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Consider a thevenin source supplying a delta/wye-grounded transformer, and assume a SLG

fault at the wye-grounded side of the transformer
Source
XS

 / wye-gnd
XT
SLG Fault

1 pu

For simplicity, we’ll neglect all resistances, and assume j1 ohm reactive impedance for each
element, in all sequence networks. The symmetrical component networks for this fault condition
are connected in series as seen from the fault location, as follows:
IS1
1 pu

j1 pu

If1
j1 pu

+ve
seq
IS2
-ve
seq

j1 pu

j1 pu

If2

IS0
j1 pu
0-seq

j1 pu I
f0

1
 0.2 /  90
j5
Current at the fault location, on the faulted phase I fa  I f 0  I f 1  I f 2  0.6 /  90

At the fault location, I f 0  I f 1  I f 2 

Current at the fault location, on the unfaulted phases:
I fb  I f 0  a 2 I f 1  a I f 2  0
I fc  I f 0  a I f 1  a 2 I f 2  0

Next, consider current seen on the source side of transformer terminals (i.e. on the side of the
delta-connected winding):

I Sa  I f 1  I f 2  0.4 /  90
I Sb  a 2 I f 1  aI f 2  ( a 2  a )  0.2 /  90    1  0.2 /  90  0.2 /  90
I Sc  a I f 1  a 2 I f 2  ( a

 a 2 )  0.2 /  90    1  0.2 /  90  0.2 /  90

Consider if the result is reasonable.
I fa  0.6 /  90
I fb  0
I fc  0

I Sa  0.4 /  90
I Sb  0.2 /  90
I Sc  0.2 /  90

Consider the following winding configuration, where the voltage on the delta side lags that on
the wye-connected side by 30 degrees. With a fault on Phase a on the wye-side, current is
expected to flow between phases a & b on the delta side. However current in Phase ‘c’ ought to
be zero!!!

Vc

vc

Va
vb

va

Vb

Similarly, if on the other hand the voltage on the delta connected side were to lead that on the
wye-connected side by 30 degrees, as shown below:

Vc
vc

va
Va

Vb

vb

Then a fault on Phase a on the wye-side should result in current between phases a & c on the
delta side, and no current in Phase ‘b’!!!
**** What’s wrong? ***
ANSWER: We have not taken into account the phase shift resulting from the delta-wye
transformation.
Let’s say we consider the case where the voltage on the delta-connected side lags the voltage
on the wye-connected side by 30 degrees.
Then, in the positive sequence mode, Va_delta_pos = Va-wye_pos * e-j30

whereas in the negative sequence mode, Va_delta_neg = Va-wye_neg * e+j30
Hence


I Sa  e  j 30 I F1  e  j 30 I F 2  0.2 /  90 e  j 30  e  j 30  0.2 /  90 

3
1
3
1
 j 
 j 
2
2
2
2

I Sa  0.2 /  90 

1

3
1
3
 j 
 j   0.2 3 /  90
2
2
2
2

I Sb  e  j 30 a 2 I F1  e  j 30 a I F 2  0.2 /  90 e  j 30 e 240  e  j 30 e120


3
1
3
1
I Sb  0.2 /  90 e  j 210  e  j150  0.2 /  90  
 j 
 j   0.2 3 /  90

2
2
2
2 

Finally,
I Sc  e  j 30 a I F1  e  j 30 a 2 I F 2  0.2 /  90 e  j 30 e120  e  j 30 e 240

I Sc  0.2 /  90 e  j 90  e  j 270  0.2 /  90   j  j   0

Thus, as expected, Ia = -Ib, and Ic = 0

In this case, let’s check for energy balance:
Three phase power at the sending end
ST  STa  STb  STc  1* 0.4 /  90
ST  1  0.4 /  90  1 /  120  0.2 /  90
ST  1  0.4 /  90  1 /  120  0.2 /  90
Three-phase power at the receiving end

 1 /  120  0.2 /  90
 1 /  120  0.2 /  90