantilever, extradosed, and cablestayed bridges.
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55
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310 Effect of cable inclination on the force components in a cable for a) a constant total force and
b) a constant vertical force.
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311 Quantity of cable steel as a function of relative height of towers  Comparison between fan and
harp cable configurations in a) 1970 (Leonhardt & Zellner 1970) and b) 1980 (Leonhardt
& Zellner 1980).
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312 Quantity of cable steel as a function of relative height of towers  comparison between semifan and harp cable configurations for 140 m main span.
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315 Ratio of equivalent to initial modulus of elasticity showing the influence of a cables sag on
its stiffness (plot adapted from Leonhardt & Zellner 1970).
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316 Allowable stress in cable stays as a function of the stress range due to live load at SLS
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317 Cable prestrain and maximum moments for 25 iterations of the zero displacement method
applied in two staged process: a) towers fixed, main span cable strains adjusted and b)
towers released and side span cable strains adjusted. Cable 1 is anchored closest to the pier.
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318 Cable force corresponding to dead load moment distribution (adapted from Gimsing 1997).
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319 Tensions of main span cables, at each stage of construction up to midspan closure, resulting
from a) backwards analysis and b) Staged construction including timedependent effects
(form traveller not considered).
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320 Tower and pier configurations. From left to right: Barton Creek Bridge, North Arm Bridge
(LRT), Kiso and Ibi Bridges, Sunniberg Bridge, Odawara Blueway Bridge, Tsukuhara
Bridge, ShinKarato Bridge, Hozu Birdge, Miyakodagawa Bridge and Domovinski Bridge
(LRT and road). See Table 21 for drawing sources.
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321 ArrtDarr Viaduct, France (concept 198283): main span 100 m, span to depth ratio 27,
cantilever construction with precast segments with voided webs (Mathivat 1988).
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322 Barton Creek Bridge, United States (completed 1987): main span 103.6 m, span to depth ratio
27 at midspan, cantilever construction, with the fin poured progressively after completion
of 3 segments (Gee 1991).
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323 Kiso and Ibi River Bridges, Japan (completed 2001): 275 m maximum spans, span to depth
ratio 39 at piers and 69 at midspan, cantilever construction with precast segments lifted with
600 tonne barge mounted cranes, and central 95 to 105 m steel sections strandlifted from
barges and made continuous (Casteleyn 1999, Kasuga 2006).
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324 ShinMeisei Bridge, Japan (completed 2004): 122.3 m main span, span to depth ratio 35, castinplace cantilever construction (Kasuga 2006).
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325 North Arm Bridge, Vancouver, Canada (completed 2008): 180 m main span, span to depth
ratio 53, cantilever construction with precast segments (Griezic et al. 2006).
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326 Trois Bassins Viaduct, Reunion (completed 2008): three main spans of 126  104.4  75.6 m,
with cables overlapping through the middle span, effective span to depth ratio 30 at tallest
pier and 50 at midspan, cantilever construction of central box, and construction of deck
cantilevers and struts with mobile carriages (Frappart 2005).
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327 Tsukuhara Bridge, Japan (completed 1997): main span of 180 m, span to depth ratio of 33 at
piers and 60 at midspan, cantilever construction in 6 m long segments, transverse tendons
in deck (Kasuga 2006).
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328 Himi Bridge, Japan (completed 2004): main span of 180 m, span to depth ratio of 45, cantilever
construction (Kasuga 2006).
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329 KorrorBabeldoap (JapanPalau Friendship) Bridge, Palau (completed 2002): main span of
247 m, span to depth ratio of 35 at the piers and 70 at midspan, cantilever construction of
concrete portions of spans, and central 82 m steel section lifted from barges and made
continuous (Oshimi et al. 2002).
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330 Odawara Bridge, Japan (completed 1994): main span of 122.3 m, span to depth ratio of 35 at
the piers and 55 at midspan, cantilever construction (Kasuga 2006).
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331 ShinKarato Bridge, Japan (completed 1998): main span 140 m, span to depth ratio of 40 at
piers and 56 at midspan, cantilever construction (Tomita et al. 1999).
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332 Domovinski Bridge, Croatia (completed 2006): 840 m total length, spans of 60 m typical with
a main extradosed span of 120 m, span to depth ratio of 30, cantilever construction in 4 m
segments (Bali & Veverka 1999).
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333 Rittoh Bridge, Japan (completed 2006): main span of 170 m, effective span to depth ratio of
37 at pier and 61 at midspan, cantilever construction (Yasukawa 2002).
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334 PyungYeo Bridge, South Korea (completed 2007): main span of 120 m, span to depth ratio
of 34 at piers and 30 at midspan, cantilever construction with one pair of travellers
(Masterson 2006).
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335 Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, United States (under construction): main span of 157 m, span
to depth ratio of 31 at piers and 45 at midspan (Stroh et al. 2003).
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336 SaintRmydeMaurienne Bridge, France (completed 1996): spans of 52.4 and 48.5 m,
effective span to depth ratio of 35, castinplace on falsework (Grison & Tonello 1997).
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337 Sunniberg Bridge, Switzerland (completed 1998): main spans 128, 140, and 134 m, span to
depth ratio of 127, cantilever construction in 6 m stages (Figi et al. 1997).
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338 Third Bridge over Rio Branco, Brasil (completed 2006): main span of 90 m, span to depth ratio
of 36 at piers and 45 at midspan, cantilever construction (Ishii 2006).
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339 Golden Ears Bridge, Canada (completion 2009): main span of 242 m, span to depth ratio of 54
at piers and 80 at midspan, cantilever construction with precast deck panels (Bergman et al.
2007).
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341 Sunniberg Bridge form traveller (adapted from Figi et al. 1998).
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44 Bending moment in cantilever girder bridge (SAP2000 diagrams at the same relative scale).
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46 Maximum bending moment in a typical girder bridge of 12.4 m width: a) as a function of longest
span, and b) as a function of girder depth.
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47 Bending moment in extradosed bridge (SAP2000 diagrams at the same relative scale).
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49 Simplified model of main span used to obtain the maximum live load stress range in the cables.
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410 Two basic girder crosssections considered for the stiff tower extradosed bridge.
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412 Bending moment in stiff tower extradosed bridge (SAP2000 diagrams at the same relative
scale  bending moments in the tower and rigid links have not been shown for clarity in all
diagrams except temperature).
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414 Average girder concrete thickness of Chapter 4 bridge designs compared with Chapter 2 study
bridges.
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LIST OF TABLES
15
16
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32 Permanent loads  maximum and minimum values of load factors for ULS (CSA 2006a).
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33 Comparison of multiple lane load effects according to CHBDC (2006a) and ASCE (Buckland
1981) for the same basic lane load.
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34 Comparison between Sunniberg Bridge and North Arm Bridge response to live load.
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35 Comparison between monolithic and released connnection at main piers of the North Arm
Bridge.
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36 Minimum saddle radii for strand based cables to prevent fretting fatigue.
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42 Concrete Covers and Tolerances specified in the CHBDC (CSA 2006a).
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44 Critical sections for design and corresponding load cases to produce the maximum load effect.
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45 Preliminary and final tendons for cantilever constructed girder bridge.
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46 SLS Forces and Maximum Stresses in the Girder  Internal and External Tendons
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47 SLS Forces and Maximum Stresses in the Girder  Internal Tendons
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APPENDIX A
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APPENDIX C
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C2 Prestressing quantities in cantileverconstructed girder bridge with internal and external prestressing.
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1.1
Introduction
From 1994 to 2008, over fifty extradosed bridges have been constructed worldwide, and the preferred
proportions and cable arrangements have evolved. While there are many articles available on the design of
specific extradosed bridges, very little has been published on their design from a general perspective.
The intrados is defined as the interior curve of an arch, or in the case of cantileverconstructed girder
bridge, the soffit of the girder. Similarly, the extrados is defined as the uppermost surface of the arch. The
term extradosed was coined by Jacques Mathivat (1988) to appropriately describe an innovative cabling
concept he developed for the ArrtDarr Viaduct (shown in Figure 14), in which external tendons were
placed above the deck instead of within the crosssection as would be the case in a girder bridge. To
differentiate these shallow external tendons, which define the uppermost surface of the bridge, from the
stay cables found in a cablestayed bridge, Mathivat called them extradosed prestressing.
There is some debate over the boundary between cablestayed and extradosed bridges. Visually,
extradosed bridges are most obviously distinguished from cablestayed bridges by their tower height in
proportion to the main span, as shown in Figure 11. Extradosed bridges typically have a tower height of
less than one eighth of the main span, corresponding to a cable inclination of 17 degrees, as observed from
the bridges considered in Section 2. In this thesis, the term extradosed bridge will be used to describe all
bridges that have a tower that is shorter than that of a conventional cablestayed bridge, which is widely
accepted to be around a fifth of the span, as will be explained in Section 3.4.1.
The reduced cable inclination in an extradosed bridge leads to an increase in the axial load in the deck
and a decrease in vertical component of force at the cable anchorages. Thus, the function of the extradosed
cables is also to prestress the deck, not only to provide vertical support as in a cablestayed bridge.
Extradosed bridges are characterised by a low live load stress range in the stay cables.
The definition of an extradosed bridge adopted in this thesis, based on geometry alone, disregards the
live load stress range in the cables, which is done purposefully to consider a range of structures with any
distribution of live load between the axial force resisting system (axial force couple between cable and
deck) and the girder. Extradosed bridges are sometimes criticised for being inefficient structures due to the
reliance on this secondary girder system, because the lever arm between the cable and deck is larger than
the lever arm within the girder.
Girder Bridge
Extradosed Bridge
CableStayed Bridge
H ~ L/18 to L/15
h ~ L/50 to L/30
H ~ L/15 to L/8
h ~ L/50 to L/30
H ~ L/5 to L/4
h ~ L/100 to L/50
Variable Depth
Constant Depth
External prestress
Maximum cable stress 0.60 fpu
Cable stays
Maximum cable stress 0.45 fpu
Figure 11. Comparison between cantileverconstructed girder, extradosed, and cablestayed bridge types.
The detailing and technology found in extradosed bridges is taken directly from externally prestressed
girder bridges and from modern cablestayed bridges. Modern cablestayed bridges have a fifty year
history and have been constructed with span lengths from 15 m to over 1000 m.
As compared with cablestayed bridges, the advantages of extradosed bridges for spans less than
approximately 200 m are numerous. Since the live load stress range is typically small (Mathivat 1988), the
cables can be deviated at the piers by means of a saddle, allowing for a more compact tower, especially in
the case of a fan cable arrangement. The stay cables can be anchored near the webs and the vertical
component of the stay cable force (which is small in comparison to a cablestayed bridge) is transferred
directly to the girders without the need for a transverse diaphragm at the anchorage location. As with
external prestressing, extradosed bridges can use normal prestressing anchorages instead of the high stress
range type used for cablestayed bridges. Given a stiff girder, the extradosed bridge can be constructed
without any need to adjust the tension in the cables (Chio Cho 2002).
Finback Bridge
CablePanel Bridge
Extradosed Bridge
The development of the extradosed bridge has evolved with and may have been influenced by other
types of unconventional cantilevered bridges in which the top tendons rise above the deck level in the
negative moment regions, as shown in Figure 12. The finback bridge has a wall containing the negative
moment tendons that is monolithic with the deck creating a single section, whereas a cablepanel bridge
has a wall that is detached from the deck section, serving more as passive protection for the cables.
Section 1.2 will describe the development of the extradosed bridge in more detail.
1.2
The purpose of this thesis is to provide insight into how different geometric parameters such as tower
height, girder depth, and pier dimensions influence the structural behaviour, cost, and feasibility of the
extradosed design concept. The objectives are as follows:
1. Clarify what is meant by an extradosed bridge and how this structure type has evolved;
2. Provide a comprehensive summary of extradosed bridges constructed to date;
3. Determine the loads that govern the design of an extradosed bridge;
4. Find a strategy for the design of an extradosed bridge;
5. Determine if providing stiffness in the girder of a cablesupported structure is an efficient structural
solution;
6. Determine if an extradosed bridge is competive against a cantilever constructed girder bridge;
It is desirable to have a sense of judgment over how each of the components of the extradosed bridge affect
the structural behaviour. It can be difficult to develop an intuitive feel for an extradosed structure due to
the complex relationship between its components.
Chapter 2 provides an indepth summary of extradosed bridges constructed to date that shows the large
variability and great potential that exists within this form. This information is also useful as a starting
point for initial dimensioning of the overall structure and its components, and for estimates of material
quantities.
Chapter 3 discusses the primary factors that define the design of an extradosed bridge, from where it
fits into the realm of bridge types, to solutions for critical details that must be worked out in the final
design. Many of the issues discussed are of general applicability to any type of medium to longspan
bridge, as they represent important considerations in the conceptual design process, and are brought
together here in one document. The analysis and comparisons, however, are more specific in their
findings, and may be limited to the typical extradosed bridge problem assumed.
In Chapter 4, designs of a cantileverconstructed girder bridge, a stiff girder extradosed bridge, and a
stiff tower (slender girder) extradosed bridge are presented for a three span bridge, with a central span of
140 m. in length. Variations in prestressing approach are also considered. A materials and cost
comparison is presented to highlight the main differences and overall costeffectiveness of each design.
Finally, Chapter 5 concludes the thesis by summarizing the primary findings of the preceding chapters
and gives suggestions for future studies.
This thesis will provide enough detail on the designs undertaken to allow a practicing engineer to
understand the key design steps involved in designing an extradosed bridge, in accordance with the
Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CHBDC  CSA 2006a) and other relevant codes.
1.3
Historical Context
Jacques Mathivat is most commonly credited for inventing the concept of extradosed prestressing, which
he published in a journal article in 1988 (Mathivat 1988). Mathivat presents extradosed prestressing as a
natural progression from cantilever construction, prompted by the desire to have a construction scheme
with fully replaceable tendons. In France since the 1980s, cantilever constructed girder bridges have
mainly used two groups of tendons: internal horizontal tendons for cantilevering, and external tendons
draped from one pier table to another and deviated by two segments at the third points of the span. The
effectiveness of external tendons over the piers is proportional to the lever arm between the tendon and the
compression block. In a girder bridge, this increase in lever arm comes at the expense of additional dead
load in the webs. To avoid this, the tendons are placed above the deck and deviated by means of a stub
column to create a force couple between the tension in the tendons and the compression in the entire
concrete deck, as is the case in a cablestayed bridge.
The first modern concrete multicablestayed bridge was the Main Bridge near Frankfurt, designed by
Ulrich Finsterwalder and completed in 1973, only 10 years prior to Mathivats extradosed concept. This
modern cable stayed bridges rely entirely on the force couple between the stay cables and the deck to resist
all load. Initial designs for concrete cablestayed bridges featured prestressed concrete decks supported at
discrete locations by internal tendons encased in concrete, such as Morandis Maracaibo Bridge
(Billington 1991), completed in 1962. In these structures, the load was carried in bending to the discrete
supports. Extradosed prestressing makes use of a stiffer girder to distribute live load to multiple cables.
Chio Cho (2002) suggests the idea of extradosed prestressing may have come from these longspan
concrete cablestayed structures (around 200 m), which combined with temporary stays for cantilever
construction of constant depth girder bridges of medium span length (around 80 m), result in a hybrid form
where the temporary stays are made permanent.
Mathivat (1988) points out that cablepanel bridges and finback bridges may have been inspired by
the same desire to reduce the selfweight of cantilever constructed girder bridges. By locating the
prestressing cables in walls above the deck, the capacity of deck slab in compression can be utilised in
negative moment regions (over the piers) leading to a more efficient structure than a conventional
cantilever constructed box girder bridge. These structures bear some resemblance to extradosed bridges,
but they differ in appearance and in their stiffness, and the cables cannot be easily replaced since they are
encased in a concrete wall. Nevertheless, the proportions of this type of bridge had a significant impact on
the development of the extradosed bridge. The Ganter Bridge, completed in 1980, was the first bridge of
this type, is the most wellknown, and inspired the concept for the ArrtDarr Viaduct (Virlogeux 2002c).
The Ganter Bridge, located in Switzerland, is a cablepanel bridge with a main span of 174 m that takes a roadway
over a deep valley at heights of up to 140 m above the valley
floor. The bridge is designed by Christian Menn, former
Professor of Structural Engineering at the ETH in Zurich and
the designer of many elegant prestressed concrete bridges in
Switzerland. The roadway runs parallel to the valley on either
side, while the bridge crosses at a skew, which necessitates
sharp curves at both ends of the bridge. The bridge had two Figure 13. Ganter Bridge (Vogel & Marti 1997)
unique design requirements: tall, stiff piers in light of the high winds through the valley, and a very narrow
roadway for a bridge of this maximum span length. David Billington, a Professor of Engineering and
director of the Program in Architecture and Engineering at Princeton University, explains that Menns
design decisions were made with aesthetics in mind. While a conventional cantilever constructed box
girder would have been technically feasible, it would have had a visually weak horizontal profile
compared to the powerful vertical elements required (Billington 2003). This does not however explain
why Menn encased the walls in concrete: the walls do not extend into the curved part of the roadway, and
visually the cables would have provided the same perception of strength as the concrete walls while
opening up the view through the valley.
The first application of extradosed prestressing was Mathivats proposal for the ArrtDarr viaduct
with precast box girder sections (Mathivat 1987), developed in 19821983. The extradosed prestressing
along with voided box girder webs resulted in a material savings of 30% compared with a conventional
cantilever constructed box girder bridge. Mathivats proposal substituted the internal tendons in the top
flange of a box girder for external cables above the running surface, deviated over the piers by stub
columns and anchored inside the box girder, which he called extradosed cables. The low eccentricity of
the cables over the piers allowed them to be stressed to the same level as traditional prestressing since the
cables primary role was to provide horizontal prestress, and they were subject to a low fatigue stress.
Virlogeux explains (1999) that the concept was partially motivated by a distortion of code specifications
to use stay cables more efficiently, since an allowable stress of 0.65 fpu could be used for design of the
cables instead of the value of 0.45 fpu typically adopted for cablestayed bridges. Unfortunately, the
proposal was not selected for construction and a conventional cantilever posttensioned structure was
constructed instead.
The Barton Creek Bridge is one of a few prestressed
concrete finback bridges constructed. The bridge connects
Austin, Texas to the Estates of Barton Creek over an environmentally sensitive gorge. Preliminary design estimates found
the finback bridge with a main span of 104 m to be comparable in cost to a conventional cantilever box girder, both least
cost options for the crossing (Gee 1991). The finback bridge
design was chosen as it would be a visible landmark into the Figure 15. Barton Creek Bridge (Gee 1991).
Estates from above the bridge and it would consequently
attract publicity to the development. The developers architect noted (Gee 1991) that the flat triangular
fins ideally complemented the peaks of the gently rolling hills on the horizon forming the backdrop against
which the bridge would be seen. Gee explains that his firm was aware of previous proposals for finback
bridges and was conscious of the fact that the low material quantities of these designs, as compared with
conventional box girders, were not resulting in competitive bids for construction. A few notable proposals
were the Kessock Bridge in Scotland, the Foyle Bridge in Northern Ireland and the Gateway Bridge in
Australia. The Gateway Bridge was in fact tendered as a finback bridge in 1980 but the contract was
awarded based on an alternative design of a conventional boxgirder bridge (Gee 1991). Tony Gee and
Partners, having been involved with previous finbacked proposals, designed the Barton Creek Bridge with
constructibility as the most important objective. The crosssection consists of a single box girder below
the deck, with constant dimensions and no internal diaphragms (even over the piers) and webs that incline
inwards from the bottom slab to merge at the deck slab into a central fin that rises above the deck with
constant width. The segments were poured with the median barrier, which allowed the fin to be built up
progressively and off the critical path, as three segments could be cast before increasing the height of the
fin. The bridge was constructed with a form traveller supported laterally outside the webs and on the ribs,
and was completed in 1987 at a cost that was 20% above the original estimate (Gee 1991). The increase
was accounted for in additional items (lighting, approach railings) not included in the initial estimate. In
terms of durability and maintenance, the finback bridge has the advantage over a conventional cantilevered bridge that the main tendons are encased in the massive fin, away from the deck surface which is
exposed to traffic. As well, there is no decrease in longitudinal prestress in the deck under live load near
the piers, because the neutral axis of the section lies in the deck slab. Despite the success of the Barton
Creek Bridge, there have been very few finback bridges built since.
Virlogeux (1999) claims that the concrete walls in cablepanel and finback bridges have two
drawbacks: the tendons cannot be replaced and there is a cost to construct the concrete walls. The
designers of the Barton Creek Bridge took measures to reduce the cost of the single concrete wall and it is
conceivable that the additional cost of the protection system for stay cables would have exceeded the cost
of the walls. However, since the concrete walls add dead load to the bridge, their use is only economical in
shorter spans. In terms of aesthetics, the stay cables of extradosed bridges offer a lighter appearance than
the heavy concrete fins of finback bridges.
Akio Kasuga, the Chief Bridge Engineer at
Sumitomo Mitsui Construction Co. Ltd., was the
first to apply Mathivats concept to the first
extradosed bridge to be constructed, the Odawara
Blueway Bridge. The construction was completed
in 1994. Kasuga claims that his designs follow
Mathivats theory that the tower height of
extradosed bridges should be half of the tower
height for a cable stayed bridge of equivalent span
Figure 16. Odawara Blueway Bridge (Kasuga 2006)
that for a cablestayed bridge (Mathivat 1988). The single plane of cables proposed for the ArrtDarr
viaduct is lighter than the two planes on the Odawara Bridge. However, the towers of the Odawara Bridge,
as shown in Figure 16, are well integrated with the pier columns below the deck, while the ArrtDarr
superstructure rests on an overly massive round pier column, which visually dominates the bridges view
in profile. Kasuga (2006) states that practical experience has induced great admiration for the
incisiveness of Mathivats proposal.
Several articles on extradosed bridges in Japan credit and praise Mathivat for inventing the extradosed
bridge (Ogawa and Kasuga 1998; Hirano et al. 1999; Kato et al. 2001; Kasuga 2006), but these bridges are
more similar in appearance and proportions to the Ganter Bridge than to the ArrtDarr concept, with the
difference that they do not have cables encased in concrete walls. All extradosed bridges in Japan to date
have cables arranged in a semifan configuration, with the first cable offset about a fifth of the span from
the pier. Most of these bridges are cast in place and have variable depth girders that are 50% deeper at the
piers than in midspan. The Japan Highway Public Corporation, the owner of several extradosed bridges
including the Odawara, Tsukuhara, and Kiso and Ibi extradosed bridges, allows only external tendons to
be used in their bridges (Chilstrom 2001). Mathivats bridge had six spans with a continuous girder
supported on bearings whereas the first extradosed bridges constructed in Japan were three span structures,
with monolithic connections at the piers that result in frame action. This distinction allowed the first
extradosed bridges to be more slender than Mathivat originally proposed.
In France, the first extradosed bridge was constructed on a much smaller scale than those in Japan, as a
means of spanning further with minimal structural depth available below the roadway. The SaintRemydeMaurienne Bridge over the A43 highway, shown in Figure 17, was tendered in 1993 and completed in
1996 and has a maximum span of only 54 m (Grison and Tonello 1997). On this small scale, it is difficult
to imagine that extradosed tendons could be more economical than constructing concrete walls up to a
maximum height of 3 m, but there is little doubt that the constructed bridge is attractive. Architect Charles
Lavigne, who developed the ArrtDarr concept with Jacques Mathivat, was also involved in the SaintRemy Bridge.
In the mid 90s, an extradosed bridge was considered for the A41 viaduct over Usses valley in France
(Virlogeux 2002b). The concept was developed by Jean Tonello, Charles Lavigne and Daniel Vibert and
brings together elements from the ArrtDarr Viaduct and the Barton Creek Bridge. The crosssection
consists of a singlecell box girder with constant dimensions, with wide cantilevers supported by struts, as
seen in Figure 18. The project was delayed for many years, and ultimately a steel twin girder structure
with composite concrete deck was constructed at the site in 2008. However, a similiar crosssection to that
of the Usses viaduct was adopted for the viaduct over TroisBassins in Runion, completed in 2008 and
shown later in Figure 326.
Figure 19. Santiago Calatravas concepts for crossing deep Alpine valleys. From left to right: Variant 1, Variant 2
model, Variant 7 sketch and detail presented by Menn at the IABSE Symposium in Zurich in 1979 (Calatrava 2004).
In Switzerland, the Ganter Bridge led to a different path for the extradosed bridge. Santiago Calatrava,
while studying at the ETH in 1979, produced a series of sketches of alternatives of the Ganter Bridge, some
of which were presented by Menn at the IABSE Symposium in Zurich in 1979 (Tzonis and Donadei 2005).
All sketches show a slender deck, suspended by cables from a stiff pier. In some alternatives, the two sides
of the tower flare outwards from the roadway in order to accommodate the cables along a curved
horizontal profile. Eight years later, Menn (1987) presented his ideas on the advantages of stiffer, lower
towers for cablestayed bridges, which enable the use of the full range of effective depth of crosssection. Since the short towers act as cantilevers, effectively prestressed by the dead load of the girder
acting through the cables, they require relatively little reinforcement to resist bending due to live load.
Neither a flexurally stiff girder nor backstays are required in order to provide adequate system stiffness to
control deformations due to live load. With short towers, larger stay cables are required, but the towers are
more economical than the tall towers normally found in cablestayed bridges (Menn 1987).
Stiffness from Backstay Cable
Stiffness in Deck
Stiffness in Tower
Figure 110. Response of cablestiffened, girderstiffened, and towerstiffened cablestayed bridge to live load.
There are three different approaches to providing stiffness in cablestayed bridges, as shown in
Figure 110, which determines how stability of the bridge will be assured under live load. Each approach
provides stiffness primarily in one of the three loadbearing elements of the cablestayed bridge: the stays,
the deck, or the towers. Most early designs, 6 out of the 58 cablestayed bridges constructed by the end of
1976 (Billington and Nazmy 1991) have cable spacings of 20 to 40 m and provide stiffness in the girder,
with span to depth ratios below 70 (Walther et al. 1999). Since the 1980s, however, almost all cablestayed bridges are multiplestay bridges with cable spacings of less than 10 m, which, combined with an
increased understanding of aerodynamic stability and buckling safety of slender girders, has led to very
slender girders. In these bridges, the fan cable configuration is used to load the tower in axial compression
only, and backstay cables stabilise the tower and control girder deflections due to live load (Menn 1994).
With this system, girder span to depth ratios of up to 500 are possible (Bergermann and Strathopoulos
1988). With stiff towers, the girder can still be made very slender, with span to depth ratios of up to around
200, but backstay cables are no longer required. A harp cable configuration favours stiff towers, since live
load at the quarter points of the main span will cause significant bending in towers, regardless of tower
stiffness.
Figure 111. Poya Bridge, Switzerland: a) Menns 1989 proposal (Menn 1996) and b) cablestayed design selected in
2006 for construction (Mandataire Projet Poya 2005).
In 1989, Menn proposed an extradosed concept for the Poya Bridge as the ideal solution to integrate
the bridge with the deep valley crossing in Fribourg, Switzerland (Billington 2003). Menn was serving on
the jury for the design competition for the bridge, but was not satisfied with any of the designs and
proposed his own concept. Menn (1991) felt that a cablestayed bridge, which would require towers with a
total height of 120 m, 45 m of which would be above the roadway, would rise above the city and detract
from its historical character. In this same article, Menn elaborates on his ideas for a stiff tower and slender
girder, explaining that the live load is resisted directly by the towers, and thus side span lengths can be
increased to half of the main span length. In most modern cablestayed bridges, the tower must be
stabilised by backstay cables which require shorter side spans (around 0.4 of the main span) to remain
adequately stressed when they are loaded, as shown in Figure 110. For the Poya Bridge concept, Menn
maintained the slender crosssection throughout the viaduct through the use of external prestressing in an
10
underdeck cablestayed configuration. His proposal was not accepted and a cablestayed bridge is now
under construction after many years of public consultation. Both concepts are shown in Figure 111.
In 1993, Menn proposed his extradosed concept for the Sunniberg
Bridge (Honnigmann and Billington 2003). Menn, again serving on
the jury for the design competition and not satisfied with the three
designs submitted, presented his concept to the highway departments
architectural consultant who endorsed it and helped convince the
(Figi et al. 1997). A multiple span cablestayed bridge with conventional proportions would still require
stiff towers, as illustrated by the conceptual drawings shown in Figure 112 for the towers of the Millau
Viaduct, an 8 span cablestayed bridge (Virlogeux 2004). Cross cables between towers have been
proposed as another means of stabilising them in the horizontal direction, but this solution has questionable
aesthetics and is difficult to construct (Walther et al. 1999) if not infeasible on a curved roadway. The
designs submitted for the design competition did not include a cablestayed bridge but were of a more
conventional nature: a continuous below deck truss bridge, a cantileverconstructed girder bridge, a
composite box girder bridge, and a box girder viaduct. Given the unusually high demand on aesthetics at
this site, the extradosed bridge was selected to fit into the landscape with elegance, but also stands out as a
memorable crossing and technical achievement (Figi et al. 1997). As constructed, the Sunniberg Bridge
towers appear in proper proportion with the surrounding landscape when viewed from the drivers
perspective. Compared with the Ganter Bridge in Figure 13, the Sunniberg Bridge appears much lighter
and more transparent, not only because the cables are light and provide unobstructed views of the valley,
but also because of the open views through the pier legs, as seen in Figure 113.
Menn clearly knew about Mathivats ideas for the extradosed bridge, since Mathivat presented an
earlier version of his 1988 article at Menns 60th birthday celebration in 1986 (Mathivat 1986). Despite
this, Menns concept provides stiffness in the piers, while Mathivats concept provides stiffness in the
girder. The two solutions reflect the trends and visions of engineers in their respective countries of origin.
French bridge engineers were using precast segmental construction for many medium span bridges to
encourage mechanisation and rationalize formwork reuse. Precast segmental construction favours a
constant depth crosssection, a nominal girder depth for easier assembly and geometric control from the
relative geometry of segments (Virlogeux 1994a), use of bearings, and allows for future replacement of
tendons. In contrast, Swiss engineers preferred castinplace construction for durability and the economy
provided by partial prestressing. Castinplace construction allows monolithic connections to be made as
required. Flexible decks are more sensitive to local deformations from transverse bending and thermal
11
effects of concrete hardening, but are also more accommodating of field adjustments to their final
geometry since the deck profile can be readjusted after completion without introducing considerable
bending moments (Virlogeux 1994a).
From an aesthetic perspective, Menns Sunniberg Bridge is much
lighter overall than Mathivats ArrtDarr concept, since the
deck section is dimensioned as the minimum required to span
Figure 114. ArrtDarr and Sunniberg
Bridges (see drawings in Figure 21).
seamlessly into the pier legs below the deck, and the total surface area observed from an elevation view is
much less than if a stiff girder was used, as shown in Figure 114. Seen from afar, the deck looks as
though it is cradled between the pylons, as seen in Figure 113. The pylons, when viewed from the
transverse perspective, are extremely light because the overall member thicknesses are kept to a minimum
through frame action in the crossbeams. The crossbeams are set back from the pier legs which emphasize
the continuous vertical lines from bottom to top which form surfaces of slender proportions at the outside
edges of the pier legs. With a two lane structure on a horizontal curve, supporting the crosssection from
both sides is the only reasonable solution from an operations perspective, and a harp cable arrangement is a
natural choice to avoid the chaotic appearance of cables crossing each other at different angles.
1.
Throughout this thesis, the term tower is used to denote anything structural that supports the cables above the
deck; the term pylon is used to denote the two columns of a tower in a stayed bridge with lateral cable planes;
the term mast is used to denote a single column tower, and pier is used to refer to any substructure beneath the
deck, supporting the tower.
12
Extradosed bridges are becoming increasingly popular for spans from 50 m to 250 metres. Over 25
extradosed bridges have been completed in Japan and 15 are underway in South Korea (Bd & e 2006).
Many extradosed bridges constructed to date cross waterways where there is a navigational clearance
requirement as well as interest in minimizing the roadway grade raise at the approaches. This favours an
extradosed bridge over a cantileverconstructed girder bridge, which would have a girder depth at the
supports of two to three times that of the extradosed bridge of equivalent span. While a cablestayed
bridge is sometimes a feasible option, an extradosed bridge has been selected in many cases because of
overhead glidepath clearance requirements imposed by nearby airports (Stroh 2003; Griezic et al. 2006).
Figure 115. Golden Ears Hybrid Extradosed Bridge, Vancouver (Bergman 2007).
In 2001, the Ibi and Kiso Bridges set the record for longest extradosed viaducts with total lengths of
1145 and 1400 m respectively, and extradosed spans of up to 275 m. This was achieved with a hybrid
girder arrangement: a variable depth concrete girder was supported by extradosed cables from the piers and
100 m central steel box girder was connected to the concrete girder to transfer moment and shear but allow
longitudinal expansion. In 2002, the JapanPalau Friendship Bridge was completed with the same hybrid
configuration with a main span of 247 m. The Golden Ears Bridge, under construction in Vancouver and
scheduled for completion in 2009, has main spans of 242 m and will be the first composite extradosed
bridge constructed. The concrete deck is constructed from precast panels and the bridge has a main span to
tower height ratio of 6, between that of an extradosed and cablestayed bridge (Bergman et al. 2007). The
bridges engineers have described the bridge as a hybrid extradosed bridge, with a portion of the load near
the piers supported by bending in deck, but load at midspan resisted almost directly by the cables
(Trimbath 2006). The Wuhu Bridge in China, completed in 2000, is the only extradosed bridge to carry
heavy rail. Extradosed cables allow this bridge to span 312 m over the Yangtze River with the same deep
truss crosssection that is used for the other 144 m spans (Fang 2004).
Recently, ManChung Tang, who was responsible for the design and construction engineering of many
cablestayed bridges in North America, has extolled the advantages of partially cablesupported structures
for the potential to fully utilize the capacity of a girder crosssection (Tang 2007). He explains that there is
a tradeoff between girder depth and the size of the stay cables. Live load is shared between the girder and
stay cables based on the relative stiffness of each, while the cable forces under dead loads can be adjusted
as desired. Furthermore, each cable can be adjusted to carry a different amount of dead load, and the cable
layout can be adjusted to achieve greater efficiency. According to Tang, for bridges with medium span
lengths, using the maximum capacity of the girder can result in savings in stay cables and towers. From
some of the proposed concepts, partially cablesupporting creates possibilities for new forms of towers,
13
some of which are sculptural but structurally inefficient and would be unable to support the tension forces
from the stay cables if the girder did not share some of the load.
SETRA (2001) published recommended allowable stress limits that cover the full range of external
cables. In that document, external prestressing tendons are defined as being subjected to a stress range of
up to 15 MPa under live load while stays for cablestayed bridges are subjected to a stress range of around
100 MPa and above. Extradosed cables are characterised as being subjected to a live load stress range
between 30 MPa and 100 MPa and are not sensitive to wind vibrations. These specifications resulted from
a need for design recommendations for bridges that do not fall into distinct categories, and they propose
design limits and approximations based on rational principles. These recommendations were used for the
design of the North Arm Bridge in Canada (Griezic et al. 2006), and they influenced the allowable stress
limit for the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge in the USA (Stroh et al. 2003). It is important to have
guidelines like those published by SETRA (2001) to encourage creative and innovative use of stay cables
in new structural systems, since it is difficult in the initial stages of design to assess the behaviour of a
bridge at ultimate and fatigue limit states.
1.4
Komiya (1999), of the Japan Bridge & Structures Institute, carried out a series of analyses on an
extradosed bridge of 74  122  74 m spans, with span to depth ratio of 35 at the piers and 55 at midspan.
These are the same span dimensions and proportions as the Odawara Bridge. Parameters that were varied
include the tower height, the anchoring position of the extradosed cables, the stiffness of the girder to
account for cracking, and the stiffness of the tower.
As a result of this study, Komiya presents five reasons why an extradosed bridge might be preferable
over a cantilever constructed or cablestayed bridge:
1. The girder depth is around 2 to 4 m, about half that of a cantilevered bridge and twice that of a cablestayed bridge, which has better constructibility than the other types for laying out posttensioning and
placing reinforcing steel and concrete;
2. A stiff deck allows the structure to be continuous over multiple spans, and appropriate for rail loading
where deflection limits must be adhered to;
3. The presence of towers can create a symbolic structure as compared to a conventional girder bridge;
14
4. Extradosed cable can use conventional anchorages instead of the expensive anchorages with a high
fatigue strength as used for cablestayed bridges. Extradosed cables are less sensitive to vibration, and
they do not need to be restressed during construction. On this basis, Komiya concludes that extradosed
cables are more economical than conventional stay cables and lead to better constructibility;
5. Extradosed bridges are less costly than cablestayed bridges but more costly than cantilever constructed girder bridges, based on materials consumption. Extradosed bridges could be more economical than girder bridges in the case where girder depth is limited by traffic or navigational constraints, or
in the case where poor soil conditions provide an incentive to reduce the structures selfweight.
Chio Cho (2000) carried out a parametric study on an extradosed bridge with similar characteristics to the
Odawara Blueway Bridge, with span lengths of 74  122  74 m. The results of his study on the structural
behaviour of extradosed prestressing during construction and in service lead to a few important design
recommendations (Chio Cho 2002). The first cable should be anchored between 0.18 and 0.25 of the main
span from the tower as the cables closest to the tower are ineffective. The deck should be proportioned
with a span to depth ratio of 35 at the piers and 45 at midspan to keep all live load stress range in the cables
below 80 MPa, the limit for conventional prestressing anchorages. A compensation of all permanent
loads, with the cables stressed as the bridge is constructed in balanced cantilever, results in high tensile
forces in the bottom fibre of the deck, making a single stressing operation impractical. A compensation of
80% of the permanent load is preferred in order to control the stresses during construction and avoid
restressing after the final structural configuration is acheived. Since it is not possible to completely
balance all permanent loads by stressing the cables during construction only, consideration of creep effects
is essential. It is necessary to precamber the deck for long term deflections due to creep.
Santos (2006) carried out a parametric analysis on an extradosed bridge with a 150 m main span with
simple supports at the piers, which looked at the influence of tower height, depth of deck, and length of the
side span on the total extradosed cable area, the stress variation in the cables, and the bending moment in
the deck. For span to tower height ratios of 15, 10 and 5, he found that span to depth ratios of 37, 34, and
27 respectively were necessary in order to keep the live load stress range to below 50 MPa.
Santos did not explicitly consider the forces in the girder at each stage of construction, and assumes
that superimposed dead load is added at each stage of cantilevering, which is unrealistic for construction.
Santos does not consider any redistribution of forces in the final state due to creep and shrinkage. Due to
these simplifications, some of the conclusions are of limited use.
2.1
Extradosed bridges provide an economical means of crossing spans of 100 to 250 m with new aesthetic
opportunities relative to cantilever constructed girder bridges and cablestayed bridge. Table 21 shows the
extradosed bridges considered in this study in chronological order by date of construction. Some of these
bridges are described in greater detail in Section 2.2. Figure 21 shows elevation and pier section drawings
for the extradosed bridges identified in Table 21 as having detailed drawings. The figure shows the wide
variety of forms, spans, and cable configurations that have been selected.
For the two span extradosed bridges considered in this study, the main span has been taken as an
effective main span equal to 0.8 of the sum of the two spans adjacent to the pier, in order to study the
dimensions and proportions of both two and three span extradosed bridges together in Section 2.2. This is
done to account for the influence of positive moment regions at the ends of the span where the girder
resists load in bending only.
2.2
Extradosed bridges have been used for one or more of the following reasons:
1. A shallow structural depth below the roadway is preferable, either to meet clearance requirements or
when there is interest in minimizing the approach grades.
2. In the opinion of some designers (Menn 1991), tall piers over a deep valley do not permit a cablestayed tower to be aesthetically pleasing when the portion of the tower above the deck is around half of
the height between the deck and the ground.
3. There are height restrictions imposed by a nearby airport that limit the height of the towers overhead.
4. The crosssection of the approach spans on a long viaduct can be made to span further with extradosed
prestressing. Extradosed prestressing can be kept to a minimum by using as many internal and external tendons in the girder of the extradosed span as in the approach spans.
There are only a few bridge types that meet these restrictions: trusses, tied arches, extradosed bridges, and
cantilever posttensioned bridges (when condition 1 is not a requirement  the roadway elevation can be
raised). Trusses may have been an option in the past, but the rising cost of labour has made them
uneconomical for medium and long spans, and their aesthetics can make other structural types preferable.
15
16
Table 21. Summary of Extradosed Bridges
Name and
Location
Operational
Date
Picture
1980 2.5  5 x 10
127.0 + 174.0 + 127.0
Wide single cell concrete box girder, cablepanel stayed.
Ganter Bridge,
Switzerland
Barton Creek
Bridge, Austin,
USA
Socorridos
Bridge, Madeira,
Portugal
1993 3.5 x 20
54.0 + 85.0 + 106.0 + 86.0
Single cell concrete box girder, cablepanel
stayed.
Photo from Reis & Pereira 1994
Reis & Pereira 1994
Odawara Blueway
Bridge, Japan
SaintRmydeMaurienne Bridge,
Savoie, France
Tsukuhara Bridge,
Japan
Detailed
Drawing
17
Table 21. Summary of Extradosed Bridges (continued)
Name and
Location
8
Operational
Date
Kanisawa Bridge,
Japan
Picture
ShinKarato
Bridge, Kobe,
Japan
10 Sunniberg Bridge,
Switzerland
Photo by author
Figi et al. 1997, Figi et al. 1998, Menn 1998, Baumann & Dniker 1999,
Honigmann & Billington 2003
11 Santanigawa
(Mitanigawa)
Bridge, Japan
12 Second
Mandaue Mactan (Marcelo
Fernan) Bridge,
Mactan, Philippines
13 Matakina Bridge,
Nago, Japan
Kasuga 2006
Detailed
Drawing
18
Table 21. Summary of Extradosed Bridges (continued)
Name and
Location
Operational
Date
16 Shikari Bridge,
Japan
Picture
2000 3  6 x 23
94.0 + 140.0 + 140.0 + 140.0 + 94.0
Concrete box girder.
17 Surikamigawa
Bridge, Japan
Kasuga 2006
18 Wuhu Yangtze
River Bridge,
Wuhan, China
2000 15 x 23.4
180.0 + 312.0 + 180.0
Doubledecker steel truss with composite deck
slab on top roadway, two rail lines on bottom
level.
Photo from Fang 2004
Fang 2004
19 YukisawaOhashi
Bridge, Japan
Detailed
Drawing
19
Table 21. Summary of Extradosed Bridges (continued)
Name and
Location
Operational
Date
23 Miyakodagawa
Bridge, Japan
Picture
24 Nakanoike Bridge,
Japan
Kasuga 2006
25 Fukaura Bridge,
Japan
Kasuga 2006
26 Korror Babeldoap
Bridge, Palau
27 Sashikubo Bridge,
Japan
Kasuga 2006
28 Shinkawa
(Tobiuo) Bridge,
Hamamatsu, Japan
29 Deba River
Bridge, Gipuzkoa,
Spain
2004 4 x 12.45
91.8 + 180.0 + 91.8
Single cell doubly composite box girder with
corrugated steel webs.
Photo from bd&e Second Quarter 2004
Kasuga 2006
Detailed
Drawing
20
Table 21. Summary of Extradosed Bridges (continued)
Name and
Location
Operational
Date
31 Korong Bridge,
Budapest, Hungary
Picture
32 ShinMeisei
Bridge, Japan
2004 3.5 x 19
89.6 + 122.3 + 82.4
Three cell concrete trapezoidal box girder.
33 Tatekoshi Bridge,
Japan
Kasuga 2006
34 SannoheBoukyo
Bridge, Aomori,
Japan
35 Domovinski
Bridge over the
River Sava, Croatia
2006 3.55 x 34
48 + 6x60 + 72 + 120 + 72 + 2x60 + 48
Five cell concrete box girder supports light rail
between cable planes.
Photo from Structurae
Bali & Veverka 1999
36 KackHwa First
Bridge, Gwangju,
South Korea
2006
 x 31.1
55.0 + 115.0 + 100.0
Multiple cell concrete box girder.
Structurae
37 Nanchiku Bridge,
Japan
Kasuga 2006
38 Rittoh Bridge,
Japan
Detailed
Drawing
21
Table 21. Summary of Extradosed Bridges (continued)
Name and
Location
Operational
Date
Picture
39 Tagami Bridge,
Japan
Kasuga 2006
41 Tokuyama Bridge,
Japan
42 Yanagawa Bridge,
Japan
43 BrazilPeru
Integration
Bridge, Brazil
Kasuga, 2006
44 GumGa Grand
Bridge,
Chungcheongnamdo, South Korea
2007
 x 23
85.4 + 125.0 + 125.0 + 125.0 + 125.0 + 125.0 +
Mulitple cell concrete box girder.
Structurae
45 PyungYeo 2
Bridge, Yeosu,
South Korea
46 Second
Vivekananda
Bridge over the
Hooghly River,
Calcutta, India
Detailed
Drawing
22
Table 21. Summary of Extradosed Bridges (continued)
Name and
Location
Operational
Date
Picture
47 ChoRack Bridge,
Dangjin, South
Korea
2008
48 North Arm
Bridge (Canada
Line Extradosed
Transit Bridge),
Canada
49 Trois Bassins
Viaduct, Reunion,
France
2008 4  7 x 22
18.6  126.0  104.4  75.6  43.2
Single cell concrete box girder with steel struts
supporting long deck cantilevers.
 x 14
70.0 + 130.0 + 130.0 + 130.0 + 70.0
Multiple cell concrete box girder.
Structurae
50 Golden Ears
Bridge, Canada
51 Pearl Harbor
Memorial
(Quinnipiac)
Bridge, New
Haven, USA
Detailed
Drawing
23
24
25
26
27
Tied arches and extradosed spans are two good options for urban environments. Girder bridges are not
visible to the driver and as stated by Menn (1991): the general public was never captivated by modern
bridge construction. Beam bridges were largely perceived as boring. For a signature bridge, girder
bridges do not have the visual elegance that is desired by governing authorities and designers alike.
The choice between a tied arch and an extradosed structure might be guided by the span configuration.
If only one long span is required, a tied arch may prove to be economical, but in other cases a cablesupported bridge will be a clear choice due to the potential for cantilevered construction, which has a
relatively low impact on the terrain below. As the cost of concrete increases and the incremental cost
premium for higher strength decreases, there is more incentive to use materials efficiently. The extradosed
bridge presents a way to make use of the compressive capacity of the concrete, while maintaining
conventional girder crosssections and common construction methods. \
Extradosed bridges allow for unequal span lengths, unsymmetrical span arrangements, multiple stayed
spans and approach spans with the same cross section as the main spans. Of the extradosed bridges in this
study, 41 of 51 have main spans between 75 and 200 m; 11 have two extradosed spans (one tower), 30
have three extradosed spans (2 towers), and 10 have more than three extradosed spans. From Figure 24b,
it is observed that multiple span bridges are viable for all span lengths.
Mathivats concept for a span to depth ratio of between 30 and 35 at the piers has been followed for 22
of the extradosed bridges, but the span to depth ratio at midspan has been increased to over 50 in 23
bridges, as observed from Figure 22. There are 13 extradosed bridges with a constant depth crosssection,
10 of which have a span to depth ratio between 30 and 35. The 3 exceptions are the Himi Bridge, the
North Arm Bridge, and the Sunniberg Bridge.
20
20
Constant Depth
Constant Depth
Variable Depth
Variable Depth
15
Bridges
Bridges
15
10
10
0
0
15
20
25
30 35 40 45 50
Span : Depth at Pier
55
60 65+
15
20
25
30 35 40 45 50
Span : Depth at Midspan
55
60 65+
Figure 22. Extradosed Bridges separated span to depth ratio at a) pier and b) midspan.
Around half (26) of the extradosed bridges have girders that are embedded (fixed in rotation) at the
piers, which reduces the live load stresses in both the girder and the cables. Extradosed bridges that have a
span to depth ratio above 40 at the pier are always embedded. It can be seen from Figure 23 that girders
that are embedded generally have a higher span to depth ratio at midspan, and the span to depth ratio
increases with increasing span length. As well, the girder is almost always embedded at longer span
lengths (only 3 of 19 bridges above 150 m are on simple supports).
28
140
120
Span : Depth
100
at midspan
at pier
80
60
1:55
40
1:30
20
0
50
66
100
150
200
250
275
Longest Span, m
Figure 23. Span to depth ratios of extradosed bridges at midspan and pier.
Variable depth girders are more frequently used at longer span lengths, as shown in Figure 24a. A
variable depth crosssection, with the depth at the pier more than 1.5 times the depth at midspan, is used in
26 extradosed girders. As the span length increases, the degree of haunching, or pier to midspan depth
ratio, also increases as observed from Figure 24b.
3
>1.5
11.5
=1
Bridges
10
0
25
15
1
2 Spans
3 Spans
4 Spans +
0
50
75
50
100
150
200
Longest Span, m
250
300
Figure 24. Haunching in extradosed bridges shown a) in groups by span length and b) as the pier to midspan depth
ratio by span.
Tower height does not seem to be affected by girder depth or the fixity between the girder and piers. It
can however be observed from Figure 25 that in general, the span to tower height ratio decreases with
increasing span length. Most bridges have a span to tower height ratio between 8 and 12, and there are
very few bridges (3 of 51) with a span to tower height ratio close to 15, as suggested by Mathivat (1988).
29
15
Mathivat (1988)
14
12
10
8
6
5
Constant Depth Simple Supports
Constant Depth Embedded
Variable Depth Simple Supports
Variable Depth Embedded
4
2
0
50
66
100
150
200
250
CableStayed
Typical
275
Longest Span, m
2.3
2.3.1
Materials Usage
The average girder thickness, the volume of concrete in the girder divided by the deck surface area, can be
used to compare the material usage of different bridge types. In Figure 26, the average girder thickness of
extradosed bridges and a selection of cantileverconstructed girder bridges and cablestayed bridges, is
plotted against the longest span. Information on the girder and cablestayed bridges considered in this
section is included in Appendix A. Also shown in Figure 26 are estimates of average girder thickness tg
as a function of average span lm suggested by Menn (1990) and SETRA (2007), for cantilever constructed
girder bridges, repeated below.
Menns Estimate: t g = 0.35 + 0.0045l m
As observed from Figure 26, the average girder thickness of an extradosed bridge will lie somewhere
between that of a girder bridge and a cablestayed bridge of the same span length. For a main span
between 80 and 100 m, there can be very little difference between the average girder thickness in a girder
bridge and an extradosed bridge, but the difference increases rapidly, indicating a greater savings in
concrete with an extradosed bridge as the span increases. In contrast, the average thickness of a cablestayed bridge increases very gradually, with the longest cablestayed bridge having an average thickness of
not more than 60% more than the shortest of comparable crosssection. For a 200 m span, the average
girder thickness of a cablestayed bridge is around 30% of that of a girder bridge.
It appears that a minimum average thickness of around 0.4 m for a cable supported (extradosed or
cablestayed) bridge and of around 0.6 m for a girder bridge is required regardless of span length. This
minimum thickness is dictated by transverse behaviour and practical requirements. For the cablestayed
bridges considered in Figure 26, stiffened slabs are always lighter than box girders, which can generally
be explained by the absence of a bottom slab.
A closer look at the average girder thickness of the extradosed bridges only, as seen in Figure 27,
shows a huge spread of values, especially for spans of around 100 m. The single cell box girders and
30
Menn (1990) Estimate
Cantilevered Regression
1.17
1.1
1.0
0.9
Extradosed Regression
0.8
0.7
0.6
CableStayed
Regression
0.5
0.4
0.34
0.3
0
100
200
300
Longest Span, m
400
500
530
Figure 26. Average girder concrete thickness of cantileverconstructed girder, extradosed and cablestayed bridges.
0.91
0.9
Miyakodagawa
PyungYeo
Regression
ShinKarato
0.8
Ganter
Domovinski
Korong
Hozu YukisawaOhashi
Odawara
Pearl Harbor
Tsukuhara
Ibi Kiso
Shinkawa
0.7
Pakse
Himi
SaintRemy
ShinMeisei
0.6
Rittoh
Socorridos
0.5
Barton
BrazilPeru
North Arm
Trois Bassins
Sunniberg
ArretDarre
0.4
0.39
Rio Branco
0.3
50
80
100
150
200
250
275
Longest Span, m
stiffened slab crosssections always have a lower average thickness than multiple box girder crosssections
for the same span.
In terms of total consumption of longitudinal prestressing steel, from available data on internal
prestressing in extradosed bridges (Grison & Tonello 1997; Becze & Barta 2006; Boudot et al. 2007), it
appears that the weight of total prestressing per unit volume of concrete is at best comparable to that of
31
cantilever constructed girder bridges. Therefore, any reduction in selfweight of concrete in the deck
should reduce the prestressing steel.
Figure 28 shows the mass of longitudinal prestressing and reinforcing steel, per unit volume of
concrete, in a selection of cantilever constructed girder bridges. The quantity of longitudinal prestressing
steel is fairly consistent, especially for shorter spans. The quantity of reinforcement on the other hand
varies considerably, but most of this variation comes from the transverse system of the deck slab (SETRA
2007). The upper values correspond to reinforced decks, wheras the lower values correspond to
transversly prestressed and ribbed decks. Shear reinforcement also affects the results since there is a large
difference between the web reinforcement if the webs are vertically prestressed or if external tendons are
used, as found for the Chapter 4 girder bridge designs. Regression lines are shown for the available data,
as are lines for preliminary estimates of superstructure costs suggested by Menn (1990) based on an
analysis of 19 bridges:
Prestressing Steel: m P = 0.35l m
The parameter lm is the geometrical average span length (li2/li) in metres while the quantities mP and ms
are the mass per unit volume of concrete (kg/m3). For a cantileverconstructed girder bridge, the average
span can be taken as the longest span since the concrete and reinforcement in each side span is essentially
equivalent to half of the main span.
200
Menn (1990)
Estimate
60
40
20
80
180
Menn (1990)
Estimate
160
140
120
100
80
50
100
150
Longest Span, m
200
50
100
150
Longest Span, m
200
Figure 28. Mass of steel in cantilever constructed girder bridges: a) longitudinal prestressing steel, and b) reinforcing steel (plots are based on data from SETRA 2007, Lacaze 2002, DEAL 1999).
The quantity of reinforcing steel in an extradosed bridge can be estimated from the above charts by
using an equivalent girder span length. The equivalent girder span length is calculated by multiplying the
extradosed span by the average depth of the extradosed cross section divided by the average depth of the
cantilever construction girder cross section. For an extradosed bridge with constant span to depth ratio of
50, the equivalent cantilever constructed girder bridge span would be 65% of the extradosed span.
2.3.2
Girder Stiffness
The moment of inertia of the girder of extradosed bridges at midspan varies considerably, especially for
bridges with a span between 100 and 150 m, as observed in Figure 29. This variation can be explained by
32
the variation in span to depth ratio at midspan observed in Figure 23. At the upper end, the moment of
inertia of some extradosed bridges is higher than that of cantilver constructed girder bridge of equal span,
while on the lower end, it is barely higher than that of a cablestayed bridge of equal span, as seen in
Figure 29. There is however one extradosed bridge, the Sunniberg Bridge, which has a girder that is
considerably more flexible (lower moment of inertia) than most extradosed bridges. Its structural
behaviour appears to be more like a cablestayed bridge, despite having a cable inclination of an
extradosed bridge.
It can also be observed that there is a distinct difference between the moment of inertia of cablestayed
bridges that have boxgirders and those that have slabs stiffened by edge beams. In this small sample of
cablestayed bridges, all box girders are centrally suspended, while all slab or stiffened slab bridges are
laterally supported.
25
Span/50
Span/40
Extradosed
CableStayed
Typical Cantilever
Constructed Box Girder
20
15
10
Sunniberg
80 100
200
300
Longest Span (m)
400
500 530
Figure 29. Moment of inertia of girder at midspan for extradosed and cablestayed bridges (per 10 m width).
2.4
2.4.1
The Odawara Bridge was the first extradosed bridge in the world to be constructed. The bridge has a two
cell box girder crosssection that is haunched near the piers, and supported in three spans by extradosed
cables in a semifan arrangement. The deck is monolithically connected to the two lateral tower legs,
which have a hexagonal shape.
There are 2 lateral planes of 8 extradosed 1915 mm dia strand tendons per half span. The stress range
in the extradosed cables due to live load is between 15 and 38 MPa (Kasuga et al. 1994). The extradosed
cables are carried over the piers in saddles spaced vertically at 300 mm, with the internal sheath anchored
outside the saddles to prevent slip, as seen in Figure 210. After the extradosed cables enter into the deck,
33
Figure 210. Odawara Extradosed Bridge details of tower saddle and arrangement of prestressing bars in tower from
FEM analysis (Kasuga et al. 1994).
they curve inwards to provide the necessary clearance for jacking them from within the box girder. This is
a unique solution to conceal the cable anchorages from view above or beneath the bridge. The sheaths are
installed in steel recess tubes both over the towers and through the girder to allow for future replacement of
the complete cable (Taniyama & Mikami 1994). Details of the cable anchorages and installation are
shown in Figure 211. The strands are epoxy coated and grouted inside an FRP sheath. High damping
rubber dampers are installed at the stay anchorages to decrease rain and wind vibrations.
a)
b)
c)
The bridge was constructed in cantilever with castinplace concrete. Temporary cables were used for
cantilever construction of the girder out to the first extradosed cables. The bridge features only external
tendons within the girder crosssection, although internal 1213 mm dia strand tendons were included for
cantilevering.
2.4.2
Twin parallel extradosed structures cross the Tsukuhara Bridge as part of a road network with the AkashiKaikyo Bridge (Ogawa et al. 1998). Due to the steep embankments and deep river, the side spans are very
short at 65.4 m (0.36 of main span) and 76.4 m (0.42 of main span). Fill concrete in the box girder is used
as a counterweight at the end of the each side span in order to reduce the overturning moment at the piers.
34
The deck slab spans 9 m between webs and is posttensioned with 28.6 mm dia monostrand tendons with
an afterbond pregrouted epoxy that does not require conventional grouting.
There are 2 lateral planes of 8 extradosed 2715 mm dia strand tendons per half span. The maximum
stress range in the extradosed cables due to live load is 37 MPa (Ogawa et al. 1998). The strands are
individually sheathed with polyethylene, bundled and encased in an HDPE pipe which is filled with a
polyethylene filler (Chilstrom 2001). There are 12 external 1915 mm dia strand tendons inside the box
girder across the main span to resist positive bending moments, and internal 1213 mm dia strand tendons
that are mainly used for cantilevering of 7 m segments (Ogawa et al. 1998).
The Tsukuhara Bridge has a span to depth ratio of 60 at midspan, which is very shallow compared with
others studied in this chapter. Despite this fact, the live load stress range in the cables is very low.
2.4.3
The Ibi and Kiso River Bridges are 5 and 6 span continuous structures that have total lengths of 1397 and
1145 m respectively, with maximum spans of 271.5 and 275 m. The towers are integral with the deck and
the superstructure rests on force distributing rubber bearings on the piers (Chilstrom 2001). The
superstructure has a hybrid construction, with each span consisting of cablesupported precast concrete
segments for the first 90 m from the piers, and a central steel box girder which is continuous with the
concrete sections. The continuity is achieved with shear studs, internal prestressing, and external
prestessing which is installed across the concrete segments, deviated at the piers and in span, and anchored
at the ends of the steel girders (Hirano et al. 1999).
The precast concrete segments are of 60 MPa concrete and have dimensions of 5 m in length, 33 m in
width, and up to 7 m in height. The segments weigh up to 400 tonnes, and were erected using a 600 tonne
crane. The segments were cast using two fabrication lines for each bridge, and transported 10 to 15 km by
barge to the site (Casteleyn 1999). The steel spans of 95 to 105 m weigh up to 2000 tonnes and were
strandlifted and joined to the concrete segments with prestressing and shear studs.
Figure 212. Ibi River Bridge Prestressing Tendon Layout in CrossSection (Kutsuna et al. 1999).
Kutsuna and Kasuga (2002) simulated the nonlinear behaviour of the structure up to its ultimate limit
state, to account for material and geometrical nonlinearity. The model included the effects of the girder,
internal and external tendons, and extradosed cables. The total load was increased gradually until the
concrete reached an ultimate strain of 0.0025. The target load was established as (D+L)1.7.
As the load increased, the precompression stress in the upper fibre of the girder section at the pier
increased until it exceeded the cracking stress at (D+L)1.5. Beyond this point, the increase in the tensile
force was taken by the internal and external tendons. The tension in the external tendons was almost
constant up to (D+L)1.5, then increased by 100 MPa at (D+L)1.7. The uppermost extradosed cable
35
Figure 213. Nonlinear Behaviour of the Ibi River Bridge up to ultimate load (Kutsuna et al. 2002).
reached the yield stress at (D+L)1.4, and by (D+L)1.7, all cables had yielded. Since all the cables yield
at ULS, Kutsuna and Kasuga conclude that the extradosed cables are used effectively.
While the magnitude of the live load is not given, the target load of (D+L)1.7 is already very
conservative. Given a ratio of maximum live load (unfactored) to dead load of 0.2, as calculated for the
extradosed bridges in Chapter 4 and typical of concrete cablestayed bridges (Walther et al. 1999), a total
lead of (D+L)1.5 equates to 1.2D+3LL which already exceeds the ULS1 requirement of the CHBDC
(CSA 2006a).
2.4.4
The structure was chosen both for economy and aesthetics, and carries two lanes of traffic in each direction
across the river. The trapezoidal box girder crosssection has two interior webs close to the cable
anchorages centred in the crosssection, and tapered exterior webs with shallow ribs to add visual interest
when observed from beneath the bridge. The tapered exterior webs were used to limit the width of the
bottom slab to give the bridge a lighter appearance (Kasuga 2006). The crosssection was castinplace in
balanced cantilever from the piers, and the side spans were assembled by overcantilevering with precast
core segments erected from a crane. The precast core segments measured 6 m wide by 1.8 m in length to
keep their weight below 25 tonnes. After the core segments acheived continuity across the side spans, the
wings were castinplace with the same traveller used for the full castinplace segments (Iida et al. 2002).
Figure 214. ShinMeisei Birdge construction of side spans (Iida et al. 2002).
The tower has a composite steel and concrete crosssection which allows the transfer of tensile stresses
across the tower without heavy prestressing, and allows for assembly without bolting or welding onsite.
The steel shell is assembled from box sections each weighing less than 5 tonnes. The postcast concrete
36
joint down the centre of the tower, shown in Figure 215, alleviates any cracking that would occur from the
elastic strain across the tower as the cables are installed.
a)
b)
c)
Figure 215. ShinMeisei Birdge a) photo of steel shell of tower; b) elevation of composite tower and c) details of
composite tower (drawings: Iida et al. 2002, photo and rendering: Kasuga 2006).
2.4.5
The North Arm Bridge is an extradosed bridge carrying the Canada Line LRT from the Vancouver Airport
into the City across the Fraser River North Arm. The extradosed bridge type was chosen to keep the track
profile as low as possible to cross the navigational clearance envelope, while keeping the towers below the
glidepath clearance envelope (Griezic et al. 2006). The main span is constructed from precast segments of
2.8 m maximum length, with a maximum weight of 70 tonnes for transportation and lifting. A deck level
extradosed cable anchorage segment is shown in Figure 216a.
There are 6 centrally positioned extradosed 5816 mm diametre strand tendons per half span, installed
with monostrand jacking equipment. The strands are galvanized, individually sheathed and waxed, and
enclosed in an HDPE pipe. The maximum stress range in the cables due to live load is 73 MPa.
a)
b)
c)
Figure 216. North Arm Birdge a) deck level extradosed cable anchorage; b) precast tower, and c) tower anchor segment (from Griezic et al. 2006).
The towers are assembled from precast composite sections, as shown in Figure 216b, and posttensioned vertically with 4 internal 1915 mm diametre strand tendons. The cables are anchored in a
central steel box to avoid posttensioning across the towers. Small HSS sections are welded between the
steel web plates to prevent vertical stresses, due to creep and shrinkage strains in the concrete, from
loading the steel web plates over time.
37
The designers of this bridge made two important decisions based on economy. A detailed comparison
was made and anchorages were chosen over saddles in the towers. Secondly, a constant depth girder was
chosen over a variable depth girder at the piers.
2.4.6
The bridge crosses over the A43 highway and a river on a curve, at a location with tight geometry where a
very shallow clearance was required, since the roadway surface is only 0.9 m above the highway clearance
envelope. The bridge has two spans of 52.5 and 48.5 m, and is castinplace on falsework and posttensioned. The bridge crosssection is U shaped and consists of edge girders with transverse crossbeams
at 2.27 m spacing supporting a 220 mm thick concrete deck.
There are 6 3415 mm dia strand tendons in each girder, which are internal through most of the span
and rise above the girder only around the deviators to become extradosed cables (Grison & Tonello 1997).
With an average girder thickness of 0.65 m, the SaintRmy Bridge has a longitudinal prestressing mass
per unit volume of concrete of 52 kg/m3 and a mass per unit area of deck surface of 30 kg/m2. This is
comparable to another short extradosed bridge, the Korong Bridge (Becze & Barta 2006), which has two
spans of 62 and 52 m, an average girder thickness of 0.785 m and a longitudinal prestressing mass of 43
kg/m3 and 33 kg/m2. However, this is quite alot more prestressing than in a conventional box girder bridge
of equivalent spans, which would be expected to have a similar average girder thickness of around 0.6 m
but a longitudinal prestressing mass of only 20 to 30 kg/m3, based on Section 2.3.1.
Compared with other channel bridges, the material quantities in the SaintRmy Bridge seem more
reasonable. The Route 302 Bridge over Route 17 in New York State is a channel bridge (Allen & Naret
1998; Shepherd & Gibbens 2004) assembled from precast segments that carries two lanes of traffic over
two spans of 34.1 m. The bridge has an average girder thickness of 0.48 m and a longitudinal prestressing
mass of 51 kg/m3 and 23 kg/m2.
Given that the span to depth ratio of the SaintRmy Bridge is 24 and that of the Route 302 Bridge is
22, it is clear that the SaintRmy Bridge could have been designed with internaly prestressing only. While
the extradosed prestressing may lead to an optimal alignment for the prestressing, as claimed by Grison &
Tonello (1997), it is unlikely that the cost of the building towers and providing external protection details
for the cables would have been less than the cost of additional prestressing strand. From this comparison,
it is clear that the extradosed form was primarily chosen for the second reason stated by its designers, that
of aesthetics that closely mimic the structural behaviour of the bridge.
38
2.4.7
The extradosed bridge form was found to be a good solution for the ravine both
in terms of technological and architectural considerations, and was thought to
integrate harmoniously into the environment (Frappart 2005). A concrete bridge
was favoured due to the local availability of the material and a labour force that
was not familiar with structural steel. The bridge has spans of 126  104.4  75.6
 43.2 m with a counterweighted span of 18.6 m adjacent the longest span to
stabilise the bridge transversely against cyclone winds of up to 49 m/s. The
unusual span arrangement was chosen partly because access was restricted to one
side of the ravine only. The bridge was castinplace with 60 MPa concrete in
segments of 3.6 m length. For each segment, the form traveler was used to cast
Figure 217. Trois
the main box section, while two smaller mobile formwork travelers were used to Bassins Viaduct main pier
install the struts and cast the deck overhang cantilevers in 7.2 m segments, off the (Frappart 2005).
critical path. The bridge was constructed starting with the short spans and ending with the closure of the
longest span.
The webs are inclined outwards to achieve the necessary torsional resistance of the section without
increasing the web thickness, and concurrently limiting the offset between the extradosed anchorages and
the webs (Frappart 2005).
There are double planes of 7 extradosed 3716 mm dia strand cables across the main tower, as shown
in Figure 217, and one plane of 3 extradosed cables of the same size extending across the secondary pier
(Boudot et al. 2007). The strands of the extradosed cables are individually greased and sheathed and
insulated inside an HDPE external sheath, and are deviated across the towers by saddles. Internal 19 and
1216 mm dia strand tendons were used for cantilevering, with one pair of cables anchored in most
segments, and were also used for continuity between cantilevers. External 1916 mm dia strand continuity
tendons were draped across two or more spans. The mass of longitudinal prestressing (extradosed cables,
internal and external prestressing) per volume of concrete in the girder is 52 kg/m and the mass per unit
area of deck surface is 46 kg/m.
The deck is transversely prestressed with 3 416 mm dia strand tendons at the struts and one 416 mm
dia strand tendon per metre length of deck elsewhere.
2.4.8
The Sunniberg Bridge spans a total of 526 m, with a maximum span of 140 m, over the Landquart River
valley before entering the Gotschna tunnel which is part of a new bypass to Klosters. As a highly visible
structure along the bypass, the owner desired a high aesthetic standard and minimum impact to the valley
39
below during construction (Figi et al. 1997). The deck crosssection consists of a solid slab with
longitudinal edge beams, with a 7% roadway superelevation.
a)
1m
3.5 m
3.5 m
1m
b)
Stay cable
4 o 22
5 o 26
o 14 e=20
o14/o16 e=15
Longitudinal
prestressing
o 30 e15/12.5
1.9 m
1.15 m
Cable anchorage
0. 4 m
4 o 22 4 o 22
Figure 218. Snniberg Bridge a) deck crosssection and b) prestressing and reinforcement (adapted from Tiefbauamt Graubnden 2001).
The bridge is curved in plan and connected monolithically at the abutments, which provides full
longitudinal restraint and allows the bridge to deform as a horizontal arch under deformation due to
temperature range. The abutments were designed as earth filled containers to anchor the horizontal
reaction forces (Baumann and Dniker 1999). The pier columns have a parabolic variation in depth, and
flare outwards from the base so that the towers are leaning outwards in order to provide the required
clearance for the cables.
There are two planes of 8 to 10 stay cables per half span. Each cable consists
of 125 to 160 galvanised 7 mm dia wires, prefabricated to length and anchored
by means of button heads in BBR DINA bonded anchorages, for a high fatigue
Steel construction
Stay cables with 125
to 160 wires of 7 mm
diametre  cable forces
3850 to 4900 kN
resistance. The cables have an ultimate tensile strength of 1600 MPa and were
designed for a maximum allowable stress of 0.50 fpu. Each group of four
cables were stressed simultaneously. There are 3 1215 mm dia strand tendons
(1900 kN each) in each edge beam through the midspan areas to compensate
for the decrease in axial force from the cables (Baumann and Dniker 1999).
The flexible deck results in large deflections throughout each stage of construction, and
correspondingly large variations in bending moment, as seen in Figure 220. Under permanent loads, the
moment distribution across the deck resembles that of a continuous beam on simple supports, while under
live load a point load is distibuted into nearby cables (Figi et al. 1997). The vertical deflection of the girder
at midspan is 225 mm under a point load of 360 kN with and uniformly distributed load of 2 kN/m3,
approximately L/600 which is under the L/400 limit that was agreed upon with the owner (Tiefbauamt
Graubnden 2001). Of the total deflection, 40% comes from the rotation of the piers while 60% results
from the elastic extension of the cables, resulting in an upwards displacement of 60 mm in the adjacent
spans, 25% of the deflection of the loaded span.
The total cost of the Sunniberg Bridge was SFr. 20 M, corresponding to SFr. 3075 per m2 (Baumann
and Dniker 1999). The major cost items are the foundations, piers, and pylons (20.6%), bridge deck
including form traveller (33.5%) and the stay cables (23.1%). The total mass of the stay cables is given as
320 tonnes, while the mass of longitudinal internal prestressing in the deck is 13 tonnes. The stay cable
system cost around SFr. 14 400 per tonne. The mass of all prestressing (stay cables and internal PT) per
40
Form traveler advanced to Stage 5
Tower CL
Midspan
Displacement
Deck poured
Displacement
Permanent
Variable
Concrete
Figure 220. Sunniberg Bridge a) bending moments and deflections of the edge beam through one stage of construction, and b) forces and deflections of the main span inner edge beam of the final structure due to permanent and live
loads (adapted from Figi et al. 1998).
volume of concrete in the deck is 100 kg/m3 and the mass per unit area of deck is 97 kg/m2. These values
are higher than are typically found in extradosed bridges, such as the viaduc de la ravine des Trois Bassins
described in Section 2.4.7. The deck has an average thickness of only 0.51 m, which is lighter than all
extradosed bridges in this span range, but the mass of reinforcement per unit volume of concrete is over
200 kg/m3.
2.5
Concluding Remarks
This chapter presented the results of a study of 51 extradosed bridges constructed or proposed to date.
Most of the bridges in the study have proportions that are between those suggested by Mathivat (1988) and
those used in the first few extradosed bridges constructed with girders embedded on the piers, designed by
Menn and Kasuga. The girder concrete usage of the extradosed bridges is between typical values of
cantilever constructed girder and cablestayed bridges, although a large variation was observed amongst
the extradosed bridges. A close examination of prestressing quantities in selected extradosed bridges
indicates that the prestressing usage is around the same as a cantilever girder bridge of the same span,
while reinforcing steel usage is lower. The examples of this chapter illustrate what is typical and what is
achievable for extradosed bridges; they are equally well suited to castinplace and precast construction.
In the next chapter, the insight gained from the study of existing extradosed bridges in this chapter
provides a basis for recommendations on the design of cable configuration, girder crosssection, towers,
and piers.
Chapter 3 presents a comprehensive review of loads, design methodology, extradosed bridge proportions,
stay cable technology, girder crosssections, cable and tendon layout, erection and analysis. The purpose
of this chapter is to explore the structural behaviour of an extradosed bridge, and determine what should be
considered for its design. This is necessary in order to develop realistic bridge designs in Chapter 4.
3.1
Loads
The CAN/CSAS606 Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code (CSA 2006a hereafter CHBDC) has been
used throughout this thesis as the basis for all analysis of example extradosed bridges, bridge designs, and
parametric studies. The CHBDC uses the limit states philosophy to satisfy the requirements for
serviceability and fatigue, and to ensure the structure has adequate factored resistance to meet the factored
load effect at ultimate limit states.
Similar to cablestayed bridges, the extradosed bridge is designed with service loads and allowable
stresses in the stay cables and tendons. In the final stages of design, the capacity of the sections are
verified at the ultimate limit state. The purpose of this section is to assess whether the CHBDC loads are
adequate for the design of extradosed bridges. The load combinations of relevance to this thesis are
summarised in Tables 31 and 32.
Table 31. Load factors and load combinations (CSA
2006a).
Loads
SLS Combination 1
ULS Combination 1
ULS Combination 2
ULS Combination 9
Permanent
D
P
1.00 1.00
P
D
D
P
1.35 P
Transitory
L
K
0.90 0.80
1.70 0
1.60 1.15
0
0
Maximum
1.10
1.20
1.50
Maximum
1.05
Minimum
0.95
0.90
0.65
Minimum
0.95
Legend:
D  dead load
P  secondary prestress effects
L  live load (including the dynamic load allowance)
K  all strains, deformations, and displacements and their effects  includes those due to temperature change, temperature
differential, concrete shrinkage, differential shrinkage, and creep.
3.1.1
Live Load
The live loading prescribed by the CHBDC has been adopted throughout this thesis. For long spans, the
CHBDC live load is based on traffic loading for long span bridges recommended by the American Society
of Civil Engineers Committee of Loads and Forces on Bridges (Buckland 1981), which was established
after traffic studies were conducted on the Second Narrows Bridge in Vancouver, BC which is considered
to be typical of traffic on most North Americal long span bridges (Buckland 1991). However, there are
differences in vehicle positioning in the lane and multiple lane loading between the two codes which are
described and quantified in this section.
The CHBDC live load model consists of the CL625 Truck, which consists of a series of axle loads
which total 625 kN, and the CL625 Lane Load which is made up of the CL625 Truck reduced to 80% and
41
42
superimposed with a uniformly distributed load of 9 kN/m. Under serviceability limit state (SLS) and
ultimate limit state (ULS), the CL625 Truck load effect is increased by the addition of a dynamic load
amplification (DLA) factor to account for impact, which varies depending on how many axles are loading
the component under consideration as shown in Figure 31. For all axles acting on the bridge, the DLA is
25%. A DLA is not applied to the CL625 Lane load, as this maximum load condition is assumed to occur
with stationary vehicles on the bridge (CSA 2006b). The CL625 live load is shown in Figure 31.
CL625 Truck
Dynamic Load
Allowance
CL625 Truck
Clearance Envelope
Figure 31. CL625 Live Loading: Maximum of CL625 Truck (including DLA) or CL625 Lane Load.
For spans up to approximately 50 m, the CL625 Truck will govern the loading, but at spans beyond
approximately 90 m, the CL625 Lane load will govern. In between these span lengths, the Truck will
govern in positive moment regions, while the Lane load will govern in negative moment regions. At
SLS1, the live load is reduced to 0.9 of the value of the CL625 Live load.
Fractions of Basic Lane Load
3
4
5
6
2
Multiple Lane Distribution
The CL625 Lane load is based on the ASCE traffic loading for long span bridges, shown in Figure 32, with an average 30 % heavy vehicles in traffic flow, despite the fact that the Second Narrows Bridge was
found to have an upper limit of 7.5 % average heavy vehicles in traffic flow (Buckland 1981). The 30 %
loading was proposed by the ASCE Committee as an upper limit for some routes with a large number of
43
trucks, and was selected by the CHBDC Subcommittee on Loads to account for an increase in truck
weights in the last 25 years and to allow for future growth in truck traffic (CSA 2006b).
The loading of multiple lanes is not a simple matter, but it is important because it has a significant
effect on the stress range of the cables due to live loading. Buckland (1991) presents a comparison of live
loading between British Standards (BD 37/88, BS 5400 1978) and North American Standards (ASCE,
AASHTO 1983, CAN/CSAS688 1988) with a section on multiple lane loading. While the current
CHBDC CL625 Lane load is based on the ASCE 30% heavy vehicle curves, the multilane factors do not
follow the ASCE recommendations.
The multilane loading factors in the CHBDC follow the North American practice of reducing the lane
loads uniformly across all lanes. The multilane loading takes into account the reduced probability of more
than one lane being loaded simultaneously, due to actions such as traffic distribution, traffic volume, traffic
speed, accident situations, and decrease of dynamic loads since it is unlikely that vehicles in multiple lanes
vibrate in harmony (CSA 2006b). The CHBDC positions the vehicles biased towards one side of the
design lane to produce the maximum load effect. In contrast, the ASCE loading positions the vehicles
centrally in the design lanes, based on the assumption that over a long span, vehicles will be randomly
spaced with the average position close to the centre of the lane (Buckland 1981).
European practice has been to keep one or two lanes fully loaded while reducing the load on all others.
As noted by Buckland, there is merit to this idea as there is no reason to suppose the most heavily loaded
lane will be less loaded simply because other lanes are open and he emphasizes the importance of
accurately representing the effects of the traffic (Buckland 1991). The ASCE Loading recommends one
lane loaded to the maximum, the second lane loaded to 0.7 of the maximum, and all other lanes loaded to
0.4 of the maximum. The maximum torque on a bridge that is centrally supported is produced by a point
load applied at location X leading in front of the uniform live load with multiple lane load factors applied,
and a uniform load with multiple lane load factors applied up to the point X in lanes of the opposite
direction. This corresponds to the maximum torque that could be produced with vehicles stationary
blocked by an incident at location X. .
Although the basic lane load may be similar, the two codes differ in their treatment of multiple lane
loading, as illustrated in Figure 33. Table 33 shows the difference in load effect between the CHBDC
and ASCE treatment of multiple lane loading and vehicle biasing in the lane. For a bridge suspended by a
single plane of cables, the CHBDC live load effect is anywhere between 3% and 14% higher than that of
the ASCE loading, for the same basic lane load. For a bridge with two planes of cables, the CHBDC live
load effect is the same as the ASCE load effect on average, but between 8% higher and 6% lower. The
total live load on the cables when a bridge is laterally supported, neglecting torsional redistribution, is up
to 14% higher for CHBDC multiple lane loading, and up to 20% higher for ASCE multiple lane loading,
than if the bridge is centrally supported.
As a bridge deck increases in width, one might expect the live load to dead load ratio to decrease, since
the live load per metre width of deck is lesser. This would in fact be the case if we assume the dead load of
the crosssection to be linearly proportional to the width. From the extradosed bridges examined in
44
5
Lateral Suspension
3
CHBDC Lateral
Central Suspension
CHBDC Central
2
ASCE Lateral
ASCE Central
1
2 lanes
3 lanes
4 lanes
5 lanes
6 lanes
7 lanes
0
6.0
10.0
13.5
17.0
20.5
24.0
CHBDC 2006
8 lanes
27.5
0
31.0
Wc, m
ASCE 1981
Figure 33. multiple lane loading effect by deck width according to CHBDC 2006 and ASCE 1981, for two planes of
cables and for single plane central cable suspension.
Table 33. Comparison of multiple lane load effects according to CHBDC (2006a) and ASCE (Buckland 1981) for
the same basic lane load.
Comparison
CHBDC/ASCE
Total Load on single cable plane
CHBDC/ASCE
Total Load on two planes of cables
CHBDC  Ratio of total load of two planes to
total load on single plane
ASCE  Ratio of total load of two planes to
total load on single plane
2 Lanes
1.06
3 Lanes
1.14
4 Lanes
1.12
5 Lanes
1.03
6 Lanes
1.00
7 Lanes
1.04
8 Lanes
1.07
1.08
1.04
1.03
0.99
0.96
0.92
0.94
1.10
1.07
1.10
1.14
1.14
1.04
1.02
1.08
1.18
1.20
1.20
1.19
1.18
1.17
Chapter 2, the wider bridges do appear to have effective thicknesses that are less than the narrower bridges
(average effective thickness of decks 18 m or wider is 13% lower), however the live load to dead load ratio
decreases faster. In a well designed crosssection, the dead load should be a function of the transverse
system and the stiffening system, where only the transverse system is affected by and increase in deck
width, as will be discussed further in Section 3.6.
Two important observations can be made from this discussion of live load:
1. The multiple lane loading factors and lane biasing of the CHBDC will result in larger live load effects
for than those prescribed in the ASCE, specifically for centrally suspended girders and laterally supported girders with fewer than 5 lanes.
2. The total live load effect on two planes of cables will be between 10 and 20% higher than on a single
plane of cables, which implies that central suspension lead to a lower live load demand in cable supported bridges.
3.1.2
Temperature
At SLS1, the CHBDC (CSA 2006a) requires that the effects of temperature be considered in combination
with live load. There are three temperature effects that cause forces in an extradosed bridge: temperature
45
gradient in the girder, temperature differential between the cables and girder, and a uniform temperature
range applied to the entire structure. The effects of temperature gradient and temperature differential on
the extradosed bridge become more significant as the stiffness of girder increased and must be considered
and will be discussed in greater detail, while a temperature range mainly affects the piers.
Temperature Gradient in Girder
The CHBDC (CSA 2006a) specifies a linear temperature gradient which is a function of the section
depth. This may provide a reasonable approximation of the curvature induced by the sun shining on the
surface of a bridge deck for short spans, but is overly conservative for deeper crosssections where
corresponding curvature is primarily due to the strain in the deck slab and its distance to the centroid of the
girder crosssection.
One of the earlier rational models for temperature gradient was proposed by Priestley (1978) based on
experimental and analytical research conducted in the early 1970s. A design gradient was proposed that
would accurately predict the critical conditions for seven bridge sections investigated and was adopted for
all major concrete bridge design in New Zealand (Priestley 1978). This design gradient is specified by a
fifthorder curve with the point of zero temperature difference at 1200 mm below the deck surface.
T, deg C
0.0
0
Depth, m
0.4
10.0
20.0
30.0
ilevers
webs, cant
voids
bove
deck a
0.8
New Zealand concrete deck
1.2
Zone
1
2
3
4
T = 32  0.2h
ty = T (y/1200)5
ty = 5  0.05h
h: asphalt thickness
T1
30
25
23
21
T2
7.8
6.7
6.0
5.0
AASHTO Zone 1
1.6
AASHTO Zone 3
CHBDC
Figure 34. Comparison of Temperature Gradients (adapted from Priestley 1978, AASHTO 2004).
The current AASHTO (2004) LRFD temperature gradient is based on a model proposed in the 1985
NCHRP Report 276, which was based on work initially done by Potgieter and Gamble (1983). RobertsWollman, Breene and Carson (2002) describe the development of the current code provisions in greater
detail, and compare the 1994 AASHTO temperature gradient with field measurements of two segmental
concrete bridges over the course of 2.5 years. Their results indicate that the 1994 AASHTO LRFD
positive gradients are conservative for an exposed concrete deck, and appropriate for a deck with 50 mm
asphalt topping, while the negative gradients are slightly conservative. As well, they found the shape of
the temperature gradient to be most similar to the trilinear form specified in the 1989 AASHTO Guide
Specifications for Thermal Effects in Concrete Bridge Superstructures. The current 2004 AASHTO LRFD
temperature gradient is very similar to the 1994 version, except that the reduction of the temperature
gradient for asphalt wearing surface (to 0.8 of the untopped value) has been eliminated. Negative
temperature gradients are obtained by multiplying the positive gradient by 0.3 for a concrete wearing
surface, and by 0.2 for an asphalt wearing surface.
46
The AASHTO (2004) LRFD code specifies a load factor TG for temperature gradient, to be taken as
1.0 at SLS when live load is not considered, and as 0.5 when combined with live load. Since the AASHTO
temperature gradient is a rational model that has been shown to be conservative in its prediction of strains
in concrete bridges, its use and use of partial load factor in combination with live load should be adopted
for any bridge where the effects of temperature gradient are likely to influence the design of prestressing
and reinforcement, such as for an extradosed bridge.
Mondorf (2006) and OBrien and Keogh (1999) provide good explanations of how to calculate the
effects due to nonlinear temperature gradient. Priestley (1978) notes that the effects of temperature
gradients should not be be considered as equivalent forces at ULS, because the forcedeformation response
of the girder section is no longer linear, and equivalent forces would incorrectly predict failure, wheras the
only significance of thermal gradient at ULS is a reduction in ductility of the section.
Temperature Differential between Stays and Girder
Sun shining on a bridge will cause steel above the deck to heat up more rapidly than a concrete girder.
Thus the stays will lengthen due to the temperature differential with respect to the girder, and will cause
bending in the girder. The CHBDC (CSA 2006a Clause 3.9.4.1) states that Type A structures (steel
superstructure above the deck) will be subject to temperatures of 25 above the maximum mean daily
temperature, while Type C structures (concrete systems with concrete decks) will be 10 above. This
would imply a temperature differential of 15 between stays and concrete girder, although there is a further
reduction in the temperature of the concrete girder due to depth that would increase this differential.
Eurocode 115 (CEN 2002a) specifies a temperature differential of 10 for light coloured stays and 20 for
dark coloured stays, which does not take into account girder materials or depth. A temperature differential
of 15 was used in the design of the PascoKennewick Bridge (Mondorf 2006). The effect of temperature
differential indicates a preference for light coloured stays in extradosed bridges.
3.2
Design Concepts
3.2.1
The extradosed bridge form allows the designer to select the distribution of live load between the stay
cables and the girder, by changing the stiffness ratio of these two elements. Ogawa and Kasuga (1998)
compare this to the choice a designer has when designing an arch as deckstiffened or archstiffened. Thus
there are two different approaches that have been taken in the design of extradosed bridges. The following
examples of the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge that has a stiff deck, and the Sunniberg Bridge that has a
flexible deck, illustrate these two extremes.
For the concrete design of the Pearl Harbour Memorial Bridge (51 in Table 21) to be built in New
Haven, Connecticut (Stroh et al. 2003), the designers proportioned the girder section based on the
maximum depth available given the grade and navigational clearance constraints, as well as transverse
bending requirements. The girder was then dimensioned with the maximum desirable amount of internal
longitudinal posttensioning for the section (Stroh et al. 2003). Extradosed tendons were used to reduce
the bending moment demand to meet the available moment resistance of the box section. This process
47
resulted in a bridge with a span to depth ratio of 31 at the piers and 45 elsewhere. For a 5 lane bridge of
157 m main span, the cable mass required to support half of the main span was 41 tonnes, a mass of 18 kg/
m of the deck surface.
For the design of the Sunniberg Bridge (10 in Table 21) (Honigmann & Billington 2003), Menn has
used the same approach as for the design of a cablestayed bridge: a cable arrangement is selected, cables
are sized according to maximum load for the allowable cable stress, and the girder is designed to resist the
bending moment between cables under dead load, and compatibility moments under live load, caused by
the distribution of axles loads to several adjacent cables. Finally, the cross section was checked for
buckling at the pier under combined bending and axial compression in the deck. This process resulted in a
bridge that has a span to depth ratio of 127. For a 2 lane bridge of 140 m main span, the cable mass
required to support half of the 140 m main span was 43 tonnes, a mass of 49 kg/m of the deck surface,
more than double that of the Pearl Harbour Memorial Bridge.
Most extradosed bridges built to date lie somewhere between these two examples, as is the case for the
North Arm Bridge (48 in Table 21), a 562 m long, five span LRT bridge with a 180 m extradosed main
span, recently completed in Vancouver (Griezic et al. 2006). A precast concrete segmental box girder
crosssection was being used on other parts of the project and was a logical choice for the extradosed span.
In addition, the approach spans could be cantilever constructed by varying the depth of the box girder. In
the main span, extradosed tendons were added to extend the useable span of the box girder while meeting
navigational and glidepath clearance requirements above and below the bridge. These constraints resulted
in a bridge with a span to depth ratio of 53. For a bridge with two LRT lines, the cable mass required to
support half of the main span was 22 tonnes, a mass of 23 kg/m of the deck surface. The designers
reported a maximum stress range of 73 MPa due to service live load (Griezic et al. 2006), while an analysis
done for this thesis found a maximum of 61 MPa at SLS under CHBDC live load. While the North Arm
Bridge is an LRT bridge, it can be compared with the other two road bridges based on the maximum live
loading stress in the extradosed cables.
Ogawa and Kasuga (1998) define an index as the distribution of the live load to the stay cables, and
claims that this index also represents the stiffness ratio between stay cables and girders.
The boundary between extradosed bridges and cablestayed bridges is suggested to occur at = 0.30,
corresponding to a live load stress range in the cables of around 50 MPa. In practice, the distribution index
is not easily determined since all common live load models consist of both a uniform lane load and point
loads representing vehicle axles. The distribution index is higher for point loads than for uniform loads,
because the girder locally distributes the point load to cables surrounding the point of loading, not to all
cables in the span. The vertical stiffness of a cable anchored at the deck is related to the inverse of its
length and decreases as the length increases (i.e. as we move away from the pier towards the midspan).
Therefore, a point load applied at midspan will distribute more evenly to adjacent cables than a point load
applied closer to the pier. This is demonstrated in the comparison between the Sunniberg Bridge and the
48
North Arm Bridge in Table 34, each subjected to point load, uniform load, and CL625 live load. The
ratios are higher for the Sunniberg Bridge than for the North Arm Bridge, and the ratio for point load at
midspan is higher than for a uniform load in each bridge.
Table 34. Comparison between Sunniberg Bridge and North Arm Bridge response to live load.
Sunniberg Bridge, 140 m main span
North Arm Bridge, 180 m main span
Axial force and bending moment due to 9 kN/m uniform load across main span
= 0.72
= 0.23
Axial force and bending moment due to 625 kN point load applied at midspan
= 1.00
= 0.43
Axial force and bending moment envelopes due CL625 live loading
L= 198 MPa*
maximum LL stress in cables
L= 61 MPa*
maximum LL stress in cables
* Values given are for 2 lanes loaded including multilane reduction and service load factors.
Note: Model geometry and load shading for the two bridges are to the same relative scale.
3.2.2
The girder, cables, and tower form the superstructure load resisting system. For all extradosed bridges
considered in Chapter 2, the tower is fixed to the girder, but the superstructure is fixed to the substructure
(piers) in only half of the bridges. In bridges with side spans of less than half of the main span, as is almost
always the case for cablestayed bridges, the tower can be stabilised by backstay cables. Backstay cables
will not be discussed in this section because very few extradosed bridges rely on backstay cables, but the
topic is explained thoroughly by Leonhardt and Zellner (1980), Menn (1994), Gimsing (1997) and Walther
et al. (1999).
When the superstructure rests on simple supports at the piers (free in rotation), as opposed to being
embedded (fixed in rotation) at the piers, a live load in any one span causes bending in the girder, which
49
causes a downwards displacement in the loaded span and an upwards displacement in the adjacent span(s).
To resist the bending moment in the girder and control displacements, the girder alone must have adequate
bending resistance and stiffness. For these two conditions to be jointly met, a certain section depth is
required to provide stiffness to the system, since the cables simply transfer the load in one span to the
adjacent span(s). A tensile force in a cable due to a point load in one span is distributed through the tower
to multiple cables in the adjacent span.
In the case of a superstructure embedded at the piers, any rotation of the superstructure at each pier will
be partially restrained by the substructure. This will decrease the bending moment in the girder due to live
load, since some of the moment is resisted by the pier. The corresponding displacements are also reduced.
If the girder is flexible, the substructure must provide enough stiffness to control deflections of the girder
due to live load.
Table 35. Comparison between monolithic and released connnection at main piers of the North Arm Bridge.
Bending moment due to 625 kN point load on main span
Monolithic
Monolithic
Released
50
Table 35. Comparison between monolithic and released connnection at main piers of the North Arm Bridge.
Deflected shape envelope due CL625 live loading* on main span
Monolithic
d = 20 mm
d = 155 mm
Released
d = 67 mm
d = 300 mm
* Values given are for 2 lanes loaded including multilane reduction and service load factors.
Table 35 shows the forces and displacements in the North Arm Bridge resulting from live load across
the main span, for both the superstructure embedded on the piers (monolithic as it was constructed) and the
superstructure simply supported (released against rotation) at the piers. The monolitic connection causes a
shift in the moment diagram from positive to negative moment regions, and virtually eliminates any
bending in the back spans. In the released condition, the live load in the main span is reflected in the back
spans, the effect of which is pronounced since the side spans are very long in this bridge.
3.2.3
Prestressing Methodology
From the previous two sections, we observe that there are two separate factors which influence the
magnitude of the bending moments in the girder due to live load. Firstly, the relative stiffness of the cables
and girder which affects the distribution of forces between these two systems, and secondly the connection
between the superstructure and the substructure, which affects the moment distribution between the
superstructure and the piers. Longterm effects lead to changes in the magnitude and distribution of
bending moments in the extradosed bridge, and warrant further discussion before explaining the
prestressing methodology for an extradosed bridge.
Axial shortening of the girder due to creep and shrinkage will cause a decrease in the cables
pretensions that causes long term bending moments, as will be discussed in Section 3.4.9. For a concrete
cable supported structure, it is always desirable to have no net bending moment in the girder under
permanent loads (a bending moment distribution in the girder equivalent to that of a continuous beam on
simple supports) to reduce creepinduced deflections and uncertainties in the deflections over the lifetime
of the structure. This is especially important for cablestayed bridge with flexible decks, where the live
load moment is a much greater proportion of the total moment than permanent moments. Undulating
internal tendons are installed to exactly balance the selfweight of the slab between anchorages, to
eliminate any net moment under permanent loads. This is sometimes referred to as centred forces under
permanent loads and is the preferred means of keeping geometrical nonlinear effects to a minimum under
permanent loads (Virlogeux 1994).
It is also desirable to have centred forces during construction, as creep deformations will be
accelerated due to the early age of the concrete. This is only possible with cable tensions adjusted to
balance the construction loads: the selfweight of the deck and the weight of the construction equipment.
This creates an apparent contradiction, which is often solved by first stressing the cables to balance
51
construction loads, then restressing the cables to balance the permanent loads, after the superimposed load
is applied to the continuous structure. This is efficient in terms of limiting the bending moment in the deck
at all stages but it requires a laborious restressing operation.
The aforementioned factors lead to the following prestressing methodology for cablestayed bridges.
The cables are dimensioned to resist all permanent loads, all uniform live load, and concentrated live loads
reduced to account for some distribution into adjacent cables. The cables are first pretensioned to balance
construction loads during construction in balanced cantilever, then they are retensioned to balance all
permanent loads after construction of barriers and asphalt paving. Internal prestressing tendons are
straight and centred to limit creep effects, geometrical nonlinear effects, and uncertainties in the magnitude
of bending moments. Partial prestressing is used in the girder to limit crack widths at SLS (Hansvold
1994; Jordet & Svensson 1994; Wheeler et al. 1994), typically to 0.2 mm. Additional bending capacity at
ULS is provided by reinforcing steel. Full prestressing to keep the girder uncracked at SLS, especially at
midspan where there is no axial force induced in the girder from the cables, would require a prohibitively
high quantity of prestressing. Sometimes, the span is required to remain fully prestressed for a typical
truck, and only partially prestressed for full SLS loads (Bergermann & Stathopoulos 1988).
The challenge of designing an extradosed bridge with stiff girder lies in proportioning the girder,
cables and substructure to control the stress range in the cables due to live load, in order to take advantage
of a higher allowable stress for the extradosed cables. Since the girder is stiff, axial shortening of the
girder due to creep and shrinkage causes long term bending moments of similar magnitude to those due to
live load, which cannot be avoided. Prestressing is required in the girder to resist bending moments due to
both long term effects and live load. This leads to the following prestressing methodology, suggested by
Komiya (1999) and Chio Cho (2000). The cables of an extradosed bridge could be dimensioned to balance
the girder selfweight with an allowance for live load, and pretensioned to balance construction loads
(girder selfweight only). Superimposed dead loads are applied to the continuous structure, but are resisted
mostly by the girder causing only a marginal increase in cable tensions, between 3 and 6% for the bridge
designed in Section 4.3. Instead of restressing the stay cables, these bending moments can be balanced by
internal bottom and/or external draped continuity tendons installed in the final structure. These tendons
provide resistance for the bending moment due to live load and long term effects. Tendon layout will be
discussed in Section 3.7, and bending moment diagrams describing the above load cases can be found in
Section 4.3.2.
For an extradosed bridge with flexible girder, the girder must be as flexible as possible to limit longterm bending moments due to creep and shrinkage. At the same time, the superstructure and substructure
together must provide enough stiffness to limit deflections due to live load. The prestressing methodology
is the same as for cablestayed bridges.
52
3.3
Conceptual Design
3.3.1
Fixity of the girder, both at the side span supports and on the main piers, has a significant effect on both the
bending moment in the deck and on the stress range in the cables due to live load. Fixing the girder at the
piers allows the bridge to resist live load as a frame, causing a shift in bending moment in the loaded span
from positive to negative moment regions, where the moment is distributed into the piers. Fixing the
girder decreases the total bending moment in the deck and decreases the displacements, especially in the
spans adjacent to the applied load. Of the extradosed bridges in the Chapter 2 study, 26 out of 50 have
girders that are embedded on the piers.
Figure 35 shows the moment envelopes due to the CHBDC (CSA 2006a) CL625 Live load for a
three span girder bridge of constant crosssection, with a main span of 100 m and side spans of different
length. The envelopes on the left side of the figure are for a case where the girder is fully restrained at the
inside piers, whereas those on the right side are for a girder on simple supports at the interior piers. For the
fixed condition, the moment range at the section of maximum moment in the side spans (difference
between maximum and minimum moment) is 55% of the value for the simply supported condition. When
the girder is embedded on the piers, the moment envelope will be somewhere between the two extremes
shown in Figure 35.
25
Moment, MNm
20
15
10
Distance from CL Pier, m
100
50
5
50
0
50
100
5
10
15
20
Figure 35. CHBDC CL625 Live load envelopes for a main span of 100 m.
In a girder bridge, the live load is a small portion of the total moment in the bridge, and embedding the
girder on the piers does not significantly affect the design, since the decrease in total moment is relatively
small (for the cantilever constructed girder bridge in Chapter 4, which is simply supported at the piers, the
live load at midspan is 23% of the total moment demand at SLS). In an extradosed bridge however, the
live load makes up a significant portion of the total moment in the girder (for the stiff girder extradosed
bridge in Chapter 4 which has a girder that is embedded on the piers, the live load at midspan is 44% of the
total moment demand at SLS which is a higher proportion of the total moment than in the girder bridge).
Since the live load is shared between the cables and the girder, any decrease in live load moment is doubly
beneficial since the total moment in the girder is reduced, and the stress range in the cables due to live load
is decreased.
53
The height and configuration of the piers will influence the bending moment at the level of the
foundations, especially due to resp. Piers that are fixed at their base deform in double bending, and thus
the moment at the base will be similar to that at the girder, unless there is a variation in the piers crosssection. The piers can be proportioned to resist the bending moment due to live load without significant
reinforcement. The lever arm of the pier can be increased more easily than the deck, through a wider pier
or twin pier legs, without detriment to the aesthetics of the bridge. If footing dimensions are constrained, a
simply supported deck will be preferred to eliminate bending at the foundation level due to live load on the
superstructure.
The proportioning of the girder and piers are interrelated and cannot be treated independently. The
decision of whether to fix the girder to the piers in rotation or not should be made early on in the design
process as this significantly affects the forces in the bridge under live load. Both scenarios present no
difficulties in construction, and it appears preferable keep the girder embedded on the piers.
3.3.2
When the girder is stiff, side spans should be proportioned similar to ordinary girder bridges (Kasuga
2006), generally between 0.6 and 0.8 of the main span, to balance the maximum moments in the side spans
and main span.
Chio Cho (2000) found that side spans of less than half of the main span decrease the bending moment
in the main span, but recommends the use of side spans longer than 0.60 of the main span to produce a
positive bending moment in the side span due to live load that is similar in magnitude to that of the main
span.
3.3.3
Mathivat (1988) suggests using a constant depth girder with a span to depth ratio of 30 to 35 and a tower
with a span to height ratio of 15. Based on Mathivats semifan cable arrangement, with the cables
anchored at each segment and resting on saddles at the deviators, the ratio of span to lever arm is around
15. These span to depth ratios correspond to those typically found in cantilever constructed girder bridges
in France, most of which use external continuity tendons and are simplysupported by bearings on the
piers, and have a span to depth ratio between 30 and 35 at midspan.
Upper and lower bounds for the proportions of an extradosed bridge can be established by looking at
current practice for cantilevered and cablestayed bridges. Current practice in France, as recommended by
SETRA (2007), is to use a span to depth ratio of 16 to 18 at the supports and 30 to 35 at midspan, with a
minimum crosssection depth of 2.2 m for movement through the boxgirder. SETRA provides formulas
for suggested span l to depth h ratios, based on cantilevered bridges constructed in France:
Over Pier:
l
l
 = 14 + hp
45
At Midspan:
l
l
 = 19 + hm
7
The fib Guidance for good bridge design (2000) claims the that most economical span to depth ratio
for a cantilever constructed girder bridge is approximately 15, but that an increase from 15 to 20 will not
affect the cost signifcantly. The fib guide recommends span to depth ratios at midspan of 35 to 40 for
54
continuous spans simplysupported on the piers, and 40 to 45 for continuous spans embedded (fixed in
rotation) at the piers. As a point of comparison, for cantilever bridges with internal tendons, Menn (1990)
suggests a span to depth ratio of 50 at midspan and 17 at the piers, based on aesthetic and economic
considerations.
The fib (2000) guide also suggests that the pier depth to midspan depth ratio of 3 is aesthetically
pleasing for bridges that are low to the ground but should be closer to 2 for tall structures. There is merit to
this recommendation; tall bridges with large variation in girder depth can look weak at midspan and out of
proportion with their wide piers, as shown in Figure 36. However, this awkwardness can be diffused with
twin piers columns.
Cantilever Bridge
Span to Depth:
17:1at piers
50:1 at midspan
Satisfactory
appearance
Good
appearance
Good
Satisfactory
Good
Good
Towers
too tall
Good
Cantilever Bridge
Span to Depth:
17.5:1at piers
35:1 at midspan
Extradosed Bridge
10:1 Span to Tower Height
50:1 Span to Depth
CableStayed Bridge
4.5:1 Span to Tower Height
100:1 Span to Depth
Figure 36. Comparison of span to depth ratio and effect of the roadway height above ground on the overall
proportions of 3 span cantilever, extradosed, and cablestayed bridges.
In an article on the conceptual design of cablestayed bridges, Menn (1996) points out that the portion
of towers above the deck, which form the lever arm between cables and deck, cannot be reduced to the
same depth as that required for a cantilever box girder, because the cables have a much lower axial
stiffness than the prestressed deck slab of a box girder which is the tension chord in that system. In the
case of a classical cablestayed bridge where the girder is slender, the deflections under live load would be
large. Menn claims that a main span to tower height ratio of 7 is possible, provided the towers are stiff
and the girder is restrained longitudinally, which is a reasonable claim given that the Sunniberg Bridge,
with a main span to tower height of 10, was under construction at that time.
A few researchers have studied extradosed bridges and have made recommendations for selecting the
tower height and proportioning the deck crosssection.
Komiya (1999) suggests a span to tower height ratio of 8 to 12. The taller tower results in not more
than 10% savings to the combined cost of the cables and tower. The span to depth ratio of the girder
should be 35 at the piers and 55 at midspan, for girders embedded at the piers. Komiya notes that reducing
the girder stiffness to 0.50 and 0.25 of the gross stiffness results in increases to cable forces of 3 and 8% on
average, while the deflections due to live load increase by a factor of 1.5 and 2.3.
55
Chio Cho (2000) recommends that towers not exceed a span to tower height ratio of 10, in order to
limit the stress range due to live load in the extradosed cables to 80 MPa. Chio Cho claims that the purpose
of a variable depth crosssection is to reduce the cost of the bridge by reducing the girders selfweight,
without reducing the height at the supports. Haunching the deck at the piers reduces the quantity of both
internal and extradosed prestressing. Chio Cho suggests a span to depth ratio of 30 at the piers and 45 at
midspan for girders simply supported at the piers, with the transition occurring over a distance of 0.18 of
the span from the pier, as shown in Figure 37b. Increasing the girder depth at the pier reduces the stress
range in the extradosed cables, and increases the bending moment at the supports with a small reduction in
moment at midspan. A larger girder depth at pier to depth at midspan ratio, as shown in Figure 37c,allows
the first set of extradosed cables to be anchored farther away from the pier.
a)
c)
b)
Constant Depth
Variable Depth
hpier : hmid = 1.5
Variable Depth
hpier : hmid = 2.0
The aforementioned recommended proportions for span to tower height and span to girder depth ratios
are drawn in Figure 38 for the Chapter 4 bridge crossing, with a main span of 140 m. When compared to
the cantilever constructed girder bridges, the girder of the extradosed bridge dimensioned with Mathivats
proportions appears heavy at midspan, but the visual effect of the cables is subtle and unobtrusive. The
haunching at the piers recommended by Chio Cho and Komiya, combined with the fan cable configuration
that anchors the first cables beyond the haunch, draws the eye to the piers and emphasizes the verticalilty
of the bridge at this location, giving it a sense of strength. The girder in the extradosed bridge dimensioned
with Komiyas proportions is noticeably more slender than the other two, which shifts the focus onto the
cable system.
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge
SETRA/fib recommended
Span to depth ratios: 17:1 at piers, 40:1 midspan
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge
Menn recommended
Span to depth ratios: 17:1 at piers, 50:1 midspan
Extradosed Bridge  Mathivat recommended
Span to tower height: 15:1
Span to depth ratio: 35:1
Extradosed Bridge  Chio Cho recommended
Span to tower height: 10:1
Span to depth ratios: 30:1 at piers, 45:1 midspan
Extradosed Bridge  Komiya recommended
Span to tower height: 10:1
Span to depth ratios: 35:1 at piers, 55:1 midspan
The span to depth ratios proposed by Mathivat (1988), Komiya (1999) and Chio Cho (2000) can be
used as a starting point for proportioning an extradosed bridge but should not be regarded as hard and fast
56
rules, since they are based primarily on limits imposed on the maximum live load stress range in the cables
of the bridges studied by those individuals. The variety in proportions of the bridges in Figure 21 should
be drawn upon for inspiration and to assess the feasibility in developing concepts for an extradosed bridge.
It seems necessary and rational to develop a computer model at an early stage in the design to account for
the interaction between tower, girder, substructure and cables to determine whether a given system
stiffness is adequate to limit the live load stress range in the cables to the desired level. This was the
approach taken in Chapter 4 which resulted in the bridges shown in Figure 39.
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge  Chapter 4
Span to depth ratios: 17.5:1 at piers, 44:1 midspan
In the Chapter 4 designs, a constant depth girder and harp cable configuration were chosen for
constructability and appearance. The constant depth girder provides the greatest continuity across the
entire bridge, while the parallel cables and simple tower shapes give the bridge a uniform texture.
Repetition and consistency of local components, such as ribs and anchorages, give the bridge an orderly
appearance from all vantage points.
3.4
3.4.1
Cable Arrangement
In a cable supported bridge, the vertical component of force in the cables lifts the continuous girder, while
the horizontal component prestresses the girder. The cable configuration and the height of the tower are
the two factors that influence the cable inclination, and hence the action of the cable on the deck. These
two factors will be discussed in relation to extradosed bridges.
The effect of cable inclination on the force components in a stay cable is examined. For a constant
cable force, the vertical component of force increases almost linearly with an increase in inclination from
0 to 30, but the horizontal force decreases only 13%. If the stay cables are designed to resist 100% of the
dead load at each anchorage, as if the girder were a continuous beam on simple supports at the cables, the
force in each cable for an extradosed bridge will be two to three times larger than is typical for a cablestayed bridge, as can be seen in Figure 310b. Additionally, the maximum compression force in the girder
of the extradosed bridge (at the piers) will be equivalent to that in a cablestayed bridge two to three times
as long.
The fan cable configuration consists of cables anchored at a single point at the top of the tower, while
the harp cable configuration consists of parallel cables anchored over the full height of the tower. In
practice, it is difficult to achieve a pure fan configuration because all cables cannot be anchored at one
57
a)
0.07
b)
12
Total
Horizontal
10
0.8
Extradosed
Typical
0.07
CableStayed
Typical
Extradosed
Typical
CableStayed
Typical
Force
0.6
Force
Vertical
0.4
4
0.2
Total
2
Horizontal
Vertical
0
0
5
16
25
30
Angle, deg
45
16
25
30
Angle, deg
45
Figure 310. Effect of cable inclination on the force components in a cable for a) a constant total force and b) a
constant vertical force.
point, and thus the cables are often anchored at a constant offset down the tower in a semifan
configuration. The semifan cable configuration is more effective than a harp configuration in providing a
vertical component of resistance to the deck, but each cable anchorage at the deck level will be at a slightly
different angle and must be detailed separately. With a harp configuration, more cable steel is required,
but the cable anchorages have a common design which is advantageous, since the formwork and
reinforcement are consistent for all anchorage segments. For shorter cables, such as found in extradosed
bridges, the anchorages represent a greater portion of the total cost of the cable system, and they should
contain the maximum number of strand for which they are designed. The additional horizontal force from
the harp cable configuration prestresses the girder near the piers and thus substitutes internal prestressing.
The cost of additional cable steel in the harp configuration is partially offset by the savings from common
detailing of the anchorages.
a)
b)
Figure 311. Quantity of cable steel as a function of relative height of towers  Comparison between fan and harp
cable configurations in a) 1970 (Leonhardt & Zellner 1970) and b) 1980 (Leonhardt & Zellner 1980).
58
Leonhardt and Zellner (1970) published a chart comparing the stay cable steel consumption of harp
and fan (radiating) cable configurations. From this chart, shown in Figure 311a, it can be seen that the
optimum ratio of tower height to main span is around 0.30 considering stay cable steel consumption alone.
In 1970, the optimum height considering the cost of a tower was suggested to be between 0.16l and 0.22l
where l is the main span length, while in a similar chart published in 1980 (Leonhardt & Zellner 1980),
shown in Figure 311b, the optimum height was 0.20l to 0.25l. This difference is attributed to the changes
in material preference and relative material costs. In the 1970 article, the tower is assumed to be steel,
whereas by 1980, concrete had become the economical material of choice. For the Brotonne Bridge,
completed in 1977, the cost of stay cable system was 29% of the total cost of the bridge, while the cost of
the tower was only 4% (Mathivat 1983).
A simple model was used to investigate the effect of tower height on steel consumption in stay cables
for a 140 m main span, the results of which are shown in Figure 312. There are 10 cables in a halfspan
spaced at 6 m, with the first cable 13 m from the pier, and each cable is assumed to resist an equal vertical
load of 0.05 units, for a total of 1 unit of load per span. For the semifan configuration, the cable
anchorages are spaced 0.3 m vertically on the tower. The graph bears a close resemblance to those of
Leonhardt and Zellner in Figure 311. It is apparent that the harp configuration leads to a larger total cable
force, especially for a tower height below 0.1L.
10
6
SemiFan Cable Configuration
4
SemiFan
2
Extradosed CableStayed
Typical
Typical
Harp
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
Tower Height H / Span Length L
Figure 312. Quantity of cable steel as a function of relative height of towers  comparison between semifan and
harp cable configurations for 140 m main span.
In practice, each stay cable will not be detailed with an optimised number of strands as required to load
every cable to its allowable stress. According to Mathivat (1983), the theoretical values should be
increased by 10% because the demand of the cables must be met with real stay cable crosssections. This
is especially true for the fan configuration, where the theoretical crosssection of the cable decreases
towards the pier as the cable inclination increases. The furthest cable from the pier will be a comparable
size for both harp and fan cable configurations, establishing a maximum anchorage size. In a cablestayed
bridge, the harp cable configuration presents two main disadvantages: a higher compressive force in the
deck (around 60% higher than the semifan configuration) and increased bending in the towers. In an
extradosed bridge these two factors are not problematic: the higher compressive stress in the girder
59
increases the moment resistance of the girder, and the short towers can be easily proportioned to resist the
increased bending.
Based on estimates from the aforementioned model, a harp cable configuration with a tower height of
L/8 requires a similar cable quantity to a semifan configuration with a tower height of L/12. For tower
heights of L/8 and L/12, the theoretical cable steel consumption will be 41 and 46 % more for the harp
configuration than the semifan while the maximum compression force in the deck will be 58 and 54%
higher.
Since the extradosed bridge has two load carrying systems, it is possible to provide cable support to
only a portion of the span. Figure 313 illustrates the effectiveness of providing partial cable support to the
deck, by plotting the ratio of fixed end moments of a partially loaded span to a fully loaded span (Tang
2007). For a section with constant weight and stiffness, it is most efficient to provide the cable support
closest to the midspan, as indicated by the upper line in Figure 313. Many of the extradosed bridges
studied in Chapter 2 have cables distributed across 60% of the span. It can be determined from the upper
line Figure 313 that cables across 60% of the span will offset 80% of the moment of cables supporting
100% of the span.
1.0
Mfull
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
Loaded length, b/L
0.8
1.0
Figure 313. Influence of partial cable support (adapted from Tang 2007).
The idea of reducing the length of deck supported by the cables is not new. Mathivat (1983) suggests
offsetting the first cables from the tower by 0.10 of the main span, as was done on the Brotonne Bridge, to
achieve a savings in cable steel of up to 20%. Chio Cho (2000) suggests that an offset of 0.18 of the main
span is optimal in the case of an extradosed bridge with variable depth crosssection since beyond this
length there is no significant savings in extradosed cable material quantity. Komiya (1999) considered
first cable offsets of 0.14, 0.20, and 0.24 of the main span, and found the combined cost of extradosed and
internal tendons for all three arrangements to be within 2% of each other. An offset of 0.20 of the main
span was most economical, with extradosed tendons accounting for 60% of the cost, and internal tendons
for 40%.
60
3.4.2
There are many systems for protecting the prestressing steel of the stay cables. Most codes and
specifications now require that the corrosion protection system consist of a minimum of two nested
barriers (PTI 2001, SETRA 2001; FIB 2005). The external barrier provides direct protection from
corrosive elements, while the interior barrier provides a backup system if the external barrier is breached.
In certain cases, the external sheath is not considered to be the external barrier. Several sources (Walther et
al. 1999, SETRA 2001; FIB 2005) provide a comprehensive discussion of protection systems and the
advantages and susceptibilities of each. Grouting with cementitious grout is no longer considered to be a
good method for filling the void between the external sheath and prestressing strand in stay cables.
The CHBDC (2006a Clause 10.6.4.3) specifies that the strands of stay cables must be hotdip
galvanized and encased in a sheath filled with grease or wax. The sheath can be high density polyethylene
(HDPE) or stainless steel. Within the last 10 years, the international trend has beeen to provide further
redundancy in protection by greasing and sheathing the strands individually, and then bundling them in an
external sheath. The external sheath serves as a barrier to rain and UV rays, while the cable protection
occurs at the strand level. This also facilitates replacement of individual strands. Strands can be coated
with epoxy or polyethylene after galvanizing for an additional layer of protection. Epoxy coated strands
have much higher friction coefficients than bare strand that must be accounted for in the design (Taniyama
& Mikami 1994).
3.4.3
Anchorages in Girder
Many sources (Gimsing 1997; Walther et al. 1999; SETRA 2001; PTI 2006), present comprehensive
explanations of cable types and anchorage details. Despite the advantages that are attainable with prefabricated cables, those of superior quality control and a higher fatigue resistance, the current trend is
towards strandbased cables that can be assembled on site and tensioned strandbystrand with compact
jacking equipment. In the case of stay cable anchorages, restressing is accomplished by stressing the entire
cable unit with a gradient jack and adjusting a ring nut at the bearing plate.
In extradosed bridges where the live load stress range is limited to 80 MPa, conventional prestressing
anchorages can be used to anchor the cables instead of stay cable anchorages that are typically designed for
a stress range of 200 MPa to 250 MPa. The cables anchorage in the girder is almost always the live end
anchorage.
DywidagSystems International markets an Extradosed Anchorage, Type XD (E for epoxy coated
strands), shown in Figure 314, that is purposefully designed to combine the anchor head of an external
tendon with the protection details found on their DYNAGrip and DYNABond Stay Cables (Dywidag
61
2006). For the three aforementioned cable types, an elastomeric bearing is contained within the recess pipe
to prevent bending stresses at the anchor head.
Cap
Wedges
Filling Material
Sealing
Shim
Spacer
Anchor Body
Wedge Plate
Recess Pipe
HDPE Liner
Epoxy Coated
Strands
Clamp
Exit Pipe
Filler Material
Connection Pipe
Elastomeric Bearing
HDPESheathing
Some bridges in Chapter 2 (Odawara Bridge, Tsukuhara Bridge, Domovinski Bridge) were
constructed with stay cable anchorages even though the stress range due to live load in the cables would
have allowed the use of conventional prestressing anchorages. For these bridges, extradosed anchorages
may not have been available, but they should be used in the future and should reduce the cost of the cable
system.
3.4.4
A cable can either pass through the tower over a saddle or terminate at an anchorage. If the cable is
anchored in the tower, the horizontal force must be transferred through the tower to the opposite cable,
either by overlapping the cables, or installing posttensioning or steel plates across the tower. Saddles
provide a simple alternative to anchorages, but must be designed to resist differential forces from opposing
sides of the tower, either through friction, bond or mechanical means. Cables passing over saddles must be
replaceable and corrosion protection must be ensured through the saddle. The cable strands are subject to
flexural stresses and fretting fatigue. The Japan Prestressed Concrete Engineering Association, the PTI,
the SETRA, and fib have published recommendations on the use of saddles that are compared below, along
with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of using saddles instead of anchorages in a tower.
Cables that are passed through saddles must be dimensioned to account for the bending stress due to
curvature fC determined as follows:
r
f C = E R
where E is the elastic modulus of the wire or strand;
r is the radius of the wire, strand or bundle, and
R is the radius of the saddle bend.
Therefore, the total stress in the cable is:
Er P
f = f C + f A =  + R A
For a saddle radius of 5 m and a sevenwire strand of 15.7 mm diameter (area of 150 mm), commonly
used for strandbased stay cables, the maximum bending stress due to curvature is 314 MPa. For an
individual wire, the maximum stress is around 100 MPa. The stress due to axial force in a stay cable is
typically around 0.35 fpu under dead load only, or 650 MPa for strand. Therefore, the curvature of the
62
strand over a saddle with radius of 5 m increases the stress by 48% to 0.52 fpu. The stress due to curvature
in a prefabricated cable would be impractically large when passed over a saddle, but strandbased cables
are normally assembled on site.
Fretting fatigue results from differential strains in strand bundles. Variable axial loads at the cable
ends (due to a fatigue load) cause the strands to slip when the friction between the individual wires and the
saddle under radial pressure is exceeded. The saddle radius must be large enough to avoid the onset of
fretting fatigue. Minimum radii R for common cable sizes (of bundled bare strand) are summarised in
Table 36, determined from equations given in the PTI1 (2001) and fib (2005) recommendations:
0.4
n
R > F R 30D
fib:
90
where F is the mean cable force under fatigue conditions (kN);
n is the number of strands in the bundle, and
D is the diameter of the stay pipe.
PTI:
Table 36. Minimum saddle radii for strand based cables to prevent fretting fatigue.
Number of Strand in Cable
Typical diameter of external sheath (mm)
Minimum R* suggested in PTI (m),
calculated assuming F = 0.35 fpu x Ap
Minimum R required by fib (m)
12
110
2.6
19
140
3.4
31
160
4.6
37
180
5.1
55
200
6.5
73
250
7.7
91
280
8.8
109
315
9.8
127
315
10.7
3.3
4.2
4.8
5.4
7.5
8.4
9.5
9.5
156
12.1
Individual sheathing or epoxy coating of strand could be used to reduce interstrand fretting, but any
reduction must be proven by prototype testing of full scale specimens (PTI 2001). Figg Engineering
Group (Figg et al. 2005) designed a cradle system in which each individual strand passes through a
seperate saddle pipe which is contained within an outer centering pipe. Since each strand is deviated over
its own saddle, fretting between strands is eliminated, and the minimum saddle radius is that of an
individual strand, even for large cables made up of 156 strands. In this system, it is possible to remove a
single strand for inspection or replacement.
The SETRA Recommendations (SETRA 2001) discourage the use of saddles because of the
difficulties with future replacement of the cables. If saddles are used, the radius of curvature must be
larger than 125 times the exterior diametre of the strand (2.0 m radius for 15.7 mm diametre strand), and
the ultimate strength of the deviated cable, as determined by test, must be reduced by no less than 5%
unless detailed calculations show that a greater reduction has been allowed for in the design (14.7).
The fib recommendations (fib 2005) require the minimum saddle radius to be larger than 400 times the
diametre of the individual wire of strand (2.1 m radius for 15.7 mm diametre strand) when individual
strands are inside individual tubes.
The PTI Recommendations (PTI 2001) provide specific requirements for saddles. Cable saddles must
have a minimum radius of 3 m if supporting individual strands, and 4 m if supporting bundled multistrand
cable unless fatigue testing is done on the saddle with axially stressed cables. Saddles must be designed to
1.
Tests were conducted at the University of Texas on bare strands in ducts of 2.75 times the area of the cables:
Fretting Fatigue in Post Tensioned Concrete, Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at
Austin, TX, March 3 to April 3, 1998.
63
preclude slip and fretting for 1.25 times the maximum load differential at the strength limit state
(AASHTO equivalent of ULS).
The Japan Prestressed Concrete Engineering Associations Specifications1 allow saddles to be used
when the live load stress range is less than 50 MPa, based on testing of fretting fatigue done on 3715 mm
diametre strand tendons (Kasuga 2006). The minimum radius required for the saddles is the same as for
external tendons.
Goi (1999) advocates the use of cable saddles to reduce the number of anchors and stressing
operations, to facilitate installation, and to avoid the horizontal force transfer through the pylon. Montens
(1998) points out that saddles are half the cost of anchorages, and saddles become more economical as the
span decreases because the anchorages represent a higher proportion of the total cost of the stay cables.
According to the Figg brochure (Figg 2004) for the stay cradle system, its unit cost is lower than the two
anchorages it replaces. The system was first used for the Maumee River Bridge (Bonzon 2008), a two span
centrally supported cablestayed bridge with spans of 186.7 m, a tower faced with glass, and cables
consisting of 82 to 156 strands.
Tower width (length in the longitudinal direction of the bridge) is generally used as an argument
against saddles. According to Montens (1998), the minimum radius of saddles presents a drawback as this
dictates a minimum tower width. Figg (2004) claims that without the cradle system to pass strands over
saddles individually, the tower width of the Maumee River Bridge would have had to be 3 m wider. As
constructed, the tower is 4.1 m wide and varies in length from 8.8 to 6.3 m (Bonzon 2008). For most
extradosed bridges however, the tower width is unlikely to be governed by the saddle radius since the total
angle break in the cables is small compared to that in a cablestayed bridge. Most towers that are detailed
with anchorages require internal chambers for stressing and inspection, but towers of only 3 m width and 2
m depth have been designed with internal stressing chambers (Reis et al. 1999) for main spans of less than
100 m. If the anchorages cross through the tower and anchor on opposite sides, as is the case with the
Chandoline Bridge (Menn 1991) and many cablestayed bridges with spans less than 100 m (Walther et al.
1999), the tower dimensions can be kept to a minimum, but this requires twin cables on one side to avoid
torsional forces in the tower.
The minimal dimensions of saddles allow for a cable configuration closest to a perfect fan, as is the
case in many of the extradosed bridges constructed in Japan, where the vertical spacing of saddles is as
small as 300 mm (Ogawa et al. 1998). The use of anchorages in the towers requires a larger vertical
spacing, although the ShinMeisei Bridge has anchorages spaced at 600 mm intervals (Kasuga 2006).
Based on experience to date with towers for cablestayed bridges, it may seem clear that saddles would
lead to a more economical cable system than anchorages, but anchorages are more commonly used. If the
live load stress range permits, conventional anchorages could be used to anchor the cables instead of stay
cable anchorages, but extradosed bridges constructed to date have mostly used stay cable anchorages. For
the five extradosed bridges (the Odawara, Tshukuhara, Ibi River, ShinMeisei, and Himi bridges) designed
1.
Japan Prestressed Concrete Engineering Association (November 2000). Specifications for Design and Construction of Prestressed Concrete CableStayed Bridges and Extradosed Bridges (in Japanese). Kasuga
(2006) explains the parts of the code relevant to the design of extradosed bridges.
64
by Kasuga, the first two were detailed with saddles, while the latter three with anchorages in the towers,
even though four of the five bridges have a stress range in the extradosed cables of less less than 50 MPa.
Kasuga (2006) claims that the steel boxes for the anchorages allow for inspection of the stay cables from
inside the tower the during maintenance, but gives no other reason for this design choice.
A detailed cost comparison between conventional anchorages and saddles in the towers, carried out for
the North Arm Bridge in Vancouver (Griezic et al. 2006), found anchorages to be more costeffective.
According to Griezic et al., cable anchorages simplify cable installation and provide greater redundancy
than saddles against cable loss, since the cable loss does not propagate to the other side of the tower.
However, anchorages in the tower lead to larger bending moments in the event of cable rupture and during
cable replacement. Cable saddles eliminate the need for internal inspection access and therefore reduce the
tower dimensions, but require more strand to keep the total stress (the sum of axial and flexural stresses in
the cables over the saddles) below the allowable stress. As constructed, each cable of the North Arm
Bridge has 58 strands, but two additional strands would have been required had saddles been used.
In summary, the use of saddles may lead to cost savings but presents some challenges in design. It is
not apparent why saddles are not preferred in all circumstances. One possible explanation lies in the
prototype testing required by the aforementioned recommendations. Since it is the design engineers
responsibility to detail the saddle, as it is an integral element of the pylon conceptual design and the
geometric layout of the towerhead (PTI 2001), engineers who are unfamiliar with the technology may shy
away from the system.
3.4.5
Cable sag effects are one of the sources of geometric nonlinearity in cablestayed bridges. Cable sag is
usually accounted for by considering a straight chord member with an equivalent modulus of elasticity.
An equivalent modulus, first suggested by Ernst1 in 1965 and described in Figure 315, is based on the
assumption that the catenary of a cable with low sag/chord length can be modeled as a parabola (Walther et
al. 1999).
For extradosed bridges, the horizontal projected lengths of the cables are generally short, and the dead
load stress in the cables typically account for 70% or more of the total stress at SLS. For a cable made up
of strand, this corresponds to a permanent stress of at least 550 MPa (0.30 fpu), for which there is very little
sag. For a cable length of 70 metres and a permanent stress of 500 MPa, as would be longest cable in an
extradosed bridge with a 150 m main span, the equivalent modulus of elasticity of the cable is only 0.5%
lower than the effective modulus of elasticity. Thus in the modelling of an extradosed bridge, the cables
can adequately and safely be modelled as linear elements without considering cable sag effects.
1.
Ernst, J.H. (1965). Der EModul von Seilen unter Bercksichtigung des Durchhanges. Der Bauingenieur,
40(2), 5255. Ernst presented the equivalent modulus plotted as a function of stress with seperate curves for
different cable lengths. Leonhardt & Zellner (1970) plotted the equivalent modulus as a function of cable
length as in Figure 315, which is more useful since all cables in the bridge generally have a similar loaded
tensile stress.
65
1.0
E
E eq = 2
( L0 )
E
1 + 3
12f
f = 600
f = 500
f = 400
Eeq / E
0.9
f = 300
0.8
0.7
f = 200
0.6
0
50
100
150
200
where
Eeq is the equivalent elastic modulus of inclined cables;
E is the cable effective elastic modulus;
L0 is horizontal projected length of the cable;
is the weight per unit volume of cable (87 kN/m for
strand inside HDPE sheathing injected with wax), and
f is the cable tensile stress (MPa).
Figure 315. Ratio of equivalent to initial modulus of elasticity showing the influence of a cables sag on its stiffness
(plot adapted from Leonhardt & Zellner 1970).
3.4.6
The stress range in a stay cable due to live load is an important consideration for the design of the cables
against failure due to fatigue. This can either be addressed explicitly by considering a fatigue limit state
(FLS), or implicity by designing based on an allowable stress in the cable at SLS.
The first method is consistent with a limit states approach to design. At the fatigue limit state, the
stress range due to the fatigue load must be less than the constant amplitude fatigue threshold, in order to
ensure a 75 year design life of the cables, with some safety factors to account for loading uncertainties.
While this is perhaps the most thorough treatment of cable fatigue, it is difficult to apply in practice
because a representative spatial model of the entire bridge must be available in order to determine the
maximum stress range in each individual cable due to live load at FLS. For this reason, the second method
is preferable for preliminary design of the stays, since the crosssection of both the cables and the girder
will change as the design is refined. Both the SETRA Recommendations (SETRA 2001), and Japan
Prestressed Concrete Engineering Associations Specifications1, present rational approaches to designing
stays based on SLS loads, that consist of limiting the cables allowable axial stress at SLS based on the
maximum axial stress range (the difference between the highest and lowest stress) in the cable due to SLS
live load, as shown in Figure 316. The axial stress in each cable at SLS can be determined from a plane
frame model.
The SETRA Recommendations (SETRA 2001) limit the allowable stress of a stay cable fa to between
0.46 and 0.60 of the guaranteed ultimate tensile strength fpu, for a maximum axial stress range due to live
load at SLS L between 140 MPa and 50 MPa:
L 0.25
f pu 0.6f pu
f a 0.46 
140
The Recommendations require one value of the allowable stress to be set for the entire cable system, based
on the maximum stress range due to live load in any cable in the structure. For a girder that is simply
supported on the piers, the highest stress range under SLS live load will generally occur in the backstay
cable, whereas for a girder fixed at the piers, it will occur in a main span cable. These SLS requirements
1.
66
were defined to cover, but not to substitute, ULS and FLS verification (Lecinq 2001) and they offer the
advantage of working with a realistic maximum stress to be expected in the cable at SLS.
The Japan Prestressed Concrete Engineering Associations Specifications transition the allowable
stress from 0.40 to 0.60 fpu for a stress range due to live load at SLS L between 100 MPa and 70 MPa for
a strand system:
0.6f pu
f a = ( 1.067 0.00667 L )f pu
0.4f pu
L 70MPa
70MPa L 100MPa
L 100MPa
and between 130 MPa to 100 MPa for a prefabricated wire system:
0.6f pu
f a = ( 1.267 0.00667 L )f pu
0.4f pu
L 100MPa
100MPa L 130MPa
L 130MPa
These values have been established to ensure bridges previously designed for FLS (Kasuga 2006)
would have been conservatively designed with the SLS requirements. The Specifications permit an
allowable stress to be determined for each stay individually, related to the stress caused by live load in that
particular stay.
0.65
0.60
F SLS /F pu
0.55
0.50
SETRA
0.45
Japan
Strand
Japan
Wire
0.40
0.35
40
60
80
100
120
140
Live Load Stress Range, MPa
160
Figure 316. Allowable stress in cable stays as a function of the stress range due to live load at SLS
In cablestayed bridges, the allowable stress at SLS has traditionally been limited to 0.45 fpu based on a
safety factor of 2.2 against rupture (Gimsing 1997), which takes into account secondary flexural stresses
that are not considered in the analysis (Menn 1990). There does however seem to be a practical limitation
to the allowable stress in the stay imposed by relaxation. Relaxation in lowrelaxation strand is
negligeable when the permanent stress in the cable is less than 50% fpu, but accelerates beyond this
threshold (Gimsing 1997). With respect to cablestayed bridges, relaxation results in a decrease in the
initial prestrain of the cables which causes the girder to deflect downwards and carry more dead load, both
undesirable actions. Walther (1994) suggests that an allowable stress limit of 0.55 fpy (0.50 fpu) is
justifiable given the following reasons: many of the secondary stresses can now be accounted for by
advanced analysis, cables have failed due to corrosion but never to fatigue alone, and modern stay cable
systems have multiple layers of corrosion protection with anchorages that are designed to limit flexural
stresses in the strands. This view has been reflected in specifications by SETRA (2001) and fib (2005),
67
which allow the use of an allowable stress of 0.50 fpu at SLS provided the cables are tested dynamically
with flexural stresses (introduced through shims at the anchorages  cables must resist 0.95 fpu after 2
million cycles of 200 MPa dynamic load at an upper stress of 0.45 fpu). SETRA allows the stress in an
individual strand to be as high as 0.60 fpu, as sometimes required for strand by strand stressing, provided it
falls below 0.55 fpu within a few hours (Lecinq et al. 1999).
According to the CEBFIP (1993) Model Code, relaxation in low relaxation prestressing strand at 1000
hours is 1% when initially stressed to 0.60 fpu or less, 2% at 0.70 fpu, and approximately 5% at 0.80 fpu.
Given that the relaxation at 50 years is taken as 3 times the initial value, an allowable stress of 0.60 fpu for
an extradosed cable is a reasonable upper limit.
3.4.7
The PTI Recommendations (PTI 2001) requires that the cable forces comply with a Strength Limit State
and a Fatigue Limit State. For a theoretically infinite fatigue life, the maximum stress range in each cable
must be less than the constant amplitude fatigue threshold stress. The fatigue load consists of a single
design truck, in a single lane, and the load effect is then increased by a Dynamic Load Allowance of 15%
and by a factor of 1.4 to account for longer spans of cablestayed bridges than those for which the fatigue
provisions of the AASHTO LRFD (AASHTO 2004) were originally designed. The factored load effect
(F) must be less than half the constant amplitude fatigue threshold (F)TH as described by the following
equations.
( F ) ( F )
1
( F )  ( F ) TH
2
where (F) is the stress range due to the passage of the fatigue load
(F)TH is the constant amplitude fatigue threshold (taken as 110 MPa for parallel strands)
is the load factor of 0.75
1
0.75 ( F )  ( 110 )
2
( F ) 73 MPa
The CHBDC (CSA 2006a) live load at FLS consists of one CL625 Truck, positioned in the centre of
one travelled lane, and amplified by a dynamic load allowance of 1.25. The CHBDC does not specify a
constant amplitude fatigue threshold stress, but states that the fatigue stress range for cable stays that are
not readily inspectable or replaceable shall not exceed 0.75 of the fatigue stress range established by test,
which is consistent with the PTI Recommendations. For both the AASHTO LRFD and the CHBDC, the
stress range due to the fatigue load (including all amplification factors) must be less than 73 MPa.
Eurocode 12 (CEN 2002b) prescribes a FLS that is similiar to AASHTO LRFD, but with different
loads and load factors. There are 5 different fatigue load models that can be selected depending on the
bridge. The fatigue load model 2 is most comparable to the North American practice and consists of one of
several trucks, in a single design lane. The fatigue load model 3, which consists of 4 axles of 120 kN,
spaced at 1.2, 6, and 1.2 m is often used instead for a simplified fatigue verification. The truck axle loads
68
include a dynamic load allowance. The safety factor Mf is made up of a partial safety factor for the steel
cable material, a partial safety factor for qualification testing, and a partial safety factor for execution
imperfections and bending stresses in cables caused by cable vibration (Lecing et al. 2001).
c
Ff E, 2  Mf
where Ff is the partial safety factor applied to load models (taken as 1.0) ;
E,2 is the equivalent stress range for 2 million cycles;
c is the reference value of the fatigue strength, taken as 0.52 of the tested value TEST , which
is typically required to a minimum of 200 MPa, and
Mf = 1.5 is the partial safety factor for the fatigue strength.
0.52 200
1.0 E, 2 1.5
E, 2 69 MPa
The SETRA Recommendations (SETRA 2001) provide a rational reference value for the fatigue
strength of the cable steel instead of using a partial safety factor. The reference value of fatigue strength is
taken as the endurance limit of the stay cable at 100 million cycles, which is approximately 0.52 of the
dynamic stress range at which the cable is tested for 2 million load cycles (SETRA 2001), assuming a 6 dB
decay between these two points. The resulting stress range due to the fatigue load must be less than 69
MPa, which is comparable to North American codes.
For cablestayed bridges designed with an allowable stress of 0.45 fpu for the cables, fatigue loading
governs for only a few cables under highway loading, even in structures with light girders (Gimsing 1997).
If an extradosed bridge is designed for the allowable stress as recommended in the previous section, it is
unlikely that any cables will be governed by fatigue when a verification is made at FLS.
3.4.8
According to the SETRA Recommendations (SETRA 2001), the material resistance factor for extradosed
cables is 0.75 if the cables have been mechanically tested to ensure ultimate and fatigue strength according
to SETRA requirements, 0.67 if they have not been tested. The resistance factor for cables in cablestayed
bridges is 0.70 if they have been tested. The PTI Recommendations (PTI 2001) define a resistance factor
of =0.65 for stay cables at strength limit states (ULS).
The CHBDC specifies a resistance TC=0.55 for stay cables. The value of TC=0.55 was established
from a calibration of existing bridges (with a known distribution of dead and live loads) designed with an
allowable stress design approach (CSA 2006b). As many of the bridges considered were suspension
bridges, and most of the cablestayed bridges were steel or composite, the value of TC is too low for castinplace concrete cablestayed bridges, which would have to be designed with an allowable stress of
around 0.40 fpu to meet the ULS requirement. This is a different approach than other limit states codes, as
mentioned in 3.4.6, which impose an SLS limit instead, and define the cable strength at ULS based on
69
partial safety factors for the steel (after undergoing fatigue testing) and for the flexural stresses at the
anchorages.
Since an extradosed cable will have a maximum stress at SLS between that of a stay cable (0.45 to 0.50
fpu depending on specifications) and that of a prestressing tendon (0.70 fpu), the resistance factor at ULS
should also be somewhere between those of the stay cable (TC=0.55) and prestressing tendon (P=0.95).
For a maximum stress at SLS of 0.60fpu in an extradosed cable, linear interpolation between these two
values gives a resistance factor of =0.79 for the extradosed cable at ULS.
3.4.9
The analysis of extradosed bridges is similar to cablestayed bridges. They are highly indeterminate
structures with the stiffness of the deck, the cables, and the piers affecting the distribution of the forces in
the structure. If only the structures initial geometry is modelled and the dead load is applied, the stays
extend and the structure deforms elastically, resulting in high girder and pylon moments and low cable
forces. By pretensioning the cables, the cables are shortened at the anchorage to counteract the elastic
strains and return the girder to its original undeformed profile (Walther et al. 1999). Since cablestayed
bridges, and most extradosed bridges, are constructed progressively in cantilever, it is possible to end up
with any distribution of dead load moments. However, for concrete girders it is desirable to select a
moment distribution close to that of a continuous girder on simple supports, also referred to as the natural
moment distribution of the continuous beam (Mondorf 2006), to limit the effects of creep.
For the purposes of modeling, the pretensioning of the cables is applied as a load case consisting of a
strain in each cable which is added to the permanent loads. All methods to determine the cables initial
tensions are either displacement based, or force based.
Displacement based methods seek to reduce the displacements due to dead load on the cablestayed
system to a specified value. Troitsky (1988) describes a procedure to calculate the forces to reduce these
displacements directly. First, the forces and displacements in the entire bridge are calculated for a unit
force substituted for each cable of the bridge individually. Then, a system of equations is established
requiring that the sum of the displacements, due to the unknown stressing forces in the cables, be equal in
magnitude and opposite in direction to the dead load displacements at each of the locations where
displacement is reduced, which corresponds to the number of unknown cable stressing forces. The cable
stressing forces are determined by solving the system of equations. The reduction of displacements is
described in more detail in Lazar et al. (1972) and a Fortran computer implementation based on the
flexibility method of analysis is described in Troitsky (1988). Wang et al. (1993) present an iterative
version of the same basic procedure to account for geometrical nonlinearities which they call the shape
finding procedure.
Walther et al. (1999) suggest determining the shortening of stays through a series of successive
approximations to bring the girder back to its undeformed position, a method that is known as the zero
displacement method. In each stage of the iterative procedure, the cable is shortened by a length
equivalent to the elongation in the previous iteration, dead load is applied, and a new set of elongations
70
result. Convergence is achieved when the change in bending moment in the deck is sufficiently small,
which can require 10 or more iterations. Because the vertical displacements of the deck are influenced by
bending in the towers, Walther suggests a twostage process to achieve zero displacements in a cablestayed bridge. In the first stage, the towers are fixed, and the cable strains are adjusted in the centre span to
obtain zero deflections. In the second stage, the towers are released and the cable strains in the side spans
are adjusted to obtain zero deflections across the entire girder. This approach assumes that the towers can
be set to their undeformed geometry through a backstay cable. Figure 317 shows the cable prestrains and
maximum moments in the girder (of the stiff girder extradosed bridge in Chapter 4 released in rotation at
the piers) for 25 iterations of the zero displacement method. While the girder moments stabilise after 5
iterations, the prestrain in some cables has not yet stabilised after 25 iterations. In order to reach the
undeformed geometry, the cables in the side spans would have to be further released to lower the main
span. In the case of this extradosed bridge with side span lengths of 0.6 of the main span, a zero
displacement moment distribution is not achievable in the side spans unless a very high tensile force is
permitted in the backstay cable.
80
89
10
60
Cable 1
40
20
1
Midspan
20
0
10
15
Iteration
20
25
100
4
3
2
5 6 7
b) Towers Released
100
80
60
40
2
Side Span
1
20
Midspan
a) Towers Fixed
20
0
10
15
Iteration
20
25
Figure 317. Cable prestrain and maximum moments for 25 iterations of the zero displacement method applied in
two staged process: a) towers fixed, main span cable strains adjusted and b) towers released and side span cable
strains adjusted. Cable 1 is anchored closest to the pier.
Force based methods seek to reduce the bending moments due to dead load on the cablestayed system,
or to match them to a desired bending moment distribution. One of the first force based methods, the
reduction of maximum bending moment, is described as load balancing for cablestayed bridges (Lazar
et al. 1972). The procedure reduces the maximum bending moment in the girder by a specified coefficient,
then finds identical unit stresses in all cables to achieve that reduction. Since the force due to dead load
and stressing forces is the same in each cable, the cables can all be stressed to their allowable stress, which
was considered to yield an optimal design of the cables. With the adaptability provided by strand based
cables, which are now standard and where the size and prestressing can be individually varied, achieving a
desired dead load moment distribution in the girder is considered much more important than matching the
force across all cables. For concrete girders, the dead load moments should be close to those of a
continuous beam on simple supports, as discussed in Section 3.2.
The force equilibrium method (Chen 1999) searches for cable forces that will give rise to a desirable
bending moment distribution in the structure. The method considers only the equilibrium of forces, and
assumes that displacements can be controlled by precamber of the girder. For a concrete cablestayed
71
bridge, the target bending moments to be achieved in the final structure {M0} are usually obtained from a
model of the girder as a continuous beam on simple supports, to which the dead loads and the prestressing
added during construction are applied. The target moments are usually taken at the deck anchorage
locations, but other control sections can be chosen. First, a model of the cablestayed bridge, with all
cables removed, is used to obtain the bending moments at every control section for a unit load applied
individually to each cable. A matrix [m] of approximate influence coefficients mij contains the bending
moment at the ith control section due to a unit force in the jth cable. An initial estimate of the cable forces
{T0} can be solved from the following equation, where {Md} contains the bending moments at the control
sections due to dead load and construction prestressing on the bridge with cables removed.
o
{T } = [m] ({M } {M })
The interaction between tower, cables, and girder is taken into account by updating girder bending
moments {Mn}, at each iteration n, with the dead load, construction prestressing, and the previously
calculated cable forces. The following equations describe the first two iterations of the method.
1
{ T } = [ m ] ( { M } { M } )
1
{ T } = { T } + { T }
2
{ T } = [ m ] ( { M } { M } )
2
{ T } = { T } + { T } + { T }
Since the force equilibrium method does not consider the stiffness of the cables, nonlinearity from
cable sag can be considered seperately. The force in a backstay cable anchored directly to the ground,
when present in the system, can be paired with a control section in the tower to reduce or eliminate bending
in the tower (Chen 1999). The notion of superimposing individual prestress bending moment diagrams
was first suggested by Smith (1967).
The unit load method (Bruer et al. 1999; Janjic et al., 2003) is similar to the force equilibrium
method, except that the entire cablestayed structure (tower, girder and cables) is used to obtain the
bending moments at control sections for a unit load case applied to each degree of freedom (chosen as
cable tensioning or jacking points). The expanded unit load method is implemented in RM2006 (TDV
2006) to include staged construction analysis, nonlinearity due to creep and shrinkage, and nonlinarity due
to cable sag. In each stage of construction, unit loading cases are applied to different structural systems,
and nonlinear effects are taken as linear over any single time interval (Bruer et al. 1999). Loads are
accumulated at each stage of construction, and section forces are taken into account as initial
displacements. At each time step, an approximation of the tension forces in the cables from a linear
analysis is used as a starting point for an iterative procedure to include nonlinearities (Janjic et al., 2003).
Gimsing (1997) states that the distribution of dead load moments in the cablestayed bridge is fully
described by the moments at the cable anchor points, Mg,i, and the girder dead load, gi,i+1, between each
anchor point, as shown in Figure 318. The cable forces, Ti, can be found from the dead load moments and
conversely the dead load moment distribution can be found from cable forces through the following
equation.
72
Mi 1 Mi Mi + 1 Mi 1
1
T i =  ( g i 1 ,i i 1 ,i + g i, i + 1 i, i + 1 ) +  +  2
i 1 ,i
i, i + 1 sin i
The equation is derived from an approximate method of analysis, which considers the stiffening girder
as a continuous beam of elastic supports (Troitsky 1988). If shortening of both the tower and girder is
neglected, the elastic support spring constant K (force per unit displacement), is as follows:
Ec Ac 2
K i = T i sin i =  sin i
Li
The solution to the beam on elastic supports analogy forms the basis of the second part of the equation
suggested by Gimsing (1997). The first part of the equation is the tension required to counteract the elastic
extension of the cables.
The moment envelope of the girder due to live load is characterised by higher
i,i+1
gi,i+1
i1,i
Ti+1
gi1,i
positive moments away from the piers and higher negative moments closer to
Ti
the piers. For steel girder crosssections, it is usually preferable to have larger
Ti1
Mi
Mi+1
Therefore, a more favourable moment distribution under dead and live load
is not appropriate for concrete girders where creep causes a significant redistribution of dead load bending
moment unless the distribution resembles that of a continuous beam on simple supports.
If the desired dead load moment distribution is that of a continuous beam on simple supports, and the
cable anchor is thought of as a node that must be held vertically, the pretensioning of the cable must
exactly counteract all elastic deformation in the system. As dead load g is applied, the girder deflects
downwards and the cable must be prestrained to raise the girder to its initial position. The prestrain of the
cable will in turn cause an axial shortening of the girder, which will cause the initial anchor point to
displace towards the tower. Similarly, the cable prestrain causes an axial shortening of the tower, which
will cause a downwards displacement of the tower. Therefore, the cable must be shortened by an amount
equal to those displacements. If the geometry and sectional properties of the cables, tower, and girder are
known, this elastic deformation can be calculated explicitly. Assuming a constant girder area, the axial
shortening in the girder gi at point i, will be caused by the force in all cables from i+1 to the outermost
cable n and is
gi
L i cos i
= Eg Ag
j = i+1
g j 1 ,j j 1 ,j
tan j
Likewise, the axial shortening in the tower will be caused by the vertical component of force from the
cables and from the selfweight of the tower above. Neglecting the selfweight of the tower, the tower
shortening will be
73
ti
L i sin i
= Et At
g j 1 ,j j 1 ,j
j = i+1
Ec Ac
2 sin i
L i cos i L i sin i
n
g j 1 ,j j 1 ,j
1 g i 1 ,i i 1 ,i + g i, i + 1 i, i + 1
1
1
 + g j 1 ,j j 1 ,j
ci =   +  Eg Ag
Ec Ac
2 sin i
tan j E t A t
j = i + 1
j = i + 1
For an extradosed bridge with harp cable configuration and constant section properties, this simplifies to
g ( n i ) g ( n i )
g
ci =  +  + Et At
E c A c sin E g A g tan
For the extradosed bridges described in Chapter 4, girder bending moments similar to those of a
continuous girder on simple supports were obtained directly by applying a prestrain to each cable,
calculated from the above equation. This is also a convenient form to estimate longterm strains in the
girder and tower due to creep and shrinkage.
Cable forces will change as the erection proceeds. Initial cable forces to be jacked in during erection
must be determined in order to produce the final permanent load condition. Once the permament load
condition is established, the cable tensions at each stage can be determined by a dismantling procedure,
also referred to as a backwards analysis, which involves the same steps as the erection but in the opposite
direction (Gimsing 1997). Felber et al. (1999) claim that backwards analysis may be valid for cablestayed
bridges with only steel elements, but is an oversimplification for composite and concrete bridges. The
backwards analysis has a major disadvantage: it cannot account for timedependent effects such as creep
and shrinkage of concrete. Figure 319a shows the cable tensions at each step in a backwards analysis,
while Figure 319b shows the cable tensions from a staged construction analysis that includes timedependent effects (shown for the stiff girder extradosed bridge of Chapter 4). Each stage is assumed to last
7 days. The final cable tensions from a staged construction are up to 8% lower than the desired tensions,
which are the initial (leftmost) values of the backwards analysis.
5.3
a) Backwards Analysis
b) Staged Construction
5.2
5.2
5.1
5.1
5.0
5.0
4.9
4.9
4.8
4.8
4.7
4.7
4.6
Tension, MN
Tension, MN
5.3
4.6
10
5
Construction Stage
10
Construction Stage
Figure 319. Tensions of main span cables, at each stage of construction up to midspan closure, resulting from a)
backwards analysis and b) Staged construction including timedependent effects (form traveller not considered).
74
The cables neutral (unstressed) length and its predeformation are intrinsic variables which do not
change after initial stressing, unless the cable is restressed (Virlogeux 1994). Therefore, the forces in the
structure at any stage can be determined by applying the cable predeformations and the selfweight,
neglecting the creep of the concrete in previous stages. Introducing the cable predeformations as the cable
is installed in a staged construction produces permanent forces which are very similar to the case where the
predormations are applied at once to the entire structure. Determining the initial predeformations by
means a displacement method is convenient for input into analysis software since it works with prestrains
directly.
3.5
The design of the towers offers great opportunity for creativity and structural expression. A significant
decision in the design for the towers is that of whether to use a single mast or two lateral supports. This
decision have to be made together with the selection of the crosssection, and the cable arrangement. A
harp cable configuration causes significant bending in the tower which necessitates a minimum section
width.
A single mast above the deck will be more economical than two pylons, but the advantage also carries
through to the substructure. The single mast allows for a single pier of relatively narrow width and
supported by a single foundation, as compared with two pylons which are usually extended down to
ground level and anchored in a single large foundation. Some designers have opted to transition lateral
pylons into a single pier column by means of a deep transverse beam which results in a configuration that
resembles a tuning fork. Figure 320 shows the variety of pier and tower forms that have been used in
extradosed bridges.
Central support  single mast
Hybrid configurations
Figure 320. Tower and pier configurations. From left to right: Barton Creek Bridge, North Arm Bridge (LRT), Kiso
and Ibi Bridges, Sunniberg Bridge, Odawara Blueway Bridge, Tsukuhara Bridge, ShinKarato Bridge, Hozu Birdge,
Miyakodagawa Bridge and Domovinski Bridge (LRT and road). See Table 21 for drawing sources.
The design of the pier is more important for the structural behaviour of the extradosed bridge than the
tower itself. The main decision with respect to the pier is whether to keep the superstructure (girder, cables
and tower) simply supported on the substructure, which keeps bending in the piers to a minimum, or to
embed (fix in rotation) the superstructure on the piers, which is preferable to reduce the live load stress in
75
the cables and allows for a more slender girder but increases the bending moments in the piers. A stiff
girder extradosed bridge can be designed with the girder either embedded or simply supported on the piers,
but a stiff tower extradosed bridge requires moment transfer between the tower and the pier. Depending on
the height of the piers, the bending moment due to temperature range, longterm shrinkage of the girder,
and live load, may be too large to allow a single pier column to be detailed with adequate bending strength.
If a single pier column cannot be used, twin pier legs can be used to provide the desired rotational restraint
and longitudinal flexibility for displacement.
In seismic regions, twin pier legs may be preferable as they can be designed to be more flexible than a
single column or walltype pier. Transversely, lateral pier columns form a multiple column bent that is
subject to higher response modification factors, resulting in lower seismic force demand since the system
is more ductile.
In summary, the design of towers and piers in an extradosed bridge depends on:
1. central or lateral suspension of the crosssection;
2. the cable configuration;
3. the superstructure fixity with the substructure, and
4. the magnitude of bending due temperature range effects, longterm shrinkage, and live load.
The design of towers and piers for an extradosed bridge does not differ significantly from their design in an
conventional bridge.
3.6
The selection of the crosssection will depend primarily on the roadway width, whether it is supported by
one or two planes of cables, and its depth, as determined by span to depth ratios discussed in Section 3.3.3
or otherwise. Aesthetics should play a significant role in the selection and shaping of the crosssection.
For cantilever constructed girder bridges, closed single cell box girder crosssections are used
unvariably. For cablestayed bridges, there are two types of deck crosssection that are generally used: the
closed box and the slab. The box section can be either laterally or centrally supported, while the slab
crosssection requires lateral support. The slab crosssection is either unstiffened, or stiffened by
longitudinal edge girders, located inline with the cables or tucked in. For transverse spacing between
cables of 12 m up to 20 m (Leonhardt et al. 1991; Menn 1994), a variable depth solid concrete slab can
span between cables. Above this range, it is more economical to provide transverse ribs at 5 to 7 m
spacing (Tbeams) to reduce selfweight. The precompression in the longitudinal direction increases the
moment resistance of the slab allowing it to span between crossbeams with minimal reinforcement.
The ideal extradosed bridge crosssection lies somewhere between the closed box and the slab. There
is an apparent contradiction between the closed box girder section, which is ideal for longitudinal bending
with the webs located at the quarter points, and the stiffened slab which allows for direct support of the
longitudinal edge girders from the cables, and is efficient transversely. However, the aesthetics of the slab
crosssection suffer when the girders are deeper than 2 m, which is rarely a requirement for cablestayed
bridges. If the deck does not cantilever beyond the girders, the edge girders emphasize the visual depth of
76
the superstructure. Sidewalks should always be positioned on deck cantilever overhangs outside the cables
and main girders, both for transverse structural behaviour of the crosssection and for aesthetics.
Designers have come up with different solutions for extradosed crosssections. These have been
classified in four categories: centrally supported box girders, laterally supported single cell box girders,
multiple cell box girders, and laterally supported slabs. Box crosssections have been used in over 36 of 50
extradosed bridges considered in the Chapter 2 study, while only 13 these were centrally supported.
Centrally supported crosssections can be easily supported by single piers, which is a major advantage
when the piers are tall, but central suspension is appropriate only for bridges a divided roadway with two
or more lanes in each direction.
3.6.1
The centrally supported box girder crosssections consist of either two webs, with steel or prestressed
concrete ties linking the cable anchorages to the lower corners of the box, or of two nearly vertical closely
spaced interior webs with cables anchored in a diaphragm between them. Long deck cantilever overhangs
are supported by struts, inclined webs, transverse ribs or a combination of these. For bridges with a
median barrier seperating traffic in each direction, central support is a logical choice, especially in light of
the inherent girder depth and torsional stiffness in most extradosed crosssections. Inclined webs facilitate
the removal of formwork, can reduce the width of pier heads, and produce an external formed surface of
better quality than a vertical surface (SETRA 2007).
An analysis of bid results of 14 cablestayed bridges that were tendered as both concrete and steel
design alternatives in North America, conducted by Figg Engineering Inc. (Goni et al. 1999), found that
concrete cablestayed bridges with central vertical towers, saddles, and a single plane of cables have
always been the low bid compared to steel alternatives. These precast segmental concrete designs have
won over steel composite designs featuring Htype pylons with two planes of cables supporting a crosssection of edge girders with transverse floorbeams. Additionally, for other bids where the concrete designs
had the same configuration as the steel composite designs, the concrete alternatives were always more
expensive. However, the competitiveness of precast box girders with central suspension may be limited to
wider bridges (with four or more traffic lanes).
Figures 321 through 326 show examples of centrally supported box girder crosssections from
extradosed bridges proposed or constructed.
Figure 321. ArrtDarr Viaduct, France (concept 198283): main span 100 m, span to depth ratio 27, cantilever
construction with precast segments with voided webs (Mathivat 1988).
77
Figure 322. Barton Creek Bridge, United States (completed 1987): main span 103.6 m, span to depth ratio 27 at
midspan, cantilever construction, with the fin poured progressively after completion of 3 segments (Gee 1991).
Figure 323. Kiso and Ibi River Bridges, Japan (completed 2001): 275 m maximum spans, span to depth ratio 39 at
piers and 69 at midspan, cantilever construction with precast segments lifted with 600 tonne barge mounted cranes,
and central 95 to 105 m steel sections strandlifted from barges and made continuous (Casteleyn 1999, Kasuga 2006).
Figure 326. Trois Bassins Viaduct, Reunion (completed 2008): three main spans of 126  104.4  75.6 m, with cables
overlapping through the middle span, effective span to depth ratio 30 at tallest pier and 50 at midspan, cantilever
construction of central box, and construction of deck cantilevers and struts with mobile carriages (Frappart 2005).
78
3.6.2
In some two lane bridges, the designers have used a singlecell box girder crosssection, where the box is
almost as wide as the crosssection width. Since the vertical component of the cable force is not that large,
it is sometimes possible to anchor the cables in short deck cantilever overhangs without transverse
diaphragms at anchorage points, as would be required in a cablestayed bridge. The vertical component of
the cable force is transferred in bending to the girder webs, the deck slab thickness is kept to a minimum
with transverse prestressing, and the girder webs are inclined inwards to reduce the width of the bottom
slab. A wide single cell box crosssection was used for the Ganter Bridge (Vogel & Marti 1997) and for
some of the first extradosed bridges such as the Odawara Blueway Bridge (Kasuga 2006), the Tsukuhara
Bridge (Kasuga 2006), and the KorrorBabeldoap Bridge (Oshimi et al. 2002). To provide additional
protection for the cables from the elements, some of the cross sections have a fascia that lowers from the
cantilever overhang to cover the anchorage block outs. When sidewalks are required, they are almost
always located on the deck cantilever overhangs outside of the cables.
Figures 327 through 328 show examples of wide single cell, laterally supported box girder crosssections from extradosed bridges constructed to date.
Figure 327. Tsukuhara Bridge, Japan (completed 1997): Figure 328. Himi Bridge, Japan (completed 2004): main
main span of 180 m, span to depth ratio of 33 at piers and span of 180 m, span to depth ratio of 45, cantilever
construction (Kasuga 2006).
60 at midspan, cantilever construction in 6 m long
segments, transverse tendons in deck (Kasuga 2006).
Figure 329. KorrorBabeldoap (JapanPalau Friendship) Bridge, Palau (completed 2002): main span of 247 m, span
to depth ratio of 35 at the piers and 70 at midspan, cantilever construction of concrete portions of spans, and central
82 m steel section lifted from barges and made continuous (Oshimi et al. 2002).
3.6.3
Some bridges with wide decks feature box crosssections with multiple webs, however this is not
recommended for several reasons. Firstly, cantilever construction of multiple boxsections requires form
79
travellers with additional bays and formwork cores which add cost and complexity to the construction
(SETRA 2007). Secondly, flexural strength and stiffness of the crosssection in the longitudinal direction
is related to the radius of gyration I A which is increased by locating more material towards the flanges
(Menn 1990) and eliminating unnecessary webs. Thirdly, the internal webs are not directly supported by
the cables unless transverse diaphragms are used to make the section more rigid, which implies that the
inner webs are subjected to higher bending moments than the outer webs. As well, it is analytically much
more complex to predict the distribution of forces between all webs. For the Ibi River Bridge crosssection
shown in Figure 323, the most important design consideration was how to efficiently transmit the cable
force to the main girder without providing diaphragms each cable anchorage (Casteleyn 1999). A
combination of deck ribs and web ribs in each segment, along with three diaphragms in each cantilever
were required to ensure adequate transverse rigidity for the 33 m wide section (Kasuga 2006). Referring to
Figure 27, it is apparent that the multiple box girder crosssections have the largest effective depths of
concrete for their span. It is almost certain that for a similar cost, a more aesthetically pleasing structure
can be built with struts or transverse ribs.
The only advantage that multiple webs present is the potential to maintain a spacing of around 4 m
between webs often found in multiple girder highway bridges, which is efficient for the transverse bending
of the deck slab. The deck slab can be kept to a nominal dimension of around 225 mm with minimal
reinforcement of 15M at 300 mm spacing in each face and in each direction designed with the CHBDC
(CSA 2002a Clause 8.18.4).
Figures 330 through 335 show examples of multiple cell box girder crosssections from extradosed
bridges constructed to date.
Figure 332. Domovinski Bridge, Croatia (completed 2006): 840 m total length, spans of 60 m typical with a main
extradosed span of 120 m, span to depth ratio of 30, cantilever construction in 4 m segments (Bali & Veverka 1999).
80
Figure 333. Rittoh Bridge, Japan (completed 2006): main span of 170 m, effective span to depth ratio of 37 at pier
and 61 at midspan, cantilever construction (Yasukawa 2002).
Figure 334. PyungYeo Bridge, South Korea (completed 2007): main span of 120 m, span to depth ratio of 34 at
piers and 30 at midspan, cantilever construction with one pair of travellers (Masterson 2006).
Figure 335. Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge, United States (under construction): main span of 157 m, span to depth
ratio of 31 at piers and 45 at midspan (Stroh et al. 2003).
3.6.4
A slab supported by crossbeams between longitudinal edge girders forms an efficient system that can span
any width required and is increasingly used for cablestayed bridges (Walther et al. 1999). Stiffened slabs
are common for composite cablestayed bridges, with spans of constructed bridges ranging from 105 m to
600 m (Svensson 1999), and have been used in some concrete cablestayed bridges such as the East
Huntington Bridge (Walther et al. 1999), the Dame Point Bridge (Gimsing 1997) and the SidneyLanier
Bridge (Callicutt & West 1999). The use of stiffened slabs for extradosed bridges has been limited to short
spans or shallow crosssections.
Figures 336 through 338 show examples of laterally supported edge girder crosssections from
extradosed bridges constructed to date.
81
Figure 338. Third Bridge over Rio Branco, Brasil (completed 2006): main span of 90 m, span to depth ratio of 36 at
piers and 45 at midspan, cantilever construction (Ishii 2006).
A preliminary design undertaken by the author for Tsable River Bridge near Nanaimo, BC used this
concept of longitudinal edge girders along the outside edges of the deck slab. This resulted in an efficient
use of reinforcing steel in the deck slab. The main spans of the bridge are 130 m long, with crossbeams
spanning 20 m and spaced at 6.0 m, supporting a 250 mm thick deck slab. For 70% of the spans, only 15M
reinforcement top and bottom at 300 mm spacing is required.
3.6.5
Composite CrossSection
Composite crosssections consisting of a steel girder with concrete have been considered for extradosed
bridges. An alternative for the Pearl Harbor Memorial Bridge (Stroh et al. 1999) has been detailed with a
composite crosssection, and the Golden Ears Bridge (Bergman et al. 2007) will be the first composite
extradosed bridge constructed. The problem with a composite crosssection is that the part of the axial
force in the girder, initially resisted by the concrete deck slab, creeps from the concrete into the steel
girders over the longterm. The extent of this creep depends on the initial age of concrete deck slab at
loading and on the relative stiffness of the two components. In cablestayed bridges, loss of axial force in
the deck slab is mitigated by providing the least amount of structural steel in the longitudinal edge beams,
using high strength steel to provide strength without adding stiffness, and by using precast concrete panels
that are cast three to six months prior to installation to allow some shrinkage to occur before the they are
made composite (Taylor 1994). Compared with a cablestayed bridge, the girder of an extradosed bridge
of equivalent span is subjected to larger bending moments, which requires more steel in girders, and to an
axial force of two to three times the magnitude that can be resisted by the same concrete slab dimensioned
for transverse behaviour. Thus, the axial force is larger and the stiffness ratio of concrete to overall
82
stiffness would be lower for an extradosed bridge, causing much of the compression initially in the
concrete to creep into the steel.
Figure 339. Golden Ears Bridge, Canada (completion 2009): main span of 242 m, span to depth ratio of 54 at piers
and 80 at midspan, cantilever construction with precast deck panels (Bergman et al. 2007).
Takami and Hamada (2001) studied the longterm behavior of a composite extradosed bridge that was
designed with the same width and span lengths as the Odawara Blueway Bridge (Kasuga 2006). Their
study set out to evaluate if a twin girder composite bridge, an economical system for construction, could be
efficiently used for an extradosed design. They were concerned that the composite bridge would have
excessive longterm deflections due to creep, leading to tensile stresses in the deck slab at the supports.
For a bridge with spans of 74  122  74 m, they applied an instantaneous dead load to the the deck and
compared the deflections and stresses at the initial time and 10000 days. The vertical deflection decreased
up to 40 mm in the side spans and increased up to 40 mm in the main span. The compressive stress in the
deck slab increased considerably to around 3.5 MPa in side spans, and decreased by less than 0.5 MPa to
around 1.5 MPa over the supports. The stress in the steel top flange increased noticeably across the entire
bridge, up to 60 MPa, while the steel bottom flange stress increased by up to 50 MPa at the supports.
Cable forces increased an average of 12% in the main span.
Although Takami and Hamadas (2001) construction sequence is unknown, their main span to web
depth ratio is 30.5, which is not particularly slender. The West Virginia Approach Spans to the Bridge
across the Ohio River and Blennerhassed Island have spans of up to 122.2 m with a web depth of 3.05 m,
resulting in a main span to web depth ratio of 40 (Wollman 2008). For short spans, it would be possible to
erect light steel girders first, pour the deck slab, then install and stress the cables. The benefits of this
system are similar to those of prestressing composite girders with external tendons: it limits tension
stresses, increases yield load, increases ultimate strength, reduces structural steel weight, and reduces
fatigue stresses in the steel (Tong et al. 1992). For short spans, this construction sequence could be more
economical than cantilevered construction.
3.7
Tendon Layout
In Mathivats (1988) concept of the extradosed bridge, the internal cantilever tendons of the box girder are
replaced by the extradosed tendons. The only tendons that are housed within the crosssection are external
tendons, draped between pier diaphragms and deviators in the span, which is reasonable for precast
construction. However, in many extradosed bridges constructed to date, internal cantilever and continuity
tendons have been incorporated into the designs. Thus, there are four types of tendons that can be used in
an extradosed bridge, as shown in Figure 340 and described as follows.
83
Extradosed tendons are anchored in the deck segments and are either anchored in the towers or
deviated through the towers by means of saddles. They resist dead load during cantilevering, and resist
dead and live load in the final condition. As they are located above the deck surface, they require
protection against the elements.
Cantilever tendons are internal tendons installed as construction proceeds and anchored at the face of
the segment. They resist negative moments during construction and in the final condition, and are efficient
since the total prestressing force changes at each section and is built up gradually as cantilevering
proceeds. In an extradosed bridge, typically cantilever tendons are only used for cantilevering out to the
first extradosed tendons.
Internal continuity tendons are installed after span closure and are anchored in blockouts as close to
the bottom slab and webs as allowed given the clearance requirements for jacking. They resist positive
moments that occur during construction due to temporary construction loads, thermal gradient, and
concrete deformations. If external continuity tendons are not used, the internal continuity tendons also
resist positive moment from live load and creep.
External continuity tendons are installed after the structure is continuous and complement the other
tendons. They resist negative moment around the piers and positive moment at midspan under
superimposed dead loads, live load and creep. They are anchored in crossbeams at the piers and are
deviated around the quarter points of the span by smaller crossbeams. These tendons are installed and
stressed from anchorages at the piers.
3.8
Erection
Extradosed bridges are almost always constructed in cantilever, except for short spans. Conventional form
travellers, as used for the construction of cantilevered girder bridges and cablestayed bridges, can also be
used for extradosed bridges.
The form traveller can produce significant negative bending moments in the deck, depending on the
type used. The first concrete cablestayed bridges, such as the Brotonne Bridge (Mathivat 1983), were
constructed with conventional form travellers of the same type used for cantilevered girder bridges. For
the Brotonne Bridge, a cable was anchored every two segments, with each segment around 3 m in length.
Three segments had to cantilever from the last installed cable before the next cable could be stressed,
which produced negative bending moments extending up to 5 cables back and required prestressing
tendons to balance these forces. Due to the early age of the concrete when the negative tendons were
84
stressed, the longterm bending moments due to creep of the prestressing forces resulted in problematic
longterm deflections of the girder (Virlogeux 1994).
In subsequent cablestayed bridges, form travellers were designed to allow stressing of the cables at
the face of the segment before advancing the traveller. For extradosed bridges, form travellers have been
designed to cast segments of 5 to 7 m in length, to match the cable spacing and speed up construction.
Since extradosed cables are often designed not to require restressing, large multistrand stressing jacks can
be used for stressing since they can be mounted on the travellers, as was done for the construction of the
Tsukuhara Bridge (Ogawa et al. 1998).
Typical box girders are stiff, and the erection geometry can be established from the final geometry
(Virlogeux 1994). Flexible decks are subject to uncertainties arising from local longitudinal deflections,
transverse deflections, and thermal effects of concrete hardening (Virlogeux 1994). With flexible decks, it
is more important to balance the permanent loads at all stages of construction, as the final geometry is
more sensitive to creep deformations.
The cablestayed form traveller is the best solution to limit the bending moments in the bridge during
construction, and is now the preferred method for castinplace construction (Virlogeux 1994). The
traveler is supported at its nose either by temporary cables or permanent cables which can be decoupled
from the traveler after the the concrete is set. Each stage is typically between 5 and 7 m in length, and a
cable (or pair of cables) is installed at every stage. This type of traveler was used for the construction of
the Diepoldsau Bridge completed in 1985 (Walther et al. 1999), the Dames Point Bridge in 1989 (Abraham
et al. 1998), the Burgundy Bridge in 1992 (Virlogeux et al. 1994b), the Sunniberg Bridge in 1997 (Figi et
al. 1998) and the Sidney Lanier Bridge in 2003 (McNary 1999). In this system, the cables are stressed to
balance the weight of the traveler after advancement, and in three or four increments through the segment
pour.
For the construction of the Diepoldsau Bridge over the Rhine in Switzerland, precast concrete edge
beams under the main slab crosssection, were installed outwards from the previous stage (Walther et al.
1999). Stay cables were then installed and stressed before placement of concrete. The load of the castinplace concrete was supported by the stays at either end of the given stage. In the Dames Point Bridge
(Abraham et al. 1998), a special coupler joined the form traveller to the stay cables through precast
anchorage blocks, which allowed the permanent cables to support the wet concrete during the segment
pour. After the concrete achieved strength, the stays were uncoupled from the traveller, thus transferring
the cable force to the concrete. This method resulted in a traveller of only 60% of the weight that would
otherwise have been required, and a cycle of 4 to 6 days per stage (Abraham et al. 1998). Upon advancing
to the next stage, the formwork supports folded downwards and the forms lowered to allow the formwork
to clear under the cross beams. In the Burgundy Bridge (Virlogeux et al. 1994b), temporary stays were
anchored on the nose of the traveler, ahead of the given segment. The permanent cables were stressed
simulatenously with the destressing of the temporary cables.
The superstructure of the Sunniberg Bridge (Baumann & Dniker 1999) was constructed in stages of 6
m in length with an unconventional form traveller that extended over two segments. In each stage, the
85
Concrete Edge Beam
Section through
Edge Beams
Ballast
Support Frame
Support Rail HEB 700
Section through
Deck Centreline
Support Frame
Reaction Point
Work Platform
Figure 341. Sunniberg Bridge form traveller (adapted from Figi et al. 1998).
leading edge beams and the trailing deck slab are poured simultaneously, as shown in Figure 341. With
this configuration, the form traveller is better balanced: casting of the deck slab is offset by 1.5 m with the
edge beams, thereby perfectly balancing their dead loads on the stay cable in question. The segment
casting cycle was:
1. Pour edge and deck slab, with simultaneous decrease in ballast;
2. Reposition the support rail of the traveller for the next stage, mount jacks to stay cables for initial
stressing;
3. Stress stay cables in 4 to 6 steps with simulaneous increase in ballast;l
4. Lower and advance the traveller, and
5. Place reinforcement in edge beams and deck slab and install stay cables.
The use of ballast allows for better control and less risk during the deck pour, when problems with
stressing of stay cables could have severe consequences. As well, all measurements of deformations and
surveying can be completed ahead of the deck pour. This sequence resulted in a oneweek construction per
pair of segments. The entire bridge deck of 526 m length was constructed with a single pair of form
travellers.
3.9
According to the CHBDC (Clause 5.10.2), cablestayed bridges must be investigated for nonlinear effects
from cable sag, deformation of the deck superstructure, and material nonlinearity at the ultimate limit
states. As well, the integrity of the structure must be ensured for the effect of the loss of any stay cable.
In an extradosed bridge, cable sag can safely be neglected as explained in Section 3.4.5. The effects of
nonlinear geometry are small and need only be considered in combination with material nonlinearity
unless the deck is flexible.
86
Walther et al. (1999) suggest using the static method of the theory of plasticity, using elastic force
fields, to verify the capacity of the girder at the ultimate limit states. While this should be adequate to
prove the resistance at most sections of the girder, the negative moment over the pier from an elastic
analysis will generally exceed the sections resistance. Therefore, a certain level of nonlinear analysis is
necessary to verify that the yielding of the girder section causes an increase in the cable forces that can be
resisted by the cables.
The cable tensions, and corresponding girder moments, can be treated in two different ways at ULS.
In a first method, the forces resulting from the predeformations are distinguished from those resulting
from the dead loads. As with internal prestressing, the cable tensions due to the predeformations are
factored differently than those due to dead load, which must be factored by the same coefficient as the dead
loads (Virlogeux 1988). Where D is the total dead load force, and CP is the force due to cable
predeformations, the force at ULS is:
ULSD = DD + 1.0CP
In a second method, the prestress contributes to the strength only (Walther et al. 1999), and the forces
due to dead load and due to cable predeformations can be factored by the same coefficient:
ULSD = D(D + CP)
Menn (1990) explains that this strategy leads to girder moments at ULS that are consistent (of the same
sign) with those at SLS, and thus reinforcement required at ULS will also contribute to SLS behaviour.
The difference between this second method and the first method, (D  1.0)CP, can be thought of as a
redistribution of moments in the girder at ULS.
The second method appears to be reasonable for an extradosed bridge with a flexible girder, where the
girder would exhibit nonlinear behaviour and redistribute load to the cables. The primary system, the
tension in the cables and compression in the deck slab, resists collapse and the towers ensure stability. The
first method, however, is better suited for extradosed bridges with stiff girders, where the extradosed
cables sometimes yield after the formation of a plastic hinge in the girder close to the piers. This is
explained schematically by Kasuga (2003).
3.10
Concluding Remarks
This chapter reviewed the loading, discussed design concepts related to distribution of live load
between the primary axial load resisting system of the cables and the secondary flexural load resisting
system of the girder, and the influence of rotational fixity at the piers. This was followed by discussions on
proportions of the girder and tower, cable configuration, cable anchorages in the girder and piers, and cable
design at SLS, FLS and ULS. A thorough summary of methods for cable pretensioning was presented to
explain a topic that is discussed only briefly in most sources. For cantilever construction, it is only
practical to pretension the cables at installation to balance the girders selfweight. To balance
superimposed dead load, if desired for a stiff girder and necessary for a flexible girder, the cables have to
be retensioned after closure of the cantilevers.
87
The design of towers and piers will depend mainly on the type of suspension (lateral or central) and the
type of connection with the girder which affects the magnitude of forces in the piers. All types of girder
crosssections have been used in extradosed bridges, but a single cell box girder is the preferred crosssection for efficiency in both longitudinal and transverse bending and materials usage for extradosed
bridges with stiff girders. A single cell box girder centrally suspended and supported on a central pier
appears to result in the most economical and constructable designs. However, central suspension is not
practical for a bridge with only two traffic lanes.
In the next chapter, the insight gained from the comprehensive literature review and demonstrations of
this chapter will be applied to the design of two extradosed bridges: one with a stiff girder to resist live
load through the secondary flexural system (and as has been the design strategy used for most extradosed
bridges constructed to date), and one with a flexible girder to resist live load through the primary axial
system.
In this chapter, three different bridges will be designed for the same crossing: a cantilever constructed
girder bridge, a stiff girder extradosed bridge, and a stiff tower extradosed bridge. Design assumptions are
common for all three bridges, and will be stated up front. The desing procedure varies for each bridge and
is described in separate sections along with the structural behaviour and dimensioning of each bridge.
Drawings of the three bridges can be found in the Drawings section.
A fictional crossing has been assumed which requires a three span bridge with a main span of 140 m
length. Cantileverconstructed concrete bridges are known to be competitive at this span length, since this
is at the upper limit for composite steel plate girder bridges (Dubois 2004), often considered to be the main
competition against concrete bridges for shorter spans, due to the size of flange plates. While other steel
bridge types are feasible, such as composite box girder and tied arch bridges, these are usually more
expensive options. This span is however shorter than is thought to be economical for cablestayed bridge
construction (Troitsky 1988).
This main span is slightly less than the 150 m average main span of extradosed bridges in the Chapter
2 study. The side spans were chosen as 84 m (0.6 of main span) for the girder bridge and stiff girder
extradosed bridge to keep the positive moment in the side spans similar that that in the main span, as
discussed in Section 3.3.2, and to avoid uplift at the abutments. The side spans were chosen to be 72 m
(0.51 of main span) for the stiff tower extradosed bridge to keep the side span positive moments in the
girder under permanent loads to a minimum. A stiff tower design was attempted with 84 m side spans, but
this entailed an unsupported length of 17 m between the last cable and the abutment, and the resulting side
span girder moments greatly exceeded the its capacity. For this crossing, it is possible to add a short
approach span at either side of the bridge, but for comparison between the three bridges, the main bridge
was kept to three spans. The bridges are continuous, symmetrical about the centre of the main span, with
expansion joints at each abutment.
The roadway crosssection consists of one lane of 3.75
m width in each direction, shoulders of 2.0 m width, and a
starndard MTO PL2 concrete barrier with a steel railing
(Ontario 2001), shown in Figure 41. PL2 refers to
88
89
4.1
Design Assumptions
4.1.1
Commonly available materials with typical characteristics were chosen for the designs in this section, as
summarised in Table 41. In Ontario, new bridges under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Transportation
are constructed with High Performance Concrete with a minimum compressive strength of 50 MPa, unless
it is not available at the sites location (Ontario 2001). This concrete has been adopted for these designs.
Table 41. Material Characteristics assumed for design.
Material
High Performance Concrete
Strength
Compressive strength:
fc = 50 MPa
Cracking strength:
Modulus of Elasticity
Ec = 28 100 MPa
( 3000 f' c + 6900 ) ( c 2300 )
1.5
fy = 400 MPa
Prestressing Steel:
Sevenwire highstrength,
lowrelaxation strand
(CEBFIP Class 2),
Size 15 (Astrand =140 mm2)
The concrete deck is overlaid with a 90 mm asphalt and waterproofing system. The concrete deck
surface is conservatively considered to be exposed to deicing chemicals or surface runoff containing deicing chemicals. The periphery of the crosssection (the soffit of the deck cantilever overhangs, the
external surface of the webs, and the soffit of the bottom slab) is also considered to be exposed. Minimum
concrete covers and placing tolerances are adopted from the CHBDC (CSA 2006a) for the given exposure
of the surface and are summarised in Table 42.
Table 42. Concrete Covers and Tolerances specified in the CHBDC (CSA 2006a).
Component
Top Surface of Deck Slab
Soffit of Deck Slab Cantilever
Interior Soffit of Deck Slab
External Surface of Web
Internal Surface of Web
Top Surface of Bottom Slab
Soffit of Bottom Slab
Longitudinal Prestressing
130 15
70 10 ( 300 mm)
80 10 (> 300 mm)
60 10
90 10
80 10
60 10
70 10
Transverse Prestressing
90 15
60 10

Mild Reinforcement
70 20
50 10 ( 300 mm)
60 10 (> 300 mm)
40 10
70 10
60 10
40 10
50 10
Prestressing steel for internal, external and extradosed tendons is high strength seven wire lowrelaxation strand, and both tendons and extradosed stay cables are assumed to have the basic modulus of
elasticity given in the CHBDC (CSA 2006a). Ducts for internal tendons are assumed to be rigid steel,
which have a higher curvature friction coefficient, but lower wobble friction coefficient than plastic ducts.
Plastic ducts are more durable during construction and therefore well adapted to segmental construction,
can be coupled easily by means of halfshell clamps or shrinkwrap couplers, but are more expensive than
steel ducts. External ducts are assumed to be polyethylene with rigid steel pipe deviators. Wobble and
curvature friction coefficients are adopted from the CHBDC and defined in Table 43.
90
Table 43. Friction Coefficients (per metre length of prestressing tendon)
Sheath
Internal ducts:
Rigid steel
External ducts:
Straight plastic
Rigid steel pipe deviators
4.1.2
Wobble friction, K
Curvature friction,
0.002
0.18
0.000
0.002
0
0.25
Frame models of the bridges were developed and analysed with the program SAP2000 (CSI 2005).
Tendons were modelled as tendon elements in order to explicitly account for longterm effects. For elastic
analyses, the external tendons were modeled as internal tendons, which is valid for small curvatures.
Relaxation of tendons was included in all analyses of longterm effects according to values given in the
CEBFIP (1993) MC90 for class 2 relaxation: improved relaxation characteristics for wires and strands.
Accordingly, the longterm relaxation after 50 years is assumed to be three times the relaxation at 1000
hours. The ability of SAP2000 to model tendon relaxation was validated using a model of a 1 m long
tendon, subjected to different stress levels for 1000 hours and 50 years. Relaxation at 1000 hours is 1.1%
for stress levels under 0.6 fpu, 2% for a stress of 0.7 fpu, and 5% for a stress of 0.8 fpu. At 50 years,
relaxation is three times the relaxation at 1000 hours.
For the the extradosed bridges, there is a difference between the girder area for structural response and
the effective girder area for calculating its selfweight, due to the presence of transverse ribs. Since the
internal functionality of SAP2000 was used to calculate the selfweight of the girder, the structural area of
the girder was specified as its section property, and the unit weight of the girder concrete was increased to
include the additional weight of the transverse ribs.
The SETRA formula, given in Section 3.4.6, was used to determine the allowable stress at SLS for the
extradosed cables in the stiff girder extradosed design.
At SLS I, the CHBDC (CSA 2006a) requires the load case K for all strains, deformation, and
displacements to be factored by 0.8 (see Table 31). With a structure built in stages, longterm effects
(relaxation, creep and shrinkage) are calculated explicitly for each element starting from the time they are
introduced into the model. It is difficult to isolate the longterm effects into a single load case because a
portion of the effects will have already occurred before the structure is completely assembled.
In lieu of factoring the portion of load case K due to longterm effects by 0.8, longterm effects were
accounted for by verification at SLS1 of the forces in the structure at 50 years, an age at which most losses
have occurred. It is assumed that the bridge will undergo maintenance work within the first 50 years of its
service life, at which time the actual deflections of the structure would be taken into account, and
additional prestressing could be added if necessary to correct the deflections and/or increase capacity. The
structure is also verified at SLS1 for the forces in the structure immediately after construction.
It is difficult to calculate the bending moments at ULS in a structure built in phases. One approach is
to take the permanent moments from the SLS load case, and add the difference in loads between SLS and
91
ULS, as taken from the continuous structure. The following summation of load cases at SLS and ULS
illustrates this approach.
SLS1perm,0 is the combination of permanent moments following the construction sequence equivalent to:
SLS1perm,0 = 1.0SW + 1.0B + 1.0A + 1.0CP + 1.0P
SLS1perm,50 is the combination of permanent moments after 50 years, effectively:
SLS1perm,50 = 1.0SW + 1.0B + 1.0A + 1.0CP + 1.0P + 1.0K
SLS1
ULS1
ULS2
where
SW is the selfweight of the girder (cable load is lumped with girder SW);
B is the barrier load;
A is the asphalt load;
CP is the cable pretensioning (prestrain) load;
P is the secondary prestress effect;
L is the live load;
TG is the temperature gradient;
K is the load effect of relaxation of prestressing, concrete shrinkage and creep
The load cases added to the SLS1 load combination are calculated from the continuous structure. This
will result in a conservative design, since more load is added to the positive moment regions where there is
less reserve in bending capacity of the girder than in the negative moment regions at the piers.
4.1.3
Temperature Gradient
The AASHTO (2004) LRFD nonlinear thermal gradient for Zone 3 was adopted for design since the
CHBDC (CSA 2006a) linear gradient simplistic and overly conservative for girder depths above 2 metres,
as explained in Section 3.1.2. The procedure used to model the nonlinear temperature gradient at each
girder section is as follows.
Determine temperature forces in a restrained system subjected to strains due to the nonlinear temperature gradient (in a spreadsheet);
Calculate a curvature corresponding to the temperature forces of the restrained system (i.e. restraint is
released and the temperature forces are applied to the system);
Calculate a linear temperature gradient corresponding to the above curvature and apply to the computer model.
The total stress due temperature gradient is the summation of the primary or selfequilibrating stress
(made up of stresses from the restrained system and stresses from the released system) and the secondary
or continuity stresses. The resulting stress from the computer model only accounts for the released stress
and the continuity stress.
At SLS, the temperature gradient is considered as a load case, and factored by 0.5 when considered
simultaneously with live load, and by 1.0 when considered alone, as specified in the AASHTO (2004)
92
LRFD code. When the temperature gradient is combined with live load, the live load is factored by 0.5.
The temperature gradient has not been considered at ULS.
4.1.4
The construction sequence was used in preliminary design and later in refined nonlinear analysis. A
standard construction sequence was adopted, and assumed to proceed symmetrically about the centreline
of the bridge. The major steps are summarised in Figure 42. The construction sequence for the
extradosed bridges is the same as for the girder bridge with cantilever tendons replaced by extradosed
tendons.
Figure 42. Construction sequence.
Construction of piers and pier tables.
A construction cycle of seven days per segment pair (5 working days and 2 weekend days for curing)
has been used for staged anlaysis. At the beginning of the cycle, the traveler is advanced into position, the
reinforcement is placed, and at the end of the week the concrete is poured. The concrete is left to gain
strength over the weekend allowing two to three days for the concrete to achieve the required strength
(Mondorf 2006). Then, the tendons are stressed and the traveller is advanced to the next segment position,
and the cycle is repeated. Normally, one crew will be sufficient to handle all operations in both travellers,
leading to a rate of construction of approximately 1.0 m per day per pair of travellers.
For the extradosed bridge, a cycle of 7 days is maintained for each 6 m segment. Longer segments
leads to a faster rate of construction, but would require a larger crew or preassembly of reinforcement
cages.
In the analysis, 28 days is provided between pouring of the pier tables and construction of the first pair
of segments with the travellers. The pier tables normally take a long time to construct because they are
completed in several pours to limit pour volumes and allow reuse or removal of formwork.
93
4.2
4.2.1
A single cell box girder crosssection was chosen which is consistent with standard practice for a bridge of
this width. The two webs intersect the deck slab beyond the quarter points, resulting in 2.5 m deck
cantilever overhangs. Inclined webs were chosen for aesthetic reasons.
The depth of the crosssection varies parabolically from 8.0 m at the pier to 3.2 m at the centre of the
main span, which corresponds to span to depth ratios of 17.5 and 43.8 respectively, based on
recommendations from various sources as discussed in Section 3.3. The girder is simply supported on
bearings at the piers.
The segment length was chosen as close to 3.5 m as possible. Given the desire to maintain a 2 m
closure segment between cantilevers, and a pier table projecting approximately 4 m beyond the pier
centreline, the cantilever length was divided into 19 segments of 3.42 m length.
The approximate size of cantilever tendons was determined from an initial estimate of cantilever
moment, and used to detail the deck slab haunches for adequate spacing and cover of prestressing ducts.
The bottom slab has a minimum thickness of 250 mm to accommodate internal tendons given cover
requirements. The girder crosssection in shown in Figure 43, and the general arrangement of the bridge
can be found in Drawings, CANTS1.
4.2.2
Longitudinal Prestressing
Two prestressing schemes were designed for this bridge. The first scheme uses cantilever tendons, bottom
slab continuity tendons, and external tendons. The second scheme uses only cantilever and bottom slab
continuity tendons. The two prestressing strategies will be compared on the basis of net moment in the
girder and material quantity.
Starting in the 1980s, it has become standard practice in France and some other European countries to
use external tendons, in combination with internal tendons, as a replacement for internal tendons
94
previously draped inside the webs (SETRA 2007). The use of external tendons for cantilever constructed
girder bridges presents several advantages such as reduced crosssectional dimensions, ease of installation,
controlled stressing, future replaceability of external tendons, reduced shear demand in webs, and fewer
blockouts for bottom continuity tendons. In North America, external tendons are not commonly used for
castinplace construction.
After appropriate crosssection dimensions were established, a preliminary design was used to size the
remaining tendons, following the construction sequence. The main steps are outlined below, and follow
the steps outlined by SETRA (2007).
1. Cantilever tendons were determined to keep the section over the pier uncracked in the determinate cantilever system during construction, for the moment caused by casting of the final segment. A form
traveller selfweight of 400 kN was assumed, which is between 35 and 60% of the maximum and minimum segment weights.
2. The pier section was checked to ensure it remains uncracked at casting of the midspan closure segment
(weight is added but continuity is not yet acheived). This does not normally control the design since
the closure pour is small and the weight is distributed between the two cantilevers.
3. Continuity prestressing for the midspan closure segment was determined in order for it to remain
uncracked for positive moment due to the temperature gradient. The form traveller and wet concrete
load of the of the final segment are added to the determinate system, and the weight of the form traveller is removed from the continuous system, resulting in a negative moment (this is done first so that the
secondary prestress moments from the midspan closure are known when sizing the side span continuity tendons).
4. Continuity prestressing for the side span closures was determined to keep the construction joint
uncracked a) for positive moment due to the dead load of the castinplace girder after falsework
removal and b) for the additional positive moment due to temperature gradient after the structure is
fully continuous between the piers.
5. The critical moments were found at the critical design sections, as listed in Table 44, for the continuous bridge subjected to dead load, superimposed dead load (asphalt and barrier walls), temperature
gradient (as before), and live load (envelope). Additional continuity prestressing or external prestressing was added as required to keep the girder uncracked at the side span section of maximum positive
moment, and at midspan. The top stresses at the pier, and just beyond the pier table in the side spans
were checked to ensure the concrete top surface remains uncracked.
Table 44. Critical sections for design and corresponding load cases to produce the maximum load effect.
Section
Side span closure
Design
Midspan closure
Critical Moment
Max
Min
9
9
Check
9
9
9
9
DL
SDL
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
Creep
9
9
9
95
The above preliminary design resulted in the tendon arrangement in Table 45. A detailed model was
then developed with the tendons from the preliminary design. The tendon layout and anchorage locations
were modified to give a reasonable distribution of net bending moment and to keep the bottom concrete
fibre uncracked at all sections. The net bending moments, immediately after construction and after 50
years, are shown for tendon schemes in Figure 44, along with the moments due to temperature gradient
and live load. Calculation of stresses from the results of the detailed model found one pair of main span
external tendons to be unnecessary in the case of the mixed tendon arrangement, and one pair of main span
internal continuity tendons was added to the internal tendon design. The final tendon arrangement can be
found in Drawings, CANTAS2 and CANTAS3 for the mixed tendon scheme, and CANTBS2 and
CANTBS3 for the internal tendon scheme.
Mixed Tendons Staged Construction
Permanet Loads + PT (at End of Construction)
Critical SLS Moment = Permanent Loads + PT + Max (1.0 TG, 0.9 Live Load, 0.5 TG + 0.5 Live Load)
Figure 44. Bending moment in cantilever girder bridge (SAP2000 diagrams at the same relative scale).
Table 45. Preliminary and final tendons for cantilever constructed girder bridge.
Cantilever prestressing
Continuity prestressing
in main span
External prestressing
in main span
Continuity prestressing
in side spans
External prestressing
in side spans
96
4.2.3
The net moment and the top and bottom stresses in the concrete, at the critical sections in the bridge, are
shown in Table 46 for the mixed tendon design, and in Table 47 for the internal tendon design. Only the
stresses after 50 years are shown since these controlled the design at SLS. The temperature gradient load
case was found to govern the design of the continuity prestressing in the main span at SLS, while live load
governed in the side spans. Detailed results can be found in Appendix B.
For the calculation of section resistance at ULS, the stress in the external tendons is taken as the stress
at 50 years at SLS1. Any increase in stress that might occur due to elongation of the tendon at ULS is
neglected. Section resistance was calculated with Response 2000, with axial compression and primary
moment of the external tendons included as an external load..
Table 46. SLS Forces and Maximum Stresses in the Girder  Internal and External Tendons
Side Span
Main Span
Critical Sections
Closure
Max Mlive
Pier CL
0.3 of span 0.4 of span
SLS Forces after 50 years (Forces include Mp, units are MNm, MN and MPa)
SLS Mmin (t=50 years)
10.28
0.55
84.0
14.95
5.0
SLS Mmax (t=50 years)
18.25
48.6
43.0
86.2
64.2
SLS Axial Force
22.2
38.7
138.0
61.8
59.0
Top Stress  Mmin
1.7
4.5
7.7
8.2
6.7
 Mmax
4.8
9.0
11.6
13.9
13.7
Bottom Stress  Mmin
4.4
4.6
12.5
5.5
7.9
 Mmax
0.1
1.3
8.8
1.8
1.6
Forces at ULS1 (DD + 1P + 1.7L over pier) or ULS2 (DD + 1P + 1.6L + 1.15K in positive moment regions)
Mf
Mr
Mf / Mr
81.7
80.1
1.02
65.5
69.4
0.95
702
1125
0.62
137.3
137.l
1.00
CL span
10.2
57.2
62.0
6.7
14.1
9.4
1.2
181.3
180.4
1.00
The moment resistance at the side span closure section is inadequate, but can be increased sufficiently
by increasing the bottom slab reinforcement from 15M to 20M.
Table 47. SLS Forces and Maximum Stresses in the Girder  Internal Tendons
Side Span
Main Span
Critical Sections
Closure
Max Mlive
Pier CL
0.3 of span 0.4 of span
SLS Forces after 50 years (Forces include Mp, units are MNm, MN and MPa)
SLS Mmin (t=50 years)
2.0
5.6
179.0
13.7
3.4
SLS Mmax (t=50 years)
30.6
43.9
53.0
86.5
72.6
SLS Axial Force
17.3
42.4
105.0
60.6
61.0
Top Stress  Mmin
2.4
4.5
2.4
7.9
7.8
 Mmax
5.3
9.0
6.2
13.8
14.8
Bottom Stress  Mmin
1.9
5.7
13.7
5.5
7.0
 Mmax
2.6
0.3
9.5
1.9
2.5
Forces at ULS1 (DD + 1P + 1.7L over pier) or ULS2 (DD + 1P + 1.6L + 1.15K in positive moment regions)
Mf
88.8
64.9
714
154.8
Mr
109.4
129.3
1226
282
Mf / Mr
0.81
0.50
0.61
0.55
CL span
2.3
63.9
66.0
8.1
15.4
8.7
1.7
203
351
0.58
For both designs, the deck surface remains precompressed from the end of construction to 50 years at
SLS, and the bottom surface remains uncracked. The bridges have adequate bending resistance at ULS.
97
Based on an elastic analysis, the design with internal tendons appears to have a larger reserve capacity than
that with external tendons.
4.3
The objective of this design was to make the girder as slender as possible, but stiff enough relative to the
cables to keep the stress range due to live load in the cables below 50 MPa, the limit at which SETRA
allows the extradosed cables to stressed to 0.60 fpu in a conventional prestressing anchorage. In keeping
with the notion of extradosed tendons as prestressing the deck, retensioning of extradosed cables is
avoided, and the girder is designed to remain fully prestressed (uncracked) at SLS. Extradosed cables are
anchored in the towers.
4.3.1
A harp cable configuration was chosen for the reasons discussed in Section 3.4.1, with a span to tower
height ratio of 10. This results in a cable slope of 0.2. Each cantilever consists of 10 segments of 6 m
length, with a 6 m closure pour between the two cantilevers and an initial pier table segment projecting 7 m
beyond the pier centreline.
Several alternatives were considered in the selection of a crosssection for the bridge; each alternative
is shown in Table 48 with its advantages and disadvantages. Crosssection depths of 4 m and 2 m were
considered, to gain insight into how each alternative would work in a variabledepth configuration as well
for a constant depth. The dimensions of the deck slab, webs and bottom slab are determined based on
cover requirements, standard practice for detailing, and reference crosssections from Section 3.6. The
deck slab is haunched at the webs to allow adequate cover for internal prestressing ducts and anchorages.
Some crosssections feature details such as strut connections and ribs intersecting cables which require
careful detailing but which have been previously constructed and are considered feasible.
The chosen crosssection consists of a box girder with vertical webs located at the quarter points of the
section. There are transverse ribs spanning the full width of the crosssection between the anchorages and
spaced at 6.0 m to correspond with the segments. The depth of the crosssection was chosen as a constant
2.8 m to give a span to depth ratio of 50. This is higher than recommended by some studies mentioned in
Section 3.3, but was chosen on the basis of aesthetics: it is desirable to keep the girder as slender as
possible. To use the extradosed cables most efficiently however, the stress range in the cables due to live
load had to be kept under 50 MPa, low enough that there would be no reduction in allowable stress in the
cables at SLS. Initial plane frame models indicated that if the girder was simply supported at the piers, the
maximum stress range in the backstay cable at SLS would be 114 MPa, far greater than the 50 MPa limit.
If however, the girder was on fixed supports, the maximum stress range in the cables at the quarter points
of the main span would be 58 MPa, for which there is only a minor reduction in allowable stress at SLS.
Therefore, the girder span to depth ratio of 50 was accepted and the girder was embedded on the piers.
This resulted in the crosssection in Figure 45, and the general arrangement for the bridge can be found in
Drawings, EXTG1.
98
At segments where extradosed cables are anchored, 2 transverse 1915 mm diametre strand draped
tendons are required in the ribs. At other segments, there is a single 1215 mm diametre strand tendon.
4.3.2
Longitudinal Prestressing
After appropriate crosssection dimensions were established, a preliminary design was used to size the
remaining tendons, following the construction sequence, and assuming that the prestressing moments were
not affected by the presence of the cables. The main steps are outlined below, and follow a similar
methodology to those of the cantilever girder bridge. The form traveller is assumed to weigh half of the
selfweight of one segment, in this case 600 kN.
1. Extradosed tendons were determined to balance the dead load of one segment with an allowable stress
of 0.6 fpu. This resulted in 1915mm diametre strand tendons. Several pretensioning strategies were
investigated of those discussed in Section 3.4.9, but simply pretensioning to 0.6 fpu to balance the selfweight of a 6 m section of the girder was found to produce minimal net moments in the girder.
2. Internal cantilever tendons were dimensioned, additional to extradosed tendons, as required for the
section over the pier to remain uncracked in the determinate cantilever system, for the moment caused
by casting of the first cantilevered segment, before the extradosed cable is installed. A single pair of
1915mm diametre strand tendons was required across the pier table.
At this stage, a simple plane frame model was used to obtain the critical moments at the critical design
sections for the continuous system subjected to dead load, superimposed dead load (asphalt and barrier
walls), temperature gradient, and live load (envelope).
3. Continuity prestressing for the midspan closure segment was dimensioned to keep it uncracked for
positive moment due to the temperature gradient. The form traveller and wet concrete load of the of
the final segment are added to the determinate system, and the weight of the form traveller is removed
from the continuous system, resulting in a negative moment. Three pairs of 1915mm diametre strand
bottom tendons and a single pair of top tendons were required across the midspan joint. The shortest
pair is anchored across 5 segments (30 m length) in order to better balance the midspan moment that
results from superimposed loads.
4. Continuity prestressing for the side span closures was dimensioned to ensure the closure joint remains
uncracked a) for positive moment due to the dead load of the castinplace girder after falsework
removal and b) for the additional positive moment due to temperature gradient after the structure is
fully continuous between the piers. Two pairs of 1915mm diametre strand tendons were required.
99
Table 48. Evaluation of alternative crosssections for lateral support by planes of cables.
CrossSection
Wide box girder
Advantages
Disadvantages
Cable force transferred directly to all webs. High outofplane bending of webs.
Consistent internal crosssection.
High moments around corners of box.
High stiffness for given section depth.
Viewed in profile,box girder looks heavy
without deck cantilever overhangs.
= 0.66, 0.63
Wide box girder with
interior struts
= 0.66, 0.63
= 0.66, 0.64
= 0.62, 0.61
Box girder with
transverse struts
= 0.66, 0.62
Double T section or
U section
= 0.39, 0.33
5. Additional continuity prestressing or external prestressing was added as required to keep the girder
uncracked at the side span section of maximum positive moment, and at midspan. Four 1915mm
100
diametre strand tendons were provided at the side spans, and 8 were provided across the main span.
The side span and main span external continuity tendons overlap across the pier table.
Since the crosssection features transverse ribs, the external tendons cannot be raised into the top slab at
the pier, but reach their highest point at 1.0 m below the deck surface. Since the girder centroid is only 1.3
m below the surface, the external tendons are ineffective in reducing the negative moment demand. While
pockets could be detailed to pass the external tendons through the ribs, this would have required special
detailing of reinforcing steel and transverse tendons for 16 of the ribs, which was considered to be
undesirable.
The prestressing from this preliminary design is summarised in Table 49.
Table 49. Preliminary and final tendons for extradosed bridge.
Preliminary Design
Extradosed prestressing
Cantilever prestressing
Continuity prestressing
in main span
External prestressing
in main span
Continuity prestressing
in side spans
External prestressing
in side spans
10  2x1915 tendons
12x1915 tendons
1  2x1915 top tendons
3  2x1915 bottom tendons
8  1915 draped tendons installed after structure is continous and all concrete has reached
28 day strength.
2  2x1915
Final Design
10  2x1915 tendons
1  2x1915 top tendons
6  2x1915 bottom tendons
6  2715 draped tendons installed after structure is continous and all concrete has reached
28 day strength.
4  2x2715
4  1915 draped tendons installed after struc 2  2715 draped tendons installed after structure is continous and all concrete has reached ture is continous and all concrete has reached
28 day strength.
28 day strength.
Note: Numbers in paranthese (X) are final tendons used after checking stresses with a detailed model.
4.3.3
To assess the feasibility of the chosen crosssection, it is desirable to have an idea of the bending moment
capacity of that section. For this purpose, the bending moment of the extradosed crosssection was
compared with that in a girder bridge with a box girder crosssection of similar depth. Although most of
the superimposed dead load moment in the extradosed girder will be balanced by internal prestressing, it is
useful to get a sense of whether these bending moments could be accommodated in the initial crosssection.
Five girder bridges were analysed for the purpose of determining maximum bending moments, both in
negative and positive bending, likely to occur in a box girder section of given depth at SLS and ULS. They
have maximum spans of 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 m. The first two have constant depth crosssections
with side spans of 0.8 of the main span, while the others are variable depth with side spans of 0.6 of the
main span. Crosssections were given typical dimension based on references and the recommendations
that were summarised in Section 3.3. They have the same roadway width, asphalt thickness and barriers as
in the cantilevered posttensioned bridge in Section 4.2. The maximum moments are summarised in
Table 410.
101
Table 410. Maximum Bending Moments in a Typical Box Girder Bridge
Span (m)
50
3.60
Area (m2)
3.1
Inertia (m )
Load Case Moments (MNm)
Selfweight
18.62
Asphalt
2.62
Barriers
1.40
Live Load
11.70
SLS Moment
33.2
ULS Moment
47.9
Mself / Msls
0.56
Mself / Muls
0.47
75
3.74
100
3.98
3.98
35.38
4.98
2.66
9.83
51.9
69.8
0.68
0.61
46.34
5.90
3.15
21.04
74.3
104.0
0.62
0.53
88.00
11.20
5.99
18.79
122.1
161.5
0.72
0.65
5.38
3.95
6.76
4.41
8.09
3.3
27
6.4
51
10
139
58.3
7.4
3.9
20.9
88.4
121.3
0.66
0.58
192.1
23.0
12.3
39.5
263
347
0.73
0.66
152.6
16.7
9.0
39.6
214
286
0.71
0.64
507.0
51.7
27.6
76.6
655
849
0.77
0.72
260.0
25.0
13.4
56.0
349
461
0.75
0.68
1093.0
96.6
51.6
134.0
1362
1746
0.80
0.75
500
ULS
1600
1800
ULS
1400
1200
1000
SLS ve
800
600
ULS
400
200
0
40
200
3.57
6.8
150
400
SLS +ve
300
ULS
200
SLS ve
100
SLS +ve
0
60
80
180
200
4
Depth of Box Girder, m
Figure 46. Maximum bending moment in a typical girder bridge of 12.4 m width: a) as a function of longest span,
and b) as a function of girder depth.
The maximum moments in the five girder bridges considered are shown in Figure 46a as a function of
their maximum span lengths. As the span length increases, the negative moment increases more rapidly
than the positive moment. However, when the moments are shown in Figure 46b as a function of the
girder depth, the positive moments are typically twice as large as the negative moments. This is not
surprising since the centroid in a box girder is located closer to the deck surface than to the soffit, making
the box section more favourable for positive bending.
The extradosed bridge in this section has a maximum bending moment at SLS of around 110 MNm
over the pier and at midspan. From Figure 46, the maximum SLS moment in a girder bridge with girder
depth of 2.8 m is around 75 MNm in negative bending and 130 MNm in positive bending. Since the
precompression in the girder will be higher for the extradosed section of 2.8 m depth, the moments in the
extradosed girder are reasonable.
102
4.3.4
Detailed Model
A detailed plane frame model was developed for the extradosed bridge to properly model the staged
construction, secondary effects, and longterm effects. The staged construction includes Pdelta effects,
although these were found to be small for this extradosed bridge. The form traveller was included in the
staged construction since it imposes a significant negative moment on the girder when it is advanced. The
weight of the form traveller was assumed to be centred 2 m beyond the previous segment.
Self Weight (SW)
Staged Construction
(after 50 Years)
Permanent Loads
(SW+CP+SDL+PT)
Figure 47. Bending moment in extradosed bridge (SAP2000 diagrams at the same relative scale).
The prestressing described in Section 4.3.2 was used as a starting point for the detailed model. Top
and bottom stresses at SLS were checked at critical sections, both at the end of construction and after 50
years, to ensure they remained below the cracking stress of the concrete. Due to the presence of the
extradosed cables, the prestressing is not 100% effective in offsetting the moment demand in the girder,
and the girder stresses were considerably higher than anticipated. Additional tendons were added to
oppose the permanent moments. The final tendon arrangement can be found in Drawings, EXTS2 and
EXTS3.
Moment diagrams for the extradosed bridge are shown in Figure 47.
4.3.5
The bending moments and stresses at SLS are summarised in Table 411. The moments in the girder under
permanent loads, at the end of construction and after 50 years, are of particular interest. There is a very
103
large shift in bending moment in the girder over the longterm, which results from relaxation of the cables
and prestressing combined with shrinkage and creep of the girder. At midspan, this change in forces
results in a 7.7 MPa decrease in the bottom stress of the girder and downwards displacement of 93 mm.
The live load moment range causes stress of 7.8 MPa in the bottom slab. To keep the girder uncracked at
50 years, an effective prestress after losses of 10 MPa was provided at midspan. .
Table 411. SLS Forces and Maximum Stresses in the Girder
Side Span
Main Span
Critical Sections
At closure
Max Mlive beyond PT
Pier CL
0.4 of span
SLS Forces at the end of construction (Forces include Mp, units are MNm, MN and MPa)
Mmin (end of const.)
26.5
22.8
12.2
58.4
11.62
Mmax (end of const.)
2.97
16.9
47.6
1.95
47.7
Axial Force (end of const.)
50.2
63.0
62.9
95.0
93.6
Top Stress  Mmin
4.0
6.2
10.3
3.5
14.5
 Mmax
7.4
10.8
14.4
9.8
18.7
Bottom Stress  Mmin
12.9
13.9
6.2
17.5
10.6
 Mmax
6.4
5.2
1.6
10.3
2.7
SLS Forces after 50 years (Forces include Mp, units are MNm, MN and MPa)
SLS Mmin (t=50 years)
9.95
7.42
7.31
99.5
25.1
SLS Mmax (t=50 years)
19.57
32.2
42.8
43.1
61.2
SLS Axial Force
33.2
50.2
47.1
82.0
71.0
Top Stress  Mmin
3.5
6.2
7.5
2.5
12.9
 Mmax
7.0
10.8
11.6
3.8
17.1
Bottom Stress  Mmin
6.9
8.7
5.0
21.5
4.47
 Mmax
0.4
0
2.8
14.2
2.8
CL span
2.61
35.0
89.2
12.2
16.6
13.1
4.9
21.2
58.8
68.6
12.1
16.5
5.0
2.8
In a first verification at ULS, the demand was calculated by starting with the bending moments at SLS
at the end of construction, and adding additional bending moments, calculated from the loads applied to the
final system, to produce the full ULS load combination, as explained in Section 4.1.2. The axial force in
the girder is also increased to correspond with the external loads.
The difference between the state of stress at 50 years and the state of stress at the end of construction
was considered as the load case K to group all long term effects due to relaxation of prestressing, shrinkage
and creep of concrete, and redistribution of the structure from the asconstructed state to the final state. As
the longterm effects are considerable, ULS2 (1.6 Live + 1.15 Longterm effects) is more significant than
ULS1 at all sections.
Table 412. ULS Forces in the Girder
Critical Sections
At closure
Forces at ULS2 (DD + 1P + 1.6L + 1.15K)
Mf
Axial Force to calculate Mr
Mr
Mf / Mr
107.3
8.65
152.8
0.70
Side Span
Max Mlive
125.1
24.1
164.6
0.76
beyond PT
58.1
49.4
58.8
0.99
Pier CL
212.4
80.3
156.9
1.35
Main Span
0.4 of span
CL span
210.4
41.2
210.5
1.00
227.5
30.7
229.0
0.99
The utilisation ratios of the girder at ULS are summarised in Table 412. At some sections, the
resistance is either just adequate to cover the demand, or is insufficient in the case of section over the pier.
104
However, as the load increases and girder loses stiffness due to inelastic response (cracking of concrete
followed by yielding of reinforcement), the cables will take up increasingly more load. The moment in the
pier will not reach the value predicted by a purely elastic model. Meanwhile, the forces in the cables
cannot exceed their factored resistance. A nonlinear analysis is required to get more realistic values of the
moment in the girder and the forces in the cables.
The extradosed cable tensions, both immediately after construction and after 50 years, are shown in
Figure 48.
b) After 50 years
4
3
2009
2007
2005
2003
2001
1002
2009
2007
2005
2003
2001
1002
0
1004
0
1006
1008
1004
1006
1008
1010
1010
a) After construction
6
The pier capacity was also investigated for critical loading (maximum moment and axial force) both
during construction and in the final condition. During construction, the maximum moment in the piers
occurs at ULS4 (maximum wind) where the final segment is constructed at the end of one cantilever, and
wind acts upwards on the opposite cantilever. Temporary prestressing installed between the foundation
and the pier table would be required for strength during construction.
The piers were jacked apart by 110 mm, corresponding to a force of 2000 kN, to displace the piers
outwards by approximately half the value of the displacement due to shrinkage and creep of the girder after
50 years, thus reducing the longterm moments in the piers by half.
4.4
For this design, the objective was to make the girder as slender as possible so that live load is transferred
directly to the piers, as an axial force couple between the cables and girder, similar to a cablestayed
bridge. An upper limit of 200 MPa has been set for the stress range in the cables due to live load at SLS,
which corresponds to the tested value of strandbased stay cable anchorages (for an upper stress of 0.45 fpu
at 2 million load cycles). The girder is designed to be as light as possible in order to achieve economy by
reducing material quantities in the girder. Stay cables are anchored in the towers.
4.4.1
The same harp cable configuration and tower height to span ratio of 10 as the Stiff Girder Extradosed
Bridge were adopted for the Stiff Tower Extradosed Bridge. The segment lengths were also maintained:
105
each cantilever consists of 10 segments of 6 m length, with a 6 m closure pour between the two cantilevers
and an initial pier table segment projecting 7 m beyond the pier centreline.
Preliminary Investigations
Instead of starting with a crosssection as is usually done in the design of a bridge, the maximum stress
range that would be permissible in a stay cable was used as the criteria to find a flexible crosssection that
would keep the stress range in the cables due to live load to below 200 MPa. To accomplish this, a model
of the main span girder, shown in Figure 49, was used to obtain forces in the cables due to the CHBDC
live load. The girder is fixed in rotation at its ends to simulate the stiff piers, and is supported by springs
representing the cables. Each spring coefficient was given a stiffness Ki based on the cable size and length.
Ec Ac 2
K i = T i sin i =  sin i
Li
Ki
Figure 49. Simplified model of main span used to obtain the maximum live load stress range in the cables.
As a starting point, the girder moment of inertia was assumed to be 0.10 m4 per single plane of 1916mm diametre strand cables. The resulting maximum stress range in the cables was 319 MPa, much
larger than the 200 MPa limit. Thus for the same girder stiffness, a cable of 319/200 19 = 30 strand
would be required. The next anchorage size up, for 3116mm diametre strand cables, was selected.
Based on the given anchorage size and an allowable stress of 0.45 fpu at SLS, the maximum live load was
subtracted from the working load of the cable to give the force available for permanent loads. Since the
barriers and asphalt are known loads, they too were subtracted leaving the force available to resist the
girders selfweight, which corresponded to a girder crosssectional area of around 7 m2. There is no
structural advantage to selecting a girder that is lighter than this.
A
A = 3.15 m2 (structural)
A = 3.45 m2 (for sefweight)
I = 0.47 m4
A = 3.15 m2 (structural)
A = 3.45 m2 (for sefweight)
I = 0.20 m4
Figure 410. Two basic girder crosssections considered for the stiff tower extradosed bridge.
Two crosssections, both with the same basic shape, were considered for the design. Each crosssection has a different depth, but the width of the edge beams was modified in order to keep the crosssectional area approximately the same, as shown in Figure 410. Both crosssections were introduced into
the model of the girder supported by springs, to see if there was any advantage to using the slightly stiffer
crosssection (moment of inertia twice as large).
For crosssection B, the stress range due to live load at SLS is 200 MPa in the most heavily loaded
cable, and deflects a maximum of 198 mm (L/710). For crosssection A, the stress range is 170 MPa and
the maximum deflection is 170 mm, 85% of the values for crosssection B. The maximum moment due to
live load at SLS in girder A is 47% higher than B, which is approximately equal to the increase in lever
arm. An equal concentric prestress would be required in either girder to oppose the stress caused by
moment due to live load (P/A + ML/Sb = 0). Based on these findings, there appears to be no advantage to
106
using any stiffer crosssection than the minimum permitted by the limit on the stress range in the cables.
A more detailed comparison was made with full frame models of each bridge, but led to the same
conclusion.
Final Girder CrossSection
The chosen girder crosssection consists of a slab, stiffened with edge beams at the interior of the cable
anchorages. There are transverse ribs spanning between the edge beams spaced at 6.0 m to correspond
with the segments. The depth of the crosssection is 1.0 m, which corresponds to a span to depth ratio of
140. This resulted in the crosssection in Figure 411, and the general arrangement for the bridge can be
found in Drawings, EXTT1.
At segments where extradosed cables are anchored, a single transverse 1915 mm diametre strand
tendon is draped through the rib between the edge beams. The rib is designed as a reinforced concrete
beam during construction (under selfweight of the deck only) and a partially prestressed beam in the final
condition. Thus, the tendons can be stressed from the fascia off the critical path.
4.4.2
Detailed Model
A plane frame model was developed for the extradosed bridge to model staged construction, secondary
effects, and longterm effects. The full crosssection has been used for the calculation of gross section
properties. The moments are assumed to be distributed uniformly between both edge beams, which will
not in fact be the case for live load.
The form traveller was included in the staged construction since it imposes a significant negative
moment on the girder when it is advanced. The weight of the traveller was assumed to act 2 m beyond the
previous segment and was modeled as a force couple at the two previous cable anchorages. The weight of
the cast segment was assumed to be carried by the cable anchored at the end of it, as would be achieved
through a cablestayed traveller, or a traveller supported at its nose by the final cables, as is the standard for
construction of flexible girders as discussed in Section 3.8.
In a first attempt at staged construction, the cable prestrains were selected to balance all permanent
forces at SLS. During construction, however, this resulted in positive moments as high as 4200 kNm one
segment back from the cable being stressed, which would cause wide cracks in the soffit of the edge
beams. The girder at the same location has a factored resistance of 5800 kNm. Pdelta effects amplify the
moments in the girder during construction by 5% at one segment behind the stressed cable, and by up to
30% at 30 m from the piers in the final cantilevered stage. Since each cable is prestrained too much at
107
installation, the girder curls upwards, and at each stage positive moment is accummulated in the girder.
These forces are locked in at closure and result in high positive moments in the permanent condition.
In a second attempt at staged construction, the cables were prestrained during cantilevering to balance
the selfweight only, and after closure, the cables are prestrained to balance the superimposed dead loads
added after. This retensioning was sufficient to give a moment distribution similar to that of a continuous
beam on simple supports at the end of construction. Similar to the case of the stiff girder extradosed
bridge, the cantilevers were jacked apart 70 mm, corresponding to a force of 700 kN, to counteract the
shrinkage and creep of the girder in the main span.
Self Weight (SW)
Temperature Gradient
(AASHTO)
Temperature Differential
(17C Stays)
Temperature Range
(46C)
Figure 412. Bending moment in stiff tower extradosed bridge (SAP2000 diagrams at the same relative scale bending moments in the tower and rigid links have not been shown for clarity in all diagrams except temperature).
Since it is known that the desired moment distribution in the girder at the end of construction is that of
a continuous beam on simple supports, permanent moments at SLS were determined from the load cases
applied to the continuous structure. To account for longterm effects, a nonlinear load case was created to
model the permanent loads at 50 years, starting from the above permanent load condition. Longterm
moments due to creep and shrinkage of the girder are small compared to live load moments. The moments
induced by temperature gradient, temperature differential between stays and girder (17 C), and a constant
temperature decrease (41 C) from the effective construction temperature are small in comparison to the
live load and have not been included in this design. Moment diagrams for the extradosed bridge are shown
in Figure 412.
108
4.4.3
The stresses at the top and bottom of the girder were calculated under SLS forces. Although the cables
provide an axial prestress to the girder that increases linearly from 0 MPa at abutments and midspan to 10
MPa at the piers, this is only sufficient to keep the girder uncracked over 20 m at either side of the pier.
Full prestressing of the girder is not feasible, as revealed in the following simple calculation. Since
only concentric prestressing can be used locally in the girder (eccentric prestressing causes a secondary
moment as large as the primary moment), an effective prestress force after losses of 100 000 kN would be
required at midspan to keep the girder uncracked. This would require 242715 mm diametre strand
tendons, approximately double the quantity in the stiff girder extradosed bridge at midspan.
Partial prestressing was thus chosen to limit crack widths to 0.2 mm under SLS loads, as required by
the CHBDC (CSA 2006a Clause 8.12.3), and consistent with the design of girder prestressing for cablestayed bridges as explained in Section 3.2.3. Envelopes of the bending moments in the girder between
each pair of cables were calculated at SLS and ULS based on elastic analysis. Prestressing and reinforcing
steel were provided to meet crack width limitations and provide the required bending resistance,
respectively. This resulted in a maximum of 621915 mm diametre strand tendons at midspan.
The final tendon arrangement can be found in Drawings, EXTTS2 and EXTTS3. The longitudinal
reinforcement in the edge beams is also shown since it is considerable.
The cable tensions immediately after construction and after 50 years are shown in Figure 413.
b) After 50 years
a) After construction
2009
2007
2005
2009
2007
2005
2003
2001
1002
0
1004
0
1006
1
1008
2003
2001
1002
1004
1006
1008
1010
1010
Permanent Loads
With the chosen span configuration and construction sequence, there is no uplift at the abutments at
SLS, but a large abutment diaphragm provides additional ballast which prevents uplift at ULS.
4.5
Design Comparison
4.5.1
Girder CrossSection
The dimensions of the cantilever constructed girder bridge crosssection are mostly governed by durability
requirements, those of meeting minimum cover of reinforcement and prestressing ducts, and therefore it
cannot be made much lighter.
109
The extradosed girder crosssections, on the other hand, could be made lighter. The area of stiff girder
bridge crosssection could be reduced by around 10%, while that of the stiff tower bridge could be reduced
by 15%. However, this would not offer any advantage with respect to structural behaviour of the cables or
girder. The same size cables would still be required to meet limits on the stress range in the cables, and the
magnitude of the moments in the girder would not change substantially. The bending in the girder, in the
case of the stiff girder bridge, is due mostly to superimposed dead load and live load, while in the case of
the stiff tower extradosed bridge, it is entirely due to live load.
At some span range, there is a high premium for the dead load of the box girder in the girder bridge,
which implies an economical transition to the extradosed form.
4.5.2
Material Quantities
The material quantities in the girder, for the three bridges designed in this Chapter, are summarised in
Table 413. The reinforcing steel ratios have been calculated based on typical sections, but reinforcing
steel that varies significantly by section (shear reinforcement in girder bridges and longitudinal bottom
reinforcement in stiff tower extradosed bridge) was calculated separately and smeared into a typical
section. A detailed breakdown of prestressing tendon lengths and sizes can be found in Appendix C.
Table 413. Material quantities in girder and cables.
Girder Bridge
Cantilever Bridge
Stiff Girder
Stiff Tower
Materials
Internal Prestressing
Mixed Prestressing
Extradosed Bridge
Extradosed Bridge*
2985
1.00
2985
1.00
2570
0.86
1825
0.66
Concrete (m3)
Prestressing Steel (Mg)
161.7
1.00
146.6
0.91
178.4
1.10
159.4
1.06
Internal PT
49.1
161.7
109.8
31.1
External PT
36.3
36.8
Stays/Extradosed Cables
68.2
119.1
Transverse PT
24.9
9.2
212
Anchorages
224
432
492
1184
916
Duct Couplers
204
240
Length of Duct / Sheath
7486
7726
373
1.00
269
0.72
231
0.62
219
0.63
Reinforcing Steel (Mg)
120
90
90
120
Ratio (kg/m3)
* Relative factors for the stiff tower extradosed bridge are multiplied by 1.078 to account for its shorter total length.
The mixed tendon arrangement for the cantilever constructed girder bridge uses around 90% of the
prestressing and 70% of the reinforcing steel of the same bridge designed with internal tendons only. The
total number of anchorages is approximately equal.
The stiff girder extradosed bridge requires 10% more prestressing steel, but has only 85% of the
concrete and 60% of the reinforcing steel of the girder bridge with internal tendons. The stiff tower
extradosed bridge requires 6% more prestressing steel, but has only 66% of the concrete and 60% of the
reinforcing steel of the girder bridge with internal tendons. The stiff girder and stiff tower extradosed
110
bridges require approximately the same prestressing and reinforcing steel, but the stiff tower bridge has
only 70% of the concrete of the stiff girder bridge.
Table 414. Average material quantities in girder and cables.
Materials
Deck Surface Area (m)
Average Concrete thickness (m)
Prestressing Steel
per volume of concrete (kg/m)
per deck surface area (kg/m)
Reinforcing Steel (kg/m)
Girder Bridge
Cantilever Bridge
Stiff Girder
Stiff Tower
Internal Prestressing Mixed Prestressing Extradosed Bridge Extradosed Bridge
3822
3822
4338
4001
0.78
0.78
0.59
0.46
54
42
120
49
38
90
59
39
90
80
41
120
The average material quantities are summarised in Table 414, for comparison with bridges in the
Chapter 2 study. Figure 414 shows that these designs have relatively low average concrete depths
compared with those of the study. The ratios of prestressing (per volume of concrete) in the cantilever
bridges correspond very closely with Menns (1990) estimate of 49 kg/m for a 140 m span.
Based on material quantities alone, the cantilever girder bridge with mixed tendon arrangement uses
the least amount of prestressing, while the stiff tower extradosed bridge uses the least amount of concrete.
Material quantities reflect design efficiency, but a cost estimate is needed to determine if lower material
quantities translate to lower costs.
Menn's Estimate
Cantilevered Regression
1.1
SETRA Estimate
1.0
0.9
Extradosed Regression
0.8
0.7
CableStayed
Regression
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0
100
200
300
Longest Span, m
400
500
Figure 414. Average girder concrete thickness of Chapter 4 bridge designs compared with Chapter 2 study bridges.
4.5.3
Cost Comparison
The combined cost of cables and prestressing is expected to account for a considerable portion of the total
cost of the structure, up to 25% of the total cost of each bridge based on published cost breakdowns of
similar sized structures. Similarly, the total cost of the prestressing, girder concrete and reinforcing steel
could amount to 60% of the total cost of the structure.
Given that the total quantities of prestressing steel do not vary significantly between the designs, the
costs have been broken down according to tendon type. The assumed costs per unit of concrete,
prestressing, and reinforcing steel are given in Table 415, and were determined based on costs of recent
111
castinplace concrete structures built in Ontario. At first glance, it seems unusual that the extradosed
cables would cost more than the stay cables, but there is a reason for this. The cost of the stay/extradosed
cables was calculated based on estimates of individual components of the system, and the supply and
delivery, engineering, and installation are assumed to add an additional 40 to 45% of the cost of the
materials alone. While the cost of strand is proportional to the total weight, the cost of the ducts and
connections are mostly influenced by cable length. Cost estimates for each bridge are given in Table 416.
Table 415. Inplace costs of materials in girder and cables.
Materials
Concrete
Stay Cables
Extradosed Cables
Internal Longitudinal Tendons
External Longitudinal Tendons
Internal Transverse Tendons
Reinforcing Steel
Unit
m
Mg
Mg
Mg
Mg
Mg
Mg
Girder Bridge
Cantilever Bridge
Stiff Girder
Stiff Tower
Internal Prestressing Mixed Prestressing Extradosed Bridge Extradosed Bridge*
Concrete
2985
2985
2571
1825
Stay/Extradosed Cables
941
1557
Internal Longitudinal Tendons
1051
713
319
202
External Longitudinal Tendons
320
316
Internal Transverse Tendons
249
92
Reinforcing Steel
1493
1075
926
876
Total
5530
5090
5010
4550
Cost per m of Effective Deck*
1450
1330
1310
1285
Relative Cost
1.13
1.04
1.02
1.00
* Effective deck area is calculated based on the travelled lanes and barriers.
Based on this simple estimate, both extradosed girders appear to have a lower cost than the girder
bridges. This estimate is most sensitive to the cost of the concrete. If the cost of concrete increases by
50% to $1500/m, the girder is 10% more expensive than the siff tower extradosed bridge. If on the other
hand the cost of concrete decreases by 100% to $500/m, then the stiff girder extradosed bridge is 4% more
expensive than the girder bridge. In all cases, the girder bridge with internal tendons is the most expensive.
These estimates do not take the cost of the tower and piers into consideration. Twin piers are more
expensive than single piers, and although the cost of short towers is not considerable, these two factors are
likely to make the girder bridges more economical than the extradosed bridges.
CONCLUSIONS
This chapter summarises the conclusions of the preceeding chapters, highlights key factors which must be
considered in the design of an extradosed bridge, and suggests future studies.
5.1
The study of existing extradosed bridges in Chapter 2 reveals that extradosed bridges have been built for
spans from 66 to 275 m, and there is a large variability in the proportions adopted. Span to depth ratios of
between 30 and 35 are most common at the piers, while span to depth ratios of up to 60 are common at
midspan. As the main span length increases, designers have opted for variable depth crosssections with
larger span to depth ratios, and a larger ratio of pier depth to midspan depth.
It is clear from the litterature that the term extradosed bridge is used to describe a cablestayed bridge
with a stiff girder that carries live load through flexural behaviour. Bridges have been designed with low
towers but flexible girders and stiff piers, and they rely on the axial force couple between stays and girder
to carry live load. In this thesis, they are referred to as stiff tower extradosed bridges.
5.2
Design Considerations
Loads that must be considered for the design of an extradosed bridge, as determined from Chapter 3, are
live load, temperature gradient in the girder, and temperature differential between girder and stays. Stays
should be of light colour to minimize temperature differential. Central suspension is preferable as it leads
to a lower total live load in the cables. Extradosed bridges, like cable stayed bridges, should be designed
with an allowable cable stress at SLS, and then verified at FLS and ULS. The live load stress range in an
extradosed cable is the primary factor used to set the allowable stress range at SLS that can be used to
produce a design that will satisfy FLS and ULS requirements.
The stress range due to live load in the cables is affected by the girder stiffness and the fixity of the
support on the piers. When the girder is stiff, the stress range in the cables due to live load will be small in
comparison with permanent loads. To reduce the magnitude of this stress range, the girder should be fixed
at the piers unless foundations or thermal movements dictate otherwise. Span to depth ratios should be
chosen to limit the stress range to a value that is acceptable for the type of anchorage chosen.
Recommendations for span to depth ratio can only be considered rough guidelines, as they are specific
to the amount of live load for which they have been developed. As the stress range due to live load in the
cables is the primary concearn with extradosed bridges, the live load model has a significant effect on the
design.
Cable pretensions can be determined by one of the commonly used methods for cablestayed bridges,
to achieve a moment distribution close to that of a continuous girder on simple supports at cable locations.
Retensioning to adjust the moment distribution before or after superimposed dead load is applied can be
avoided for a stiff girder extradosed bridge, but not for a stiff tower extradosed bridge.
112
113
5.3
A design comparison in Chapter 4 of a stiff girder extradosed bridge, a stiff tower extradosed bridge, and
two cantilever constructed girder bridges (one with internal tendons and one with internal and external
tendons) found that extradosed bridges require a comparable amount of prestressing as in a girder bridge,
but a reduced quantity of concrete. A cost estimate found that neglecting the costs of towers, the
superstructure cost of an extradosed bridge is on par or less than that of a girder bridge. Since concrete
accounts for a significant portion of the superstructure cost, the extradosed bridges are at an advantage as
the span increases. Already for a span of 140m, an extradosed bridge is a competitive bridge form. If side
spans of longer than 50% of the main span area required, a stiff tower extradosed bridge cannot be used. In
the case of the stiff girder extradosed bridge, creep and shrinkage in the concrete and relaxation in the
extradosed cables cause long term moments in the girder at midspan of similar magnitude to the moment
due to live load. Overall, the stiff girder form of extradosed bridge does not offer any huge advantage over
the stiff tower form, other than its ability to span multiple piers on simple supports.
There are different approaches to designing extradosed bridges. The design may start with a specific
crosssection that is already in use elsewhere on the project, in which case the designer would like to find
an optimal extradosed solution for a given girder stiffness. If, however, the design is not constrained, the
choice of girder stiffness should be made for other reasons than that of economy alone, since an extradosed
bridge will be competitive. The cost of the cables may be largely determined by the stress range, as this
will determine the type of anchorages required.
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DRAWINGS
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
APPENDIX A
Chapter 2 Supplementary Information
134
135
Table A1. Extradosed Bridges in Chapter 2 Study.
Name and Location
L:h
pier
Ac
pier
Ac
mid
Ixx
mid
Brief Description
45
Single cell concrete box girder with voided webs and struts supporting
deck cantilevers.
Economy in materials.
100
12 16.1
26
82
Gee 1990
20
26
Sources
Single cell concrete box girder with webs inclined inwards into a
central fin above the deck level, and transverse struts supporting the
deck slab.
Tall piers.
1993 3.5 x 20
54 + 85 + 106 + 86
1994 2.2  3.5 x 13
73.3 + 122.3 + 73.3
SaintRmydeMaurienne Bridge,
Savoie, France
140
12 11.7
140
15
Two cell concrete box girder with wide sidewalks on deck cantilever
overhangs outside of cable planes.
107 11.5
31
100
10
17
Hybrid cross section: four cell concrete box girder near piers and steel Economy, heavy prefabrication.
box girder in central 100 m with moment and shear connection.
271.5
30
Hybrid cross section: four cell concrete box girder near piers and steel Economy, heavy prefabrication.
box girder in central 100 m with moment and shear connection.
275
30
214
1980 2.5  5 x 10
127 + 174 + 127
Proposed 3.75 x 20.5
60 + 4 x 100 + 52
Units of m
103.6
28
106
180 22.1
115 12.8
Height restriction from airport.
73
23
46 17.7
38.8 180
160 26.4
Kasuga 2006
143
9.5 47.7
15
90
105 12.3
8.5
140
14 46.7 23.3
5.2 30.4
Kasuga 2006
312
90
Navigational clearance, height restriction
from airport.
8.7
6.4
Kasuga 2006
10
33
247
50 32.8
17
Fang 2004
32 49.9 243
64 37.7 23.1
32 49.9 243
32 39.8 193
97 11.8
Hybrid cross section: wide single concrete box girder near piers and
steel box girder in central 82 m.
9 15.4
85 16.5
Doubledecker steel truss with composite deck slab on top roadway,
two rail lines on bottom level.
8.5 10.6
27
Kasuga 2006
Kasuga 2006
30
20 122
136
Table A1. Extradosed Bridges in Chapter 2 Study (continued).
Name and Location
Brief Description
L:h
pier
Ac
mid
Ac
pier
Ixx
mid
185
22
130
13
2004 3.5 x 19
89.6 + 122.3 + 82.4
2004 1.8  2.9 x 19.14
56.3 + 55.3
2005 3.5  6.5 x 13.45
99.9 + 200.0 + 99.9
2006
 x 31.1
55 + 115 + 100
Single cell doubly composite box girder with corrugated steel webs.
Three cell concrete box girder stiffened with transverse ribs, on 40 deg
skew. Barriers form structural edge beams, deck is supported by 3
cables deviated on girder, anchored at abutments.
66
45
90 9.45
9.5
36
200
25
120
12
Deck slab with L shaped edge beams (appears as single box girder with
incomplete bottom slab) that taper to I beams at midspan.
Kasuga 2006
11
50
30 11.5 20.1
45 200
7.4
128 14.5
Kasuga 2006
Ishii 2006
9.2
55 33.8
210
24
110
15
Wide single cell trapezoidal box girder with internal struts (Bang Na
cross section).
2008
 x 14
70 + 3 x 130 + 70
2008 3.4 x 10.31
139 + 180 + 139
130
Single cell concrete box girder for LRT, precast segmental construction. Navigational clearance, height restriction
from airport.
180
22
2008 4  7 x 22
18.6  126.0  104.4  75.6  43.2
Single cell concrete box girder with steel struts supporting long deck
cantilevers.
200
19 10.5
242
40
Parallel five cell concrete box girders with inclined exterior webs.
157 22.6
225 30.5
24
Kasuga 2006
10 42.3 31.4
220
41
Structurae
45
8 57.1 30.8
7.5
Kasuga 2006
50
12
26
Kasuga 2006
31
8.6
90
34
115
Kasuga 2006
Jaques 2005
45
110
Three cell doubly composite box girder with corrugated steel webs.
Towers are shaped to reflect a japanese crane in flight.
51
9.1
Sources
Kasuga 2006
180 19.8
122.3 16.5
24.4 24.4
90 10.5
Five cell concrete box girder supports light rail between cable planes.
2006 3.55 x 34
48 + 6x60 + 72 + 120 + 72 + 2x60 + 48
Korea
Units of m
110
14
23
Structurae
Structurae
30 19.5
29 36.4
63
Masterson 2006
Binns 2005
Structurae
6.3
8.1 10.6
15
6 89.6 53.8
6.9 44.9 31.4 24.5 27.5 42.3
Griezic 2006
95
137
Table A2. Contilever Constructed Girder Bridges in Chapter 2 Graphs.
Name and Location
Girder Description
Tendon Description
Felsenau Bridge
1975 3  8 x 26.2
38 + 5x48 + 94 + 12 + 144 + 12 + 144 + 12 + 94 + 6x48 + 38
Tacon Viaduct
1986 3  6 x 19.5
25 + 40 + 55 + 90 + 80 + 30
1988 3  6.6 x 10.7
30 + 120 + 30
Total
Spans
Cant
Spans
Cant Longest
Length Span (m)
17
512
144
166
10
10
L:h
mid
hpier: Q Conc Q PT
Q
Q PT
Sources
hmid
(m) Long (t) Trans (t) Reinf (t)
Menn 1990
18
2.7
10130
70
25 15.6
1.6
1385
50
205
SETRA 2007
967
113.5
37.8 17.1
2.2
9800
430
1250
SETRA 2007
365
155
38.8 15.5
2.5
11270
516
77
1267
SETRA 2007
170
90
15
4820
185
554
SETRA 2007
180
120
40 18.2
2.2
1793
73
226
SETRA 2007
84
33.6 16.2
2.1
SETRA 2007
12
12
1040
100
34.5 17.2
17000
850
3800
SETRA 2007
163
67
37.2 17.6
2.1
2150
85
338
SETRA 2007
48
L:h
pier
30
1991 3  6 x 12
44 + 75 + 100 + 74 + 29
100
33.3 16.7
3000
119
365
SETRA 2007
254
76
30.4 16.9
1.8
3100
166
437
SETRA 2007
568
169
48.3 18.8
2.6
13900
969
1711
SETRA 2007
90
17
4680
222
769
SETRA 2007
290
136
42.5 20.9
10300
585
1520
SETRA 2007
308
144
48
18
2.7
362
10350
SETRA 2007
Reunion
1993 3  8 x 20.5
82 + 144 + 82
33.3
16 Piou Viaduct
1994 5 x 21
45 + 81 + 90 + 84 + 72 + 42
90
18
18
6500
228
92
819
SETRA 2007
496
80
32 14.5
2.2
4100
190
SETRA 2007
1996
 x 20
64 + 113 +70
1997 4.5  12 x 19
50 + 70 + 130 + 190 + 132
113
4000
174
690
SETRA 2007
190
42.2 15.8
2.7
650
3900
SETRA 2007
457
205
45.6 22.8
7750
598
913
SETRA 2007
786
190.8
47.7 19.1
2.5
17500
930
70
2500
Lacaze 2002
138
Table A3. CableStayed Bridges in Chapter 2 Graphs.
Name and Location
Units of m
Girder Description
Stayed
Spans
Stayed
Span
Total
Length
L:h
mid
Ac
mid
Ac
pier
Ixx
mid
Ixx
pier
Q Conc Effective
(t)
Depth
Sources
320
880
84
8534
0.505
Mathivat 1983
299
722
139
8180
0.465
Mondorf 2006
97
250
176
6.33
0.13
1583
0.437
460
460
301
6.2
1.41
2850
0.492
366
695
85
16.1
38.8
11190
0.558
Gimsing 1997
154
154
192
3.74
0.08
576
0.337
Schlaich 1991
396
792
264
15.23
2.29
12062
0.472
Gimsing 1997
1990 2.5 x 27
72 + 140 + 72
140
284
56
11.3
3209
0.419
Menn 1990
1991 1.2 x 13
20 + 3 x 27 + 190 + 530 + 190 + 3 x 27 + 4 x 20
530
530
442
8.53
16.1
4521
0.656
Hansvold 1994
425
780
202
7.98
0.99
6224
0.668
1992 1 x 15.54
17 + 27.6 + 44.85 + 151.8 + 44.85 + 27.6 + 21.1 + 16.7
152
352
152
6.28
0.58
2207
0.404
215
395
478
6.35
0.11
2508
0.450
Bergermann &
Strathopulos 1988
213
424
133
11.04
2.31
4681
0.516
229
503
63
19
30
9555
0.490
France
Bridge, Delaware
Girder CrossSection
APPENDIX B
Chapter 4 Supporting Calculations
139
140
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge Preliminary PT Design A  Mixed Tendons
Side Span Length
Half Span Length
Segment Length
Closure Segment
PT Cover
Long PT
Trans PT
L&T Reinf
84
70
3.42
2
m
m
m
m
Deck width
12.41 m
30 MPa
18 MPa
1.10 MPa
50 MPa
30 MPa
2.83 MPa
Section Properties
Variable
h
g
Ag
yt
yb
I
St
Sb
For PT design
For +ve M Check
midspan
at pier
side span max LL
3.2
8
3.68 m
0.25
1
m
2
7.935
13.459
8.65 m
1.312
3.719
1.6035 m
2.003
4.281
2.0765 m
4
11.9
127.2
18 m
3
9.07
34.20
11.23 m
3
5.94
29.71
8.67 m
0.571
0.594
0.625
Description
height of crosssection
thickness of bottom slab
Area
distance from cgc to top
distance from cgc to bottom
Moment of Inertia
geometric output
Moment
462787
71594
26916
14771
576068
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
Description
Constant area
Variable area
Assumed to be 40 Mg
500 Pa construction load
Cantilever Tendons
Assume the segments over the pier have reached the 28 day strength by the time the last segment is cast.
Segments
Tendons
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
18
2
15
140
0.6
1860
105
20
etop =
3.557 m
= yt  cover  duct/2  25mm duct eccentricity
P
78607 kN
P required to limit top concrete stress below cracking stress
OK
Pprovided =
84370 kN
ft (MPa) =
1.80 MPa
Pe =
300060 kNm =
0.52 of Mcant
Stress Check at casting of the closure segment
Mself =
13608.5 x
35
3157.9 x
23.333333
Mtraveler =
200 x
69
Mconst =
434.4 x
34.5
Total Cantilever Moment
P=
89057 kN
P/A
+Mcant/S Mp/s
ft (MPa)=
6.6
16.9
9.3
fb (MPa)=
6.6
19.5
10.7
=
=
=
=
=
476298
73684
13800 kNm
14985 kNm
578767 kNm
Constant area
Variable area
Assumed to be 40 Mg
500 Pa construction LL
Total
1.0
15.4
2.83 OK
30 OK
141
Continuity Prestressing for the Closure Segment
The continuity tendons must take up the forces resulting from the removal of the form traveler and the
effects of the thermal gradient. Assume the side spans are already closed and continuous.
Mtraveler =
Mtempgradient =
Mmid,max =
Strand
2
P
Top pair
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3
Pair 4
Pair 5
Pair 6
Pair 7
P=
35623
34777
P/A
ft (MPa)=
fb (MPa)=
19
e
5937
5937
5937
5937
5937
5937
Mp + Mps =
Removel of traveller  From SAP model of continuous structure, two point loads upwards
Positive moment due to nonlinear temperature gradient  CHBDC Gradient
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
140
0.6
1860
105
Mp
1.110
1.871
1.871
1.871
1.871
1.871
1.871
1.871
lc
6587
11105
11105
11105
11105
11105
0
0
48940
+Mtrav/S
Mp/S
Total
0.7
3.8
0.0
1.0
5.9
11.4
+Mmid/S
Mp/S
Total
4.5
6.8
3.8
7.5
4.5
10.4
5.9
0.0
4.5
4.5
P/A
ft (MPa)=
fb (MPa)=
Mps
15.68
22.52
29.36
36.2
43.04
56.72
63.56
15.68
20
Mptot
738
1786
2329
2872
3414
4499
0
0
14162
5849
9319
8776
8234
7691
6606
0
0
1.10 OK
18 OK
18 OK
1.10 OK
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam
2
19
140
0.6
1860
125
ebot =
1.856 m
P
1860 kN
Pprovided =
11874 kN
22033 kNm
Pe = Mp cont side =
After falsework removal of end spans  stresses at side span maximum moment section
P/A
+Mself/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
1.5
2.0
2.4
1.1
1.10
fb (MPa)=
1.5
3.1
3.7
2.2
18
duct e
x (m)
7
11
Moment (kNm)
Pairs provided
Tendons
25
OK
OK
OK
After midspan closure  add stresses from midspan continuity tendons and temperature gradient
Mself =
18137
MTgradient =
12107
Mtotal =
30244 kNm
Continuity PT (from above)
Mp cont side =
22033
Mp cont mid =
2529 = Mps cont mid x (Lcip / Lside)
Mp cont =
19504
P/A
+Mtotal/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
1.5
3.3
2.2
2.7
18 OK
fb (MPa)=
1.5
5.1
3.3
0.3
1.10 OK
Creep
As an initial estimate, reserve a margin of 2 Mpa for the stress in the lower axis over the pier, find corresponding moment.
Mcreep =
59425 kNm
Mcreep = 2 MPa * Sb
13
15
142
External Prestressing Design
Moments at critical sections due to external loads and temperature gradient
Side Span Side Span
Location
Closure
Max LL +ve 4.02 m
Pier
Midspan
x=
140
119
74.02
70
0
Mself cant
15990
33000
512803
543800
0
Mtraveler
1290
3220
7350
7720
6080
Mself cont
34020
12700
379000
434300
108800
Mbarriers
2020
647
20069
23161
6252
Masphalt
4090
1310
40640
46901
12660
Mtemp AASHTO
11300
28250
59745
67800
67800
Mlive, max
21000
33174
12000
12000
33160
Mlive, min
10010
25200
65600
72100
10300
Mcreep
9904
24761
56581
59425
59425
Mmin
14381
50503
625203
671032
3562
Mmax
52194
27649
449836
478917
140057
Mmin = Mself cant + Mtravrem + Mbarriers + Masphalt + Ml,min
Mmax = Mself cant + Mtravrem + Mbarriers + Masphalt + Mtemp + Mcreep + Ml,max
Prestressing at Midspan
Continuity PT (from above)
Pcont =
35623 kN
Mp cont =
34777 kNm
External PT
Deviator to Pier =
44.6 m
Tendons
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
Pier offset Mid offset
10
19
140
0.6
1860
125
25
250
300
Primary PT Moment
Secondary PT Moment
Pext =
29686 kN
x=
30.89 m
x = Me1 / (Me1 + Me2) * Deviator
epier = e2 =
3.3815 m
2 * S1 =
3101000
emid = e1 =
1.5005 m
2 * S2 =
610597
Me2 =
100382 kNm
S3 =
2262797
Me1 =
44543 kNm
Mps =
1626 kNm
Mps = (2S1 + 2S2 +S3)/Lmain
Mp ext , midspan =
42917 kNm
=Me2 + Mps
Combined Continuity and External PT
Pcont+Pext =
65308
Mp,cont+Mp,ext =
77695
Stresses at Midspan  Minimum and maximum moment conditions
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
8.2
0.4
8.6
0.1
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
8.2
0.6
13.1
20.7
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
8.2
15.4
8.6
15.1
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
8.2
23.6
13.1
2.3
2.83 OK
Prestressing at Side Span Closure
Continuity PT (from above)
Pcont =
11874 kN
Mp,cont =
22033 kNm
Secondary PT Moment from Midspan Tendons
Mps,cont =
2529 kNm
=Mps,cont,pier * Lclosure / Lside
Mps,ext =
290 kNm
=Mps,ext,pier * Lclosure / Lside
Mps,midspan =
2819 kNm
External PT
Deviator to Pier =
44.6 m
Tendons
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
Pier offset Side offset
2
19
140
0.6
1860
125
25
250
300
Primary PT Moment
Secondary PT Moment
Pext =
5937 kN
x=
13.71 m
x = Me1 / (Me1 + Me2) * Deviator
e1 = e2,mid =
1.501 m
S1 =
310100
e2 = e1,pier =
3.382 m
S2 =
61060
Me1 =
8909 kNm
S3 =
217371
Me2 =
20076 kNm
S4 =
66815
Mps,pier =
837 kNm
Mps = (2S1  2S2  S3)/Lmain
Mps,side closure =
149 kNm
Mps,side = Mps,pier * Lclosure / Lside
Mp ext,side =
8759 kNm
=Me1 + Mps, side closure
Combined Side Span Continuity, Side Span External PT, Midspan Cont and Ext. Secondary PT Moment
Pcont+Pext =
17811 kN
Mp,cont+Mp,ext =
27973 kNm
Stresses at Side Span Closure  Minimum and maximum moment conditions
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
2.2
1.6
3.1
0.7
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
2.2
2.4
4.7
4.5
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
2.2
5.8
3.1
4.9
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
2.2
8.8
4.7
1.8
2.83 OK
143
Check Stresses at Max Live Load Moment in Side Span
Cantilever PT
Pcant =
25311 kN
=P * x / Lhalf
Mp,cant =
36473 kNm
=P * x / Lside * e
Main Span Continuity PT
Mps,cont =
5901 kNm
=Mps,cont,pier * x / Lside
Side Span Continuity PT
Pcont =
11874 kN
Mp,cont =
22033 kNm
Main Span External PT
to the section under consideration
Mps,ext =
677 kNm
=Mps,ext,pier * x / Lside
Side Span External PT
Pext =
5937 kNm
eo
1.042 m
Meo =
6184 kNm
Mps =
349 kNm
Mp,ext =
5835 kNm
Combined Cantilever PT, Main Span Continuity PT, Main Span External PT and Side Span External PT
Ptot =
43122 kN
Mptot =
15184 kNm
Stresses at Side Span Section of Maximum Live Load Moment
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
5.0
4.5
1.4
1.8
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
5.0
5.8
1.8
9.1
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
5.0
2.5
1.4
8.8
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
5.0
3.2
1.8
0.0
2.83 OK
Check Stresses over Pier in Final Condition
Cantilever PT
Pcant =
84370 kN
Mp,cant =
300060 kNm
Main Span Continuity PT
Mps,cont =
14162
Main Span External PT
Pext=
29686
Mp,ext =
100382 kNm
=Mp, ext at pier
Mps,ext =
1626 kNm
=Mps,ext,pier
Mps,midspan =
102008 kNm
Side Span External PT
Pext=
5937
Mp,ext =
20076 kNm
=Mp, ext at pier
Mps,ext =
837 kNm
=Mps,ext at pier
Mps,ext =
20913 kNm
Combined Cantilever PT, Main Span Continuity PT, Main Span External PT and Side Span External PT
Ptot =
119992 kN
Mptot =
437144 kNm
Neglect Contribution from Midspan External Tendons (ie section just beyond)
Stresses at Pier Section of Minimum Moment (highest negative moment)
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
8.9
19.6
12.8
2.1
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
8.9
22.6
14.7
16.8
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
8.9
14.0
12.8
7.7
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
8.9
16.1
14.7
10.3
2.83 OK
Check Stresses 4.02 m from Pier in Final Condition
Combined Cantilever PT, Main Span Continuity PT, and Side Span External PT
Ptot =
90307 kN
Mptot =
336762 kNm
Neglect Contribution from Midspan External Tendons (ie section just beyond)
Stresses beyond Pier
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
6.7
18.3
9.8
1.7
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
6.7
21.0
11.3
16.4
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
6.7
13.2
9.8
3.4
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
6.7
15.1
11.3
10.5
2.83 OK
144
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge PT Design A  Detailed Model SLS Stress Checks
Joint
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments
Mself+Msdl+Mp
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Mthermal
Mlive min
Mlive max
Msls min
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Msls max
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
PT after Transfer  final
Pi
Pf
199
154
Abutment
Mid
120
139
S Closure
Mid
Mmin/Sb
Mmax/Sb
Bottom  Min
Bottom  Max
Top  Min
Top  Max
Mmin/Sb
Mmax/Sb
Bottom  Min
Bottom  Max
212
28
End PT
0.3 main
216
15
0.4 Main
299
0
CL Main
Mid
3300
2000
12150
9200
22500
15700
18800
27600
21500
32000
101000
116700
67800
54000
9000
32000
33000
76000
56700
8800
11000
22150
64000
8000
37200
12700
2200
62000
8000
37200
24600
4300
61500
6600
39500
kNm
kNm
23100
21100
11580
10280
3650
550
149600
165300
83030
84030
3800
14950
19900
5000
30540
10240
kNm
kNm
23100
21100
16950
18250
45500
48600
33200
48900
44000
43000
75000
86150
49300
64200
36900
57200
kN
kN
24000
21900
24500
22200
42500
38700
111000
103400
142000
131800
68500
61800
65600
59000
68300
62000
7.940
11.970
1.323
1.877
9.048
6.377
7.940
11.970
1.323
1.877
9.048
6.377
8.460
17.320
1.573
2.081
11.011
8.323
12.844
107.936
3.567
3.898
30.262
27.690
13.460
127.218
3.832
4.168
33.197
30.524
8.850
21.990
1.755
2.233
12.530
9.848
8.180
14.310
1.440
1.971
9.938
7.260
7.940
11.970
1.323
1.877
9.048
6.377
3.09
1.28
1.87
1.81
4.96
1.82
2.66
4.90
0.43
5.02
0.33
4.13
4.69
9.16
0.44
5.47
5.46
0.44
8.64
4.94
1.10
3.70
7.54
5.40
1.20
14.04
9.84
10.55
2.50
1.33
8.05
11.88
2.72
1.44
13.27
9.11
7.74
0.30
5.99
8.04
13.73
0.39
7.62
7.35
0.12
8.02
2.00
4.96
6.02
12.98
2.74
6.79
10.76
1.23
8.60
3.38
4.08
5.23
12.68
4.79
5.79
13.39
2.82
2.80
1.14
2.02
1.66
4.81
1.61
2.86
4.41
0.07
4.57
0.05
4.41
4.52
8.99
0.07
5.84
4.64
1.26
8.05
5.46
1.62
2.59
6.43
5.97
1.77
14.02
9.82
9.79
2.53
1.30
7.26
11.09
2.75
1.41
12.54
8.38
6.98
1.19
6.88
8.18
13.86
1.52
8.75
5.46
1.77
7.21
0.50
6.46
6.71
13.67
0.69
8.84
7.90
1.63
7.81
1.13
6.32
6.68
14.13
1.61
8.97
9.41
1.16
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
2.55
2.55
0.47
0.47
3.62
3.62
6.64
6.64
200
70
Pier CL
Pier
23100
21100
0
0
0
Top  Min
Top  Max
101
74
S Pier Table
Pier
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
Mmin/St
Mmax/St
114
119
S Max LL
Mid
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
2.33
2.33
0.43
0.43
3.31
3.31
6.07
6.07
145
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge PT Design A  Detailed Model ULS Moment Capacity Check
Joint
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments and Axial Forces
Mself
Masphalt
Mbarriers
Mlive min
Mlive max
M @ End of Construction
P @ End of Construction
Longterm Moment Shift
Longterm Axial Force Shift
ULS1  D D + 1 P + 1.7 L
Mmin
Mmax
P
ULS2  D D + 1 P + 1.6 L + 1.15 K
Mmin
Mmax
P
ULS9  1.35 D + 1 P
M
P
199
154
Abutment
Mid
114
119
S Max LL
Mid
101
74
S Pier Table
Pier
200
70
Pier CL
Pier
212
28
End PT
0.3 main
216
15
0.4 Main
299
0
CL Main
Mid
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
0
0
0
0
0
23100
24000
2000
2100
33800
4146
2218
9200
22500
3300
24500
1300
2300
10600
1280
685
21500
32000
15700
42500
3100
3800
336700
37040
19816
54000
9000
101000
111000
15700
7600
393000
42700
22844
56700
8800
32000
142000
1000
10200
30800
3215
1720
8000
37200
11000
68500
11150
6700
85470
9730
5205
8000
37200
12700
65600
14900
6600
104360
12020
6430
6600
39500
24600
68300
20300
6300
kNm
kNm
kN
23100
23100
24000
9663
44227
24500
17953
72997
42500
282623
175523
111000
232909
121559
142000
5512
82352
68500
3300
73540
65600
7652
70718
68300
kNm
kNm
kN
20800
20800
21585
7248
45722
21855
12238
76562
38130
295278
193578
102260
228389
122709
130270
19134
95174
60795
14635
90675
58010
16353
94063
61055
kNm
kN
23100
24000
10757
24500
20098
42500
238745
111000
192490
142000
23507
68500
22442
65600
18384
68300
2.51
1.00
0.98
1.58
1.00
0.99
3.96
1.00
0.99
2.85
1.00
0.99
1.10
1.00
0.98
1.41
1.00
0.98
1.64
1.00
0.98
22200
9800
1.487
14573
12400
0
76
0.63
21415
81709
80100
1.02
38700
9800
1.237
12123
28900
180
38
0.51
23035
65649
69400
0.95
103400
9800
3.067
30053
93600
570
0
0.63
315120
640452
1032000
0.62
131800
38200
3.492
133402
93600
570
0
0.63
339974
701765
1125000
0.62
61800
28400
0.945
26838
33400
59000
28400
1.370
38908
30600
120
114
0.50
7688
137271
137100
1.00
62000
28400
1.487
42231
33600
30
190
0.59
44969
181263
180400
1.00
120
139
S Closure
Mid
kN
kN
m
kNm
kN
no.
no.
kNm
kNm
kNm
21900
9800
1.487
14573
12100
146
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge Preliminary PT Design B  Internal Tendons Only
Side Span Length
Half Span Length
Segment Length
Closure Segment
PT Cover
Long PT
Trans PT
L&T Reinf
84
70
3.42
2
m
m
m
m
Deck width
12.41 m
30 MPa
18 MPa
1.10 MPa
50 MPa
30 MPa
2.83 MPa
Section Properties
Variable
h
g
Ag
yt
yb
I
St
Sb
For PT design
For +ve M Check
midspan
at pier
side span max LL
3.2
8
3.68 m
0.25
1
m
2
7.935
13.459
8.65 m
1.312
3.719
1.6035 m
2.003
4.281
2.0765 m
4
11.9
127.2
18 m
3
9.07
34.20
11.23 m
3
5.94
29.71
8.67 m
0.571
0.594
0.625
Description
height of crosssection
thickness of bottom slab
Area
distance from cgc to top
distance from cgc to bottom
Moment of Inertia
geometric output
Moment
462787
71594
26916
14771
576068
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
Description
Constant area
Variable area
Assumed to be 40 Mg
500 Pa construction load
Cantilever Tendons
Assume the segments over the pier have reached the 28 day strength by the time the last segment is cast.
Segments
Tendons
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
18
2
19
140
0.6
1860
110
20
etop =
3.554 m
= yt  cover  duct/2  25mm duct eccentricity
P
78640 kN
P required to limit top concrete stress below cracking stress
OK
Pprovided =
106868 kN
ft (MPa) =
2.20 MPa
Pe =
379809 kNm =
0.66 of Mcant
Stress Check at casting of the closure segment
Mself =
13608.5 x
35
3157.9 x
23.333333
Mtraveler =
200 x
69
Mconst =
434.4 x
34.5
Total Cantilever Moment
P=
112805 kN
P/A
+Mcant/S Mp/s
ft (MPa)=
8.4
16.9
11.7
fb (MPa)=
8.4
19.5
13.5
=
=
=
=
=
476298
73684
13800 kNm
14985 kNm
578767 kNm
Constant area
Variable area
Assumed to be 40 Mg
500 Pa construction LL
Total
3.2
14.4
2.83 OK
30 OK
147
Continuity Prestressing for the Closure Segment
The continuity tendons must take up the forces resulting from the removal of the form traveler and the
effects of the thermal gradient. Assume the side spans are already closed and continuous.
Mtraveler =
Mtempgradient =
Mmid,max =
Strand
2
P
Top pair
Pair 1
Pair 2
Pair 3
Pair 4
Pair 5
Pair 6
Pair 7
Pair 8
Pair 9
Pair 10
Pair 11
6875
6875
6875
6875
6875
6875
6875
6875
6875
6875
74683
73224
P=
P/A
ft (MPa)=
fb (MPa)=
22
e
5937
Mp + Mps =
Removel of traveller  From SAP model of continuous structure, two point loads upwards
Positive moment due to nonlinear temperature gradient  CHBDC Gradient
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
140
0.6
1860
125
Mp
1.095
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
1.856
lc
6498
0
12756
12756
12756
12756
12756
12756
12756
12756
12756
12756
121059
+Mtrav/S
Mp/S
Total
0.7
8.1
0.7
1.0
12.3
22.8
+Mmid/S
Mp/S
Total
9.4
6.8
8.1
8.1
9.4
10.4
12.3
11.3
9.4
9.4
P/A
ft (MPa)=
fb (MPa)=
Mps
15.68
15.68
22.52
29.36
36.2
43.04
49.88
56.72
63.56
70.4
77.24
84.08
25
Mptot
728
0
2052
2675
3298
3921
4545
5168
5791
6414
7038
7661
47835
5770
0
10704
10081
9457
8834
8211
7588
6965
6341
5718
5095
18 OK
1.10 OK
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam
2
22
140
0.6
1860
125
ebot =
1.856 m
P
1860 kN
Pprovided =
20624 kN
38267 kNm
Pe = Mp cont side =
After falsework removal of end spans  stresses at side span maximum moment section
P/A
+Mself/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
2.6
2.0
4.2
0.4
1.10
fb (MPa)=
2.6
3.1
6.4
6.0
18.00
duct e
x (m)
7
11
13
15
Moment (kNm)
Pairs provided
Tendons
25
OK
OK
OK
After midspan closure  add stresses from midspan continuity tendons and temperature gradient
Mself =
18137
MTgradient =
12107
Mtotal =
30244 kNm
Continuity PT (from above)
Mp cont side =
38267
Mp cont mid =
8542 = Mps cont mid x (Lcip / Lside)
Mp cont =
29725
P/A
+Mtotal/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
2.6
3.3
3.3
2.7
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
2.6
5.1
5.0
2.5
30 OK
Creep
As an initial estimate, reserve a margin of 2 Mpa for the stress in the lower axis over the pier, find corresponding moment.
Mcreep =
59425 kNm
Mcreep = 2 MPa * Sb
148
External Prestressing Design
Moments at critical sections due to external loads and temperature gradient
Side Span Side Span
Location
Closure
Max LL +ve Pier
Midspan
x=
140
119
70
0
Mself cant
15990
33000
543800
0
Mtraveler
1290
3220
7720
6080
Mself cont
34020
12700
434300
108800
Mbarriers
2020
647
23161
6252
Masphalt
4090
1310
46901
12660
Mtemp AASHTO
11300
28250
67800
67800
Mlive, max
21000
33174
12000
33160
Mlive, min
10010
25200
72100
10300
Mcreep
9904
24761
59425
59425
Mmin
14381
50503
671032
3562
Mmax
52194
27649
478917
140057
Mmin = Mself cant + Mtravrem + Mbarriers + Masphalt + Ml,min
Mmax = Mself cant + Mtravrem + Mbarriers + Masphalt + Mtemp + Mcreep + Ml,max
Prestressing at Midspan
Continuity PT (from above)
Pcont =
74683 kN
Mp cont =
73224 kNm
External PT
Deviator to Pier =
49 m
Tendons
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
Pier offset Mid offset
0.000001
27
140
0.6
1860
125
25
250
340
Primary PT Moment
Secondary PT Moment
Pext =
0 kN
x=
34.22 m
x = Me1 / (Me1 + Me2) * Deviator
epier = e1 =
3.3815 m
2 * S1 =
0
emid = e2 =
1.4605 m
2 * S2 =
0
Me1 =
0 kNm
S3 =
0.301893
Me2 =
0 kNm
Mps =
0 kNm
Mps = (2S1 + 2S2 +S3)/Lmain
Mp ext , midspan =
0 kNm
=Me2 + Mps
Combined Continuity and External PT
Pcont+Pext =
74683
Mp,cont+Mp,ext =
73224
Stresses at Midspan  Minimum and maximum moment conditions
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
9.4
0.4
8.1
1.7
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
9.4
0.6
12.3
21.1
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
9.4
15.4
8.1
16.8
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
9.4
23.6
12.3
1.8
2.83 OK
Prestressing at Side Span Closure
Continuity PT (from above)
Pcont =
20624 kN
Mp,cont =
38267 kNm
Secondary PT Moment from Midspan Tendons
Mps,cont =
8542 kNm
=Mps,cont,pier * Lclosure / Lside
Mps,ext =
0 kNm
=Mps,ext,pier * Lclosure / Lside
Mps,midspan =
8542 kNm
External PT
Deviator to Pier =
49 m
Tendons
Strand
Strand Ap Effective
fpu (MPa) duct diam duct e
Pier offset Side offset
0.000001
27
140
0.6
1860
125
25
250
340
Primary PT Moment
Secondary PT Moment
Pext =
0 kN
x=
14.78 m
x = Me1 / (Me1 + Me2) * Deviator
e1 = e2,mid =
1.461 m
S1 =
0
e2 = e1,pier =
3.382 m
S2 =
0
Me1 =
0 kNm
S3 =
0
Me2 =
0 kNm
S4 =
0
Mps,pier =
0 kNm
Mps = (2S1  2S2  S3)/Lmain
Mps,side closure =
0 kNm
Mps,side = Mps,pier * Lclosure / Lside
Mp ext,side =
0 kNm
=Me1 + Mps, side closure
Combined Side Span Continuity, Side Span External PT, Midspan Cont and Ext. Secondary PT Moment
Pcont+Pext =
20624 kN
Mp,cont+Mp,ext =
29725 kNm
Stresses at Side Span Closure  Minimum and maximum moment conditions
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
2.6
1.6
3.3
0.9
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
2.6
2.4
5.0
5.2
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
2.6
5.8
3.3
5.1
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
2.6
8.8
5.0
1.2
2.83 OK
149
Check Stresses at Max Live Load Moment in Side Span
Cantilever PT
Pcant =
32060 kN
=P * x / Lside
Mp,cant =
46119 kNm
=P * x / Lside * e
Main Span Continuity PT
Mps,cont =
19931 kNm
=Mps,cont,pier * x / Lside
Side Span Continuity PT
Pcont =
20624 kN
Mp,cont =
38267 kNm
Main Span External PT
Mps,ext =
0 kNm
=Mps,ext,pier * x / Lside
to the section under consideration
Side Span External PT
Pext =
0 kNm
eo
1.042 m
Meo =
0 kNm
Mps =
0 kNm
Mp,ext =
0 kNm
Combined Cantilever PT, Side Span Continuity PT, Side Span External PT, Midspan Cont PT and Ext. Secondary PT Moment
Ptot =
52684 kN
Mptot =
27783 kNm
Stresses at Side Span Section of Maximum Live Load Moment
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
6.1
4.5
2.5
4.1
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
6.1
5.8
3.2
8.7
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
6.1
2.5
2.5
11.0
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
6.1
3.2
3.2
0.3
2.83 OK
Check Stresses over Pier in Final Condition
Cantilever PT
Pcant =
106868 kN
Mp,cant =
379809 kNm
Main Span Continuity PT
Mps,cont =
47835
Main Span External PT
Pext=
0
Mp,ext =
0 kNm
=Mp, ext at pier
Mps,ext =
0 kNm
=Mps,ext,pier
Mps,midspan =
0 kNm
Side Span External PT
Pext=
0
Mp,ext =
0 kNm
=Mp, ext at pier
Mps,ext =
0 kNm
=Mps,ext at pier
Mps,ext =
0 kNm
Combined Cantilever PT, Main Span Continuity PT, Main Span External PT and Side Span External PT
Ptot =
106868 kN
Mptot =
427645 kNm
Neglect Contribution from Midspan External Tendons (ie section just beyond)
Stresses at Pier Section of Minimum Moment (highest negative moment)
P/A
+Mmin/S
Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
7.9
19.6
12.5
0.8
2.83 OK
fb (MPa)=
7.9
22.6
14.4
16.1
30 OK
P/A
+Mmax/S Mp/S
Total
ft (MPa)=
7.9
14.0
12.5
6.4
30 OK
fb (MPa)=
7.9
16.1
14.4
9.7
2.83 OK
150
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge PT Design B  Detailed Model SLS Stress Checks
Joint
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments
Mself+Msdl+Mp
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Mthermal
Mlive min
Mlive max
Msls min
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Msls max
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
PT after Transfer  final
Pi
Pf
199
154
Abutment
Mid
120
139
S Closure
Mid
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
35900
28850
0
0
0
1650
10300
12600
9200
22500
12000
13800
28150
21500
32000
36800
21000
39000
29400
30600
53000
86500
67800
54000
9000
68000
128000
75000
56700
8800
47400
26700
65200
17900
15700
19600
23000
63500
10300
24500
8100
10600
62000
8000
37200
28400
3600
60300
6600
39500
kNm
kNm
35900
28850
6630
2020
7350
5550
10340
5460
101600
135100
119030
179030
31290
10590
10330
13730
15300
3400
34340
2340
kNm
kNm
35900
28850
21900
30550
42075
43875
75800
60000
14800
18700
7000
53000
112600
91900
83100
86500
53900
72600
31900
63900
kN
kN
20800
16700
22700
17300
51700
42200
61000
50300
116700
98500
124000
105000
74000
63300
76500
60600
78200
61000
83200
66000
7.940
11.970
1.323
1.877
9.048
6.377
7.940
11.970
1.323
1.877
9.048
6.377
8.460
17.320
1.573
2.081
11.011
8.323
9.336
28.866
1.985
2.429
14.542
11.885
12.844
107.936
3.567
3.898
30.262
27.690
13.460
127.218
3.832
4.168
33.197
30.524
9.930
38.590
2.262
2.669
17.060
14.459
8.850
21.990
1.755
2.233
12.530
9.848
8.180
14.310
1.440
1.971
9.938
7.260
7.940
11.970
1.323
1.877
9.048
6.377
2.86
0.73
2.42
2.13
5.28
1.04
3.43
3.90
0.58
6.11
0.67
3.82
5.44
9.93
0.88
5.06
6.99
1.06
6.53
0.71
5.21
7.25
11.75
0.87
6.38
5.66
0.16
9.09
3.36
0.49
5.73
9.57
3.67
0.53
12.76
8.55
9.21
3.59
0.21
5.63
9.42
3.90
0.23
13.11
8.98
7.45
1.83
6.60
9.29
14.05
2.16
7.79
5.29
0.34
8.64
0.82
6.63
9.47
15.28
1.05
8.44
7.60
0.21
9.56
1.54
5.42
8.02
14.98
2.11
7.42
11.67
2.14
10.48
3.80
3.53
6.68
14.00
5.38
5.00
15.86
5.48
4.99
0.50
3.98
4.48
8.97
0.67
5.27
5.66
0.28
5.39
0.38
4.13
5.01
9.51
0.46
5.05
5.85
0.34
7.67
4.46
0.62
3.20
7.05
4.88
0.68
12.55
8.34
7.80
5.39
1.60
2.41
6.20
5.87
1.74
13.67
9.54
6.37
0.62
5.39
7.00
11.76
0.73
6.36
5.64
0.02
6.85
1.10
6.90
7.94
13.75
1.39
8.78
5.45
1.94
7.46
0.34
7.31
7.80
14.76
0.47
10.00
6.99
2.54
8.31
0.26
7.06
8.05
15.37
0.37
10.02
8.68
1.71
Top  Min
Top  Max
Mmin/Sb
Mmax/Sb
Bottom  Min
Bottom  Max
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
3.97
3.97
1.35
1.35
5.63
5.63
8.25
8.25
Top  Min
Top  Max
Mmin/Sb
Mmax/Sb
Bottom  Min
Bottom  Max
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
3.19
3.19
1.09
1.09
4.52
4.52
6.63
6.63
0.22
3.38
2.40
5.56
0.32
4.79
1.86
2.61
114
119
S Max LL
110
101
105
77
S End PT S Pier Table
Pier
200
70
Pier CL
Pier
208
42
M End PT
212
28
0.3 Main
216
15
0.4 Main
299
0
CL Main
Mid
151
Cantilever Constructed Girder Bridge PT Design B  Detailed Model ULS Moment Capacity Check
Joint
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments and Axial Forces
Mself
Masphalt
Mbarriers
Mlive min
Mlive max
M @ End of Construction
P @ End of Construction
Longterm Moment Shift
Longterm Axial Force Shift
ULS1  D D + 1 P + 1.7 L
Mmin
Mmax
P
ULS2  D D + 1 P + 1.6 L + 1.15 K
Mmin
Mmax
P
ULS9  1.35 D + 1 P
M
P
199
154
Abutment
Mid
120
139
S Closure
Mid
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
0
0
0
0
0
35900
20800
7050
4100
33300
4054
2169
9200
22500
1650
22700
8650
5400
12060
1411
755
21500
32000
12000
51700
1800
9500
50000
5862
3136
29400
30600
36800
61000
15800
10700
339300
37027
19809
54000
9000
53000
116700
33500
18200
396000
42872
22936
56700
8800
68000
124000
60000
19000
62600
7526
4026
17900
15700
47400
74000
20700
10700
kNm
kNm
kN
35900
35900
20800
4869
49021
22700
21282
69669
51700
26738
75262
61000
235135
128035
116700
269613
158263
124000
kNm
kNm
kN
27793
27793
16085
5998
58968
16490
17062
71739
40775
41968
57092
48695
268260
166560
95770
kNm
kN
35900
20800
15483
22700
16979
51700
16151
61000
1.93
1.00
0.95
1.64
1.00
0.97
16700
0
17300
0
0
16700
0
17300
0
132
0.50
29877
88845
109400
0.81
kN
kN
m
kNm
kN
no.
no.
kNm
kNm
kNm
114
119
S Max LL
110
101
105
77
S End PT S Pier Table
Pier
200
70
Pier CL
Pier
208
42
M End PT
212
28
0.3 Main
216
15
0.4 Main
299
0
CL Main
Mid
10300
24500
19600
76500
3400
15900
87090
9886
5289
8000
37200
8100
78200
18700
17200
102080
11710
6265
6600
39500
28400
83200
32000
17200
118
57002
74000
2090
61250
76500
1719
78559
78200
12096
66274
83200
332943
227263
102150
22133
33197
61695
7030
65160
58215
24024
100064
58420
25364
103074
63420
191648
116700
229633
124000
21447
74000
19600
76500
27693
78200
13619
83200
0.99
1.00
0.97
8.91
1.00
0.97
4.29
1.00
0.97
0.36
1.00
0.97
0.75
1.00
0.96
1.38
1.00
0.96
1.61
1.00
0.96
42200
0
50300
0
98500
0
105000
0
63300
0
60600
0
61000
0
66000
0
0
42200
228
132
0.45
6817
64922
129300
0.50
0
50300
0
98500
0
105000
722
0
0.56
381381
714324
1226000
0.58
0
63300
0
60600
0
61000
152
352
0.46
54768
154832
282000
0.55
0
66000
38
484
0.49
100289
203363
350800
0.58
152
Stiff Girder Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model SLS Stress Checks
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments
Mself+Msdl+Mp
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Mthermal
Mlive min
Mlive max
Msls min
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Msls max
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
PT after Transfer  final
Pi
Pf
154
Abutment
Mid
Mmin/Sb
Mmax/Sb
Bottom  Min
Bottom  Max
Top  Min
Top  Max
Mmin/Sb
Mmax/Sb
Bottom  Min
Bottom  Max
77
S Pier Table
Pier
70
Pier CL
Pier
15
0.4 Main
Mid
0
CL Main
Mid
22900
6300
6970
4050
22550
17300
1930
10600
6100
28550
19450
14600
10600
8100
21900
2600
28000
25660
17700
1500
25200
66300
25000
36860
3610
14500
28000
27000
3200
36900
0
23800
25000
2900
38900
kNm
kNm
51900
40600
26545
9945
22790
7420
12160
7310
18530
43930
58374
99474
11620
25120
2610
21190
kNm
kNm
51900
40600
2971
19571
16875
32245
47640
42790
19278
6122
1951
43051
47710
61210
35010
58810
kN
kN
49900
32600
50200
33200
63000
50200
62900
47100
67900
59000
95000
82000
93640
71000
89200
68600
7.115
8.340
0.972
1.828
8.580
4.562
7.115
8.340
0.972
1.828
8.580
4.562
7.115
8.340
0.972
1.828
8.580
4.562
7.115
8.340
0.972
1.828
8.580
4.562
8.620
11.230
1.252
1.548
8.970
7.255
9.500
11.640
1.300
1.500
8.954
7.760
7.115
8.340
0.972
1.828
8.580
4.562
7.115
8.340
0.972
1.828
8.580
4.562
7.06
3.09
0.35
3.96
7.40
5.82
0.65
12.87
6.40
8.85
2.66
1.97
6.20
10.82
5.00
3.70
13.85
5.16
8.84
1.42
5.55
10.26
14.39
2.67
10.44
6.18
1.60
7.88
2.07
2.15
5.81
10.03
2.55
2.66
10.43
5.22
10.00
6.52
0.22
3.48
9.78
7.52
0.25
17.52
10.25
13.16
1.35
5.56
14.52
18.72
2.55
10.46
10.61
2.70
12.54
0.30
4.08
12.23
16.62
0.57
7.67
13.11
4.86
7.06
0.86
3.76
6.19
10.81
1.63
7.07
8.68
0.01
6.62
0.85
4.99
7.47
11.61
1.60
9.38
5.02
2.76
6.84
4.90
0.68
1.95
6.16
6.06
0.84
12.90
7.69
8.63
11.11
4.81
2.48
3.82
12.82
5.55
21.45
14.18
9.98
2.93
7.13
12.91
17.11
5.51
13.42
4.47
2.86
9.64
2.47
6.85
12.11
16.50
4.64
12.89
5.00
2.79
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
6.05
6.05
0.96
0.96
11.38
11.38
18.39
18.39
101
S End PT
Mid
51900
40600
0
0
0
Top  Min
Top  Max
119
S Max LL
Mid
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
Mmin/St
Mmax/St
133
S Closure
Mid
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
4.73
4.73
0.15
0.15
8.90
8.90
13.48
13.48
1.16
2.28
3.51
6.95
2.18
4.29
6.85
0.38
153
Stiff Girder Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model ULS Moment Capacity Check
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments and Axial Forces
Mself
Pself
Masphalt
Pasphalt
Mbarriers
Pbarriers
Mlive min
Mlive max
M @ End of Construction
P @ End of Construction
Longterm Moment Shift
Longterm Axial Force Shift
ULS1  D D + 1 P + 1.7 L
Mmin
Mmax
P
ULS2  D D + 1 P + 1.6 L + 1.15 K
Mmin
Mmax
P
ULS9  1.35 D + 1 P
M
P
154
Abutment
Mid
119
S Max LL
Mid
101
S End PT
Mid
77
S Pier Table
Pier
70
Pier CL
Pier
15
0.4 Main
Mid
0
CL Main
Mid
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
kNm
kNm
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
51900
49900
11300
17300
53660
2060
6490
390
3472
209
4050
22550
22900
50200
16600
17000
66020
4910
7950
588
4253
315
6100
28550
17300
63000
15370
12800
3560
8340
380
1015
203
543
8100
21900
19450
62900
4850
15800
115500
11600
13860
1385
7415
741
17700
1500
2600
67900
25400
8900
235800
19870
27900
2360
14926
1263
36860
3610
25200
95000
41100
13000
104450
15200
12400
1800
6634
963
3200
36900
14500
93640
13500
22640
117800
12784
14000
1500
7490
802
2900
38900
0
89200
23800
20600
kNm
kNm
kN
51900
51900
49900
15114
30106
50849
9640
49265
64339
4737
55737
65184
64203
31563
71061
151957
83158
100407
37477
105647
97773
27128
98188
92667
kNm
kNm
kN
38905
38905
30005
4381
46941
31299
8645
64085
49619
30
47970
47014
91643
60923
60826
195536
130784
85457
53322
117482
71737
54788
121668
68977
kNm
kN
51900
49900
632
51131
10078
65035
18000
66364
50471
72704
122719
103223
57719
99927
48752
94480
2.40
1.01
0.94
1.99
1.02
0.99
1.17
1.04
1.00
2.09
1.05
1.03
1.97
1.06
1.04
1.92
1.04
1.01
2.07
1.04
1.01
33200
8000
1.468
11744
27410
0
216
0.49
46405
0
8649
105091
152800
0.69
50200
8000
1.468
11744
27410
0
216
0.49
46405
14790
24129
122234
164600
0.74
47100
8000
0.988
7904
0
0
0.0001
0.00
0
39100
49384
55874
58800
0.95
59000
8000
0.042
336
0
0
0.0001
0.00
0
51000
62161
91307
100800
0.91
84800
29700
0.200
5940
9950
76
0
0.50
10945
45150
80257
212421
156900
1.35
71000
21700
1.468
31856
33900
0
270
0.48
57393
15400
41233
206730
210500
0.98
68600
21700
1.468
31856
48000
54
324
0.49
64361
1100
24067
217885
229000
0.95
133
S Closure
Mid
kN
kN
m
kNm
kN
no.
no.
kNm
kN
kN
kNm
kNm
32600
8000
0.172
1376
27410
* to account for the increase in axial force in the girder due to increase in permanent loads
154
2000
1000
ACTUAL PIER
Cable
Distance from CL
Cable length
Cable Area
x
Lo
A
m
m
m2
2010
2009
2008
2007
2006
2005
2004
2003
2002
2001
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
1007
1008
1009
1010
1010
1009
1008
1007
1006
1005
1004
1003
1002
1001
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
137
131
125
119
113
107
101
95
89
83
57
51
45
39
33
27
21
15
9
3
68.327
62.208
56.089
49.970
43.852
37.733
31.614
25.495
19.376
13.257
13.257
19.376
25.495
31.614
37.733
43.852
49.970
56.089
62.208
68.327
0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532 0.00532
899
800
701
602
503
404
305
206
107
998
1097
1196
1295
1394
1493
1592
1691
1790
1889
996
119
64
6
5006
230
81
5229
4628
1102
132
70
9
4900
293
44
5149
4563
1196
143
76
21
4804
276
26
5084
4514
1270
152
81
30
4724
256
13
5037
4483
1319
158
84
35
4667
222
7
5013
4474
1335
160
86
38
4640
205
3
5010
4481
1312
157
84
38
4649
200
1
5020
4493
1243
149
80
34
4701
194
1
5036
4497
1126
135
72
29
4804
181
2
5035
4469
964
115
62
22
4966
156
2
5033
4421
1162
138
74
7
4735
201
12
5117
4564
1390
166
89
6
4497
240
18
5116
4617
1562
186
100
4
4330
267
24
5118
4652
1674
200
107
1
4228
286
29
5098
4643
1724
206
110
2
4188
293
34
5071
4607
1718
205
110
5
4205
293
39
5043
4554
1663
198
106
8
4272
284
43
5018
4491
1565
187
100
12
4382
271
47
4987
4411
1431
171
91
15
4529
253
51
4962
4327
1268
152
81
18
4706
232
56
4936
4233
6201
6381
5200
4673
181
34
0.60
0.53
0.91
6172
6347
5211
4672
176
33
0.60
0.53
0.91
6137
6299
5198
4631
164
31
0.60
0.53
0.91
6107
6247
5173
4561
142
27
0.60
0.52
0.91
6109
6291
5298
4745
192
36
0.60
0.54
0.93
6141
6357
5332
4833
232
44
0.60
0.54
0.94
6178
6419
5359
4893
262
49
0.60
0.54
0.94
6208
6465
5355
4900
283
53
0.59
0.54
0.94
6228
6492
5335
4872
295
55
0.58
0.54
0.94
6238
6501
5306
4818
298
56
0.58
0.54
0.93
6239
6495
5273
4747
294
55
0.58
0.53
0.93
6234
6477
5231
4655
286
54
0.58
0.53
0.92
6222
6450
5190
4555
274
51
0.59
0.52
0.91
6207
6416
5145
4442
259
49
0.60
0.52
0.90
262
79
17
340
5718
5564
0.58
249
74
16
330
5705
5551
0.58
225
67
14
307
5650
5502
0.57
193
58
12
265
5561
5432
0.56
232
69
15
342
5776
5598
0.58
278
83
18
408
5902
5691
0.60
312
93
20
455
5998
5765
0.61
335
100
21
485
6039
5791
0.61
345
103
22
499
6039
5785
0.61
344
103
22
497
6008
5754
0.61
333
99
21
483
5953
5706
0.60
313
93
20
460
5874
5635
0.59
286
85
18
430
5782
5555
0.58
254
76
16
395
5677
5461
0.57
0 kN
11 kN
22 kN
33 kN
44 kN
77 kN
88 kN
55 kN
66 kN
0.2
0.5
0.2
1.7
0.35
199
59
13
392
5892
5641
0.60
220
66
14
497
5947
5606
0.60
239
71
15
470
5880
5580
0.59
254
76
16
435
5818
5563
0.59
264
79
17
377
5749
5560
0.58
267
80
17
348
5722
5563
0.58
155
Stiff Tower Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model SLS Stress Checks
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments
Mself+Msdl+Mp
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Mthermal
Mlive min
Mlive max
Msls min
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Msls max
Staged @ end construction
Staged @t=50 years
Axial Compression in Girder
P from permanent loads
P corresp to Max LiveL
P from PT initial
P from PT final
P after construction
P final after losses
137
C10
Mid
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kNm
kN
kN
kN
131
C9
Mid
125
C8
Mid
Mmin/Sb
Mmax/Sb
107
C5
Mid
101
C4
Mid
95
73
67
45
C3 Pier CLPier CL C3
Mid
Pier Pier
Mid
39
C4
Mid
33
C5
Mid
27
C6
Mid
21
C7
Mid
15
C8
Mid
9
C9
Mid
3
0
C10 CLMid
Mid
Mid
853
919
830
660
473
330
291
427
2301
2300
243
39
22
138
433
595
840
1031
3285
3485
3300
2855
2263
1622
1008
5023
4819
780
942
1170
1453
1776
2102
2381
2588
2662
316
686
1012
1277
1474
1610
1720
1722
1676
1585
1593
1598
1603
1609
1615
1622
1628
1632
1632
1115
1820
2050
1951
1655
1260
1260
1926
7165
7034
2960
2930
2900
2890
2805
2590
2193
1684
7635
5448
8816
9575
9020
7970
6742
5850
5105
555
460
5050
5636
6140
6625
7070
7650
7700
7716
7634
1106
1306
8750
8631
2421
2598
2588
2463
2092
1736
1134
485
7978
1884
1695
1440
1148
749
229
407
1072
9534
8778
9072
9281
9282
151
719
1015
1096
1017
804
843
1610
1647
1640
1544
1366
1129
488
6009
9402 10257
9800
8825
7686
6932
6399
461
618
6062
6390
6830
7388
8088
9619
8263
6980
3183
3137
6599
7293
7978
8703
6095 12250 18460 24715 31014 37350 43730 50160 63259 63590 50510 44080 37690 31315 24800 18400 12160
532
1014
1606
6595
7847
6927
5937
2675
3923
5260
6795
5484
4161
2859
5900
230
1556
410
9166
8020
47655 53810 60020 59348 58721 58130 57583 57087 63259 63590 50510 44080 37690 38242 38653 39180 39867 40533 41330
41718 47873 54083 54401 54762 55161 55604 56097 63259 63590 50510 44080 37690 37252 36674 36211 35908 35586 35393
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
6.300
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.400
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.300
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
0.700
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
1.333
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
0.571
8.02
7.00
5.98
6.07
6.14
6.22
6.33
6.43
6.56
1.82
1.95
1.94
1.85
1.57
1.30
0.85
0.36
5.98
113
C6
Mid
2613
Mmin/St
Mmax/St
119
C7
Mid
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
9.42
9.32
9.23
9.14
0.11
0.54
0.76
0.82
0.76
0.60
0.63
0.98
6.56
6.47
4.51
7.05
7.69
7.35
6.62
5.76
5.20
4.80
0.35
0.46
4.55
4.79
5.12
5.54
6.07
6.58
6.80
6.96
6.96
6.92
7.85
8.90
8.93
8.97
8.98
8.92
7.84
6.97
5.97
5.97
5.81
5.77
5.70
5.66
5.73
7.45
8.00
8.77
8.60
8.56
8.62
8.51
8.08
3.48
3.62
6.20
5.05
4.04
4.22
4.57
4.92
5.48
6.07 12.54
9.70
9.63 12.56 11.79 11.11 11.61 12.20 12.80 13.13 13.39 13.52
0.26
1.26
1.78
1.92
1.78
1.41
1.48
4.24
4.55
4.53
4.31
3.66
3.04
1.98
0.85
13.96
10.52
16.45
17.95
17.15
15.44
13.45
12.13
11.20
1.08
10.61
11.18
11.95
12.93
14.15
15.36
15.88
16.24
16.24
6.07
6.93
8.07
8.27
8.49
8.65
8.63
7.59
6.93
5.94
5.83
5.38
5.18
4.86
4.63
4.62
7.83
9.80 11.30 11.34 11.10 10.63 10.62 11.35 25.35 25.20 12.25 11.54 10.51 10.38
9.80
9.26
8.31
7.28
7.40
9.55
9.81
9.68
6.12
4.22
2.99
2.59
4.19
5.97
6.86
8.02
9.14
8.02
7.00
5.98
5.91
5.82
5.75
5.70
5.65
5.62
1.41
1.27
1.08
0.86
0.56
0.17
0.31
0.80
7.15
Mmin/St
Mmax/St
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
MPa
2.95
7.91
8.42
7.73
0.81
8.76
8.83
1.21
1.24
1.23
1.16
1.02
0.85
0.37
0.54
8.60
8.36
5.83
8.83
9.68
9.33
8.41
7.21
6.20
5.24
2.39
2.35
4.95
5.47
5.98
6.53
7.07
7.71
7.96
8.13
8.13
4.66
5.14
5.97
6.16
6.55
7.06
7.61
7.43
6.29
5.11
4.82
4.49
4.17
3.91
3.71
3.62
7.83
8.83
9.81
9.79
9.72
9.60
9.19
8.36
1.44
1.73
6.60
5.73
4.90
5.05
5.26
5.58
6.01
6.45 12.77
7.65
7.74 12.97 12.47 11.97 12.44 12.89 13.46 13.66 13.78 13.75
2.82
2.88
2.87
2.70
2.39
1.98
0.85
13.60
20.59
22.60
21.77
19.61
16.83
3.30
2.97
2.52
2.01
1.31
0.40
0.71
1.88
16.68
14.46
12.22
5.49
11.55
12.76
13.96
15.23
16.50
18.00
18.57
18.97
2.05
1.85
2.49
2.86
3.70
18.97
4.80
5.99
6.65
5.35
3.94
3.37
2.71
2.07
1.53
1.12
3.81
4.72
5.71
5.93
0.96
6.30
6.78
9.96
8.50
7.92
7.13
6.15
4.99
3.77
11.07
6.97
13.00
14.01
13.13
10.92
8.08
5.25
7.47
8.80
10.17
11.74
12.36
12.80
12.83
5.63
5.57
3.02
156
Stiff Tower Extradosed Bridge PT Design  Detailed Model SLS & ULS Capacity Check
x from CL
Location
Section
Moments and Axial Forces
Mself
Pself
Masphalt
Pasphalt
Mbarriers
Pbarriers
Mlive min
Mlive max
M @ End of Construction
P @ End of Construction
Longterm Moment Shift
Longterm Axial Force Shift
137
C10
Mid
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
kNm
kNm
kNm
kN
kNm
kN
ULS1  D D + 1 P + 1.7 L
Mmin
kNm
Mmax
kNm
P
kN
ULS2  D D + 1 P + 1.6 L + 1.15 K
Mmin
kNm
Mmax
kNm
P
kN
ULS9  1.35 D + 1 P
M
kNm
P
kN
Increase in Demand over SLS Moment
M ULS / M SLS
P ULS1 / P SLS (End Const)
P ULS2 / P SLS (50 years)
SLS Moment
M50%
Mmax
Pcorresponding
kNm
kNm
kN
ULS Moment
Mmax
Pcorresponding *
kNm
kN
Bot Reinf
Centered PT (1915 units)
Mcr
M0.2 cracks
Mr
Msls / M0.2
Mf / Mr
131
C9
Mid
125
C8
Mid
119
C7
Mid
113
C6
Mid
3850
1083
1826
205
579
107
C5
Mid
9818
101
C4
Mid
6655
95
73
67
45
C3 Pier CLPier CL C3
Mid
Pier Pier
Mid
3210 20500 20105
9
C9
Mid
3
0
C10 CLMid
Mid
Mid
4869
487
1425
948
464
540
994
1550
2183
2873
3556
4228
977
1130
1099
947
743
507
248
2910
5714
15
C8
Mid
8860
1389
4118
21
C7
Mid
9660
1771
2600
27
C6
Mid
7350
2054
1050
33
C5
Mid
7085 11037 15527 20343 25253 30000 37763 47300 40090 35485 30500 25330 19950 14673
2112
803
39
C4
Mid
9945 10374
2852
90
171
385
590
803
1020
1220
1365
5329
6649
5623
4971
4271
3543
2788
2049
1348
679
67
1557
1526
48
91
206
316
430
546
653
730
762
110
289
532
829
1168
1537
1902
2262
2851
3557
3008
2659
2285
1895
1492
1096
721
363
36
1115
1820
2050
1951
1655
1260
1260
1926
7165
7034
2960
2930
2900
2890
2805
2590
2193
1684
7635
5448
8816
9575
9020
7970
6742
5850
5105
555
460
5050
5636
6140
6625
7070
7650
7700
7716
7634
853
919
830
660
473
330
291
427
2301
2300
243
39
22
138
433
595
840
1031
1106
6095 12250 18460 24715 31014 37350 43730 50160 63259 63590 50510 44080 37690 31315 24800 18400 12160
5900
230
1557
1556
1760
2366
2655
2640
2382
1933
1331
1164
1542
1638
1510
1248
995
55
581
2519
537
903
1148
1315
1343
1507
1541
5004
4628
4154
3593
2705
1719
376
2722
7224
7270
8613
6513 13348 20480 27863 35445 43163 50939 58726 74046 77086 61941 54194 46383 38532 30482 22578 14910
3300
4445
4896
4741
4153
3344
1712
13800 21463 23496 22295 19553 16147 13088 10187 10410 10213
4091
986 17025
3297
2544
1792
880
273
1616
7286
92
2945 18051
6513 13348 20480 27863 35445 43163 50939 58726 74046 77086 61941 54194 46383 38532 30482 22578 14910
7286
92
4597
5245
5502
6718 13888 21474 29411 37621 46014 54479 62932 79339 83717 67562 59170 50660 42084 33281 24636 16265
7969
24
4146
6465
7234
6874
5824
4513
3130
86
498
1139
1896
2864
3716
1.78
1.82
1.82
1.79
1.74
1.68
1.58
1.46
3.27
3.26
1.32
1.43
1.49
1.54
1.58
1.62
1.64
1.66
1.67
1.07
1.09
1.11
1.13
1.14
1.16
1.16
1.17
1.17
1.21
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
0.40
1.07
1.09
1.11
1.13
1.14
1.16
1.16
1.17
1.17
1.21
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
1.23
0.40
3305
4886
5139
4719
4060
3364
2924
2724
2051
2093
2516
2575
2785
3119
3615
4038
4305
4503
4541
6009
9402 10257
9800
8825
7686
6932
6062
6390
6830
7388
8088
8778
9072
9281
9282
6574 13163 19905 27123 34545 42084 49666 57222 72059 74183 59690 52329 44908 37431 29736 22145 14733
7300
139
13800 21463 23496 22295 19553 16147 13088 10187 10410 10213
6513 13348 20480 27863 35445 43163 50939 58726 74046 77086 61941 54194 46383 38532 30482 22578 14910
7286
92
2025M4030M4430M4030M2230M1025M1025M1025M1025M1025M1025M1025M1025M1025M2025M3025M3425M4025M4025M
12
12
12
10
8
6
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
157
77 kN
88 kN
55 kN
66 kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
kN
MPa
0.45
0.2
0.5
0.2
1.7
0.35
2003
2002
2001
1001
1002
1003
1004
1005
1006
2010
44 kN
2009
33 kN
2008
22 kN
2007
0 kN
11 kN
2006
m
m
m2
2005
x
Lo
A
2004
ACTUAL PIER
Cable
Distance from CL
Cable length
Cable Area
1007
1000
0
1009
2000
1010
4000
3000
1010
137
68.327
0.0093
1009
131
62.208
0.0093
1008
125
56.089
0.0093
1007
119
49.970
0.0093
1006
113
43.852
0.0093
1005
107
37.733
0.0093
1004
101
31.614
0.0093
1003
95
25.495
0.0093
1002
89
19.376
0.0093
1001
83
13.257
0.0093
2001
57
13.257
0.0093
2002
51
19.376
0.0093
2003
45
25.495
0.0093
2004
39
31.614
0.0093
2005
33
37.733
0.0093
2006
27
43.852
0.0093
2007
21
49.970
0.0093
2008
15
56.089
0.0093
2009
9
62.208
0.0093
2010
3
68.327
0.0093
899
800
701
602
503
404
305
206
107
998
1097
1196
1295
1394
1493
1592
1691
1790
1889
1490
209
112
9
3645
543
239
6057
5521
2426
341
182
37
2753
566
69
6141
5785
3295
464
248
52
1923
886
17
6224
6035
4027
567
303
57
1224
1156
7
6300
6252
4575
645
345
54
706
1353
3
6368
6425
4909
693
371
47
402
1474
1
6428
6545
5005
707
378
38
338
1535
26
6485
6611
4839
685
366
27
546
1523
49
6541
6620
4373
620
332
17
1070
1420
56
6610
6590
3542
503
269
8
1982
1194
48
6700
6530
3254
462
247
0
2263
1162
83
6635
6398
4118
584
312
0
1321
1379
77
6540
6419
4697
664
355
1
692
1485
62
6478
6432
5068
715
382
1
289
1522
41
6452
6455
5281
743
397
1
58
1520
24
6450
6482
5360
753
403
1
34
1498
43
6459
6503
5322
746
399
0
6
1460
71
6456
6491
5170
723
387
1
132
1410
104
6437
6446
4909
686
367
2
372
1357
144
6410
6376
4544
635
340
3
708
1310
192
6363
6270
5456
5944
6546
6010
0.35
703
76
0.54
0.38
0.84
5702
6212
6651
6295
0.36
572
62
0.56
0.38
0.85
5929
6726
7021
6832
0.36
812
87
0.52
0.41
0.90
6121
7161
7340
7293
0.36
1046
113
0.49
0.42
0.94
6271
7489
7585
7642
0.37
1220
131
0.47
0.44
0.97
6374
7701
7755
7872
0.37
1327
143
0.46
0.45
1.00
6429
7811
7867
7993
0.37
1405
151
0.45
0.45
1.01
6437
7808
7912
7991
0.38
1415
152
0.45
0.46
1.02
6394
7672
7888
7867
0.38
1328
143
0.46
0.46
1.01
6296
7371
7775
7605
0.39
1118
120
0.48
0.45
1.00
6227
7273
7681
7444
0.38
1121
121
0.48
0.44
0.99
6335
7576
7780
7660
0.38
1310
141
0.46
0.45
1.00
6408
7745
7815
7769
0.37
1392
150
0.45
0.45
1.00
6454
7824
7821
7824
0.37
1406
151
0.45
0.45
1.00
6479
7847
7817
7849
0.37
1390
149
0.45
0.45
1.00
6482
7830
7807
7851
0.37
1387
149
0.45
0.45
1.00
6460
7774
7770
7806
0.37
1378
148
0.45
0.45
1.00
6413
7682
7706
7715
0.37
1363
147
0.45
0.45
0.99
6335
7556
7632
7598
0.37
1351
145
0.46
0.44
0.98
6227
7406
7542
7449
0.37
1352
145
0.46
0.44
0.97
298
105
22
923
7405
6691
0.43
485
171
36
963
7796
7173
0.45
659
232
50
1505
8669
7626
0.50
805
284
61
1965
9414
8014
0.54
915
323
69
2300
9974
8316
0.58
982
346
74
2507
10337
8519
0.60
1001
354
76
2610
10526
8617
0.61
968
342
73
2590
10514
8603
0.61
875
310
66
2413
10274
8474
0.59
708
251
54
2030
9744
8210
0.56
651
231
49
1976
9543
8022
0.55
824
292
62
2344
10061
8294
0.58
939
332
71
2525
10345
8479
0.60
1014
357
76
2587
10486
8610
0.61
1056
371
79
2583
10540
8697
0.61
1072
376
81
2546
10534
8739
0.61
1064
373
80
2483
10456
8719
0.60
1034
362
77
2397
10308
8636
0.60
982
343
73
2308
10116
8497
0.58
909
318
68
2227
9884
8294
0.57
APPENDIX C
Chapter 4 Quantities
158
159
Anchorages
Duct Couplers
156
768
68
416
Total longitudinal prestressing  162 tonnes
Table C2. Prestressing quantities in cantileverconstructed girder bridge with internal and external prestressing.
Tendon Unit
Internal 1515mm dia. strand
Internal 1915mm dia. strand
External 2715mm dia. strand
Anchorages
Duct Couplers
156
768
36
148
20
Total longitudinal prestressing  146 tonnes
Anchorages
Duct Couplers
160
20
12
56
192
20
160
16
Total longitudinal prestressing  154 tonnes
Total transverse prestressing  24.9 tonnes
Anchorages
Duct Couplers
160
72
240
160
Total longitudinal prestressing  150 tonnes
Total transverse prestressing  9.2 tonnes
APPENDIX D
Presentation Handout
160
Girder Regression
1.1
0.9
Extradosed Regression
0.7
0.6
CableStayed
Regression
0.5
1.0
0.8
161
Miyakodagawa
PyungYeo
Korong
0.8
Hozu YukisawaOhashi
0.7
Regression
ShinKarato
Domovinski
Odawara
0.6
Tsukuhara
Pearl Harbor
Shinkawa
ShinMeisei
SaintRemy
Ganter
Ibi Kiso
Himi
Pakse
Rittoh
North Arm
Socorridos
Trois Bassins
0.5
Barton
BrazilPeru
Sunniberg
ArretDarre
0.4
0.34
0.3
0
0.4
0.39
100
200
300
Longest Span, m
400
0.3
500
50
100
150
200
250
275
Longest Span, m
140
25
120
100
Span : Depth
Extradosed
CableStayed
20
at midspan
at pier
80
60
55
40
30
Mathivat
20
15
50
66
100
150
200
250
275
Longest Span, m
10
15
Mathivat
14
5
12
Sunniberg
100
200
300
Longest Span, m
400
500
530
Rio Branco
10
8
6
5
CableStayed Typical
4
2
0
50
66
100
150
200
Longest Span, m
250
275
Permanent Loads
(after 50 years)
25600 kNm
29700 kNm
Permanent Loads
(at end of construction)
2500 kNm
9670 kNm
Temperature Gradient
Temperature Gradient
61300 kNm
Permanent Loads
(after 50 years)
21400 kNm
25200 kNm
Permanent Loads
(after 50 years)
3000 kNm
1630 kNm
Span : Depth = 44
Span : Depth = 50
A = 7.9 m2
I = 11.9 m4
A = 7.1 m2
I = 8.3 m4
A = 13.5 m2
I = 127 m4
Quantity
(m or Mg)
Average
quantities
1.00
0.78 m
2985
780
146.6
0.91
49 kg/m
38 kg/m
1033
713
320
270
0.72
90 kg/m
1075
5090
280
1330
109.8
36.8
A = 6.1 m2
I = 0.41 m4
Cost
Cost per m
($1000) roadway ($)
2985
269
7630 kNm
38800 kNm
4330 kNm
Concrete (m3)
Prestressing Steel
Stays/Extradosed Cable
Internal PT
External PT
Transverse PT
Reinforcing Steel
Total
162
Quantity
(m or Mg)
1.00
Concrete (m3)
Prestressing Steel
Extradosed Cables
Internal PT
External PT
Transverse PT
Reinforcing Steel
Total
Average
quantities
Quantity
(m or Mg)
Cost
Cost per m
($1000) roadway ($)
2570
0.86
0.59 m
2570
670
178.4
68.2
49.1
36.3
24.9
231
1.10
59 kg/m
39 kg/m
470
0.62
90 kg/m
1810
926
319
316
249
926
5010
170
1310
0.98
Average
quantities
Cost
Cost per m
($1000) roadway ($)
1825 0.66*
0.46 m
1825
510
Concrete (m3)
Prestressing Steel
159.4 1.06*
80 kg/m
1871
530
Stays
31.1
41 kg/m
1557
Internal PT
202
External PT
119.1
Transverse PT
9.2
92
Reinforcing Steel
219 0.63* 120 kg/m
876
250
Total
4550
1285
* Relative factors are multiplied by 1.078 to account for the bridges shorter total length.
0.97