Institute of European Studies

Alexander R. Dyukov

The Minor enemy
OUN, UPA and the solution
of the “jewish question”

Riga – Vilnius – Tallinn
2010

THE MINOR ENEMY: OUN, UPA AND THE SOLUTION OF
THE “JEWISH QUESTION”
Copyright © Alexander R. Dyukov
All right reserved. No part of this book may be used or reproduced
in any manner whatsoever without written permission except
in the case of brief quotation embodied in critical articles or
reviews.

First Russian publication in 2008 by
REGNUM
2nd Yuzhnoportoviy pr-d, 20A-4, Moscow, 115088.
Second Russian publication in 2009, expanded and updated, by
“HISTORICAL MEMORY” FOUNDATION
B.Levshinskiy per., 10/2, Moscow, 119034.
First English publication in 2010 by
INSTITUTE OF EUROPEAN STUDIES
52/56 Ropazhu st., Riga, Latvia, LV-1006
ISBN 978-9934-8113-0-2

Conclusion by Yuriy Shevtsov.
Translated from Russian by Marina Smolya.

Printed in Latvia.

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
CHAPTER 1.
Historiography of the problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
CHAPTER 2.
“Jewish issue” in the OUN pre-war plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
CHAPTER 3.
Extermination starts: the OUN anti-jewish campaigns
in the summer of 1941 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
CHAPTER 4.
Correction of the anti-jewish course of the OUN(B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
CONCLUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
APPENDIX I.
List of the basic OUN documents, related to the “jewish issue” . . . . . . . 108
APPENDIX II.
New archive documents on the OUN connection
with the nazi secret service. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
APPENDIX III.
New archive documents on the crimes of the OUN and UPA . . . . . . . . 137
ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
Yuri SHEVTSOV
The UPA cult: amorality in Ukraine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

According to Nazi ideas. the new members to the Soviet Union. Ukrainian or Belorussian people under German occupation had a slim chance to survive. Victims of hatred: Holocaust in the USSR. 2001. 2.1 Part of the Nazi extermination campaign against the Soviet Union was the large-scale annihilation of Jews. Istoricheskiye ocherki).5 billion of whom were killed in the course of counter-insurgency operations. A. Till now we do not know the exact number of civilians. From the very beginning the Nazi treated the war in the East as a war for extermination. but whatever the Nazi managed to do was gruesome enough. And these plans were not only on paper. Мoscow. not all Jews. were victims of the Nazi. pp. p. brought about by the Nazi Governance. The troops of the Red Army at the war theatre and Soviet guerillas in the rear guard. 2. killed with bullets. (Zhertvi nenavisti: Holokost v SSSR. Jewish people had not the most number of victims. killed during the Nazi occupation. only a handful remained of the 3 billion Jewish people at the occupied territories when the Red Army arrived to liberate the Land. Мoscow. that is. 1941-1945). had been the venue of a drama. fire and famine at the occupied territories. contemporary Russian researches mention 13. 58–59. Population of Russia in ХХ century: Historical essays. 7. I. the territory of the Soviet Union occupied by Nazi. The average Jew didn’t even have that chance. 2002. unique in the world history. Russian.2 However. Statisticheskoye issledovanie). .5 billion died in the hard labour camps in Germany and over 4 billion people died of famine. 454. 1941–1945. (Rossiya i SSSR v voinah XX veka. (Naseleniye Rossii v XX veke. During the closed meetings. Poteri vooruzhennih sil. Мoscow. vol.5–14 billion. as slaves. some of whom were to be exterminated and the others – turned into slaves. 463. 2001. Altman. they were actively and consistently implemented.4 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyIntroduction INTRODUCTION During three painfully long years. The massacres arranged by them started 1 2 Russia and the USSR in the wars of ХХ century: Loss of armed forces: statistic research. 233. prevented the implementation of Nazi plans of an impending Holocaust. but they were the first people. p. The “Final Solution of the Jewish issue” had some contribution from the Nationalists in the Baltic Republics and Ukraine. The Soviet historians spoke about 10 billion people. the Soviet Union was populated by people of an inferior race. 50. against whom the Nazi started their indiscriminate slaughter. the representatives of the Hitler government were openly announcing the need to exterminate millions of Soviet people.

remains to be seen. I. 1941. that most of the Soviet propaganda has the power of stereotypes. .11. For more details see: Yukhnovsky. The situation is more complicated by the fact that the issue of the OUN and UPA treatment of Jews has both intra-political and international significance. 15.2007. during an official visit to Israel. Extermination of Jews by local nationalists was certainly favoured by the leaders of Einsatzgruppen. if Ukrainian historians fail to prove Shukhevich’s “non-participation” in massacres of Jews in Lvov on June 30th. 14-15. 27.10. Kyiv.2007. when the intentions of the OUN 3 4 IA “Rosbalt”. А.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyIntroduction 5 right after the Soviet troops left. national heroes will never be complicit in crimes against humanity. Roman Shukhevich was. but we have the right to speak about the other truth. and within this ideology members of the OUN and UPA are proclaimed national heroes. In November 2007.” – he added. Nowadays we see the reverse process: the crimes of the nationalists in the Baltics and Ukraine are every now and again shown as committed by Nazi Einsatzgruppen.10-02. New identity for Ukraine (Novaya identichnost dlya Ukrainy) // Russian Project (Russki proekt).2007. where members of the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists (the OUN) and UPA (Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Whether this will affect the relationship between Ukraine and Israel.4 Certainly.3 The reason for this statement is quite understandable. A new national identity is being formed in Ukraine. In the autumn of 2007. “No archive today can prove that a counter-insurgency campaign took place with participation of the UPA soldiers or members of similar organizations – the Ukrainian President said. Ukrainskaya Povstantcheskaya Armiya – UPA) have been hailed as national heroes. and that the memorandums of these organizations do not have a single anti-Semitic provision. who took this opportunity to show their crimes as “spontaneous campaigns of natural purification”. Dyukov. “I understand. posthumously awarded the title of ‘The Hero of Ukraine’. burnt in houses and synagogues. Will the image of Ukraine in the Global Forum get defaced. On ideology and politics of Ukrainian national memory Institute (Ob ideologii i politike Ukrainskogo instituta natsionalnoi pamyati) // Weekly mirror (Zerkalo Nedeli). This is especially visible in Ukraine. shot. Victor Yushenko made a statement that THE OUN and UPA had nothing to do with anti-Semitic activity. Jews were beaten to death.11. the Chief of UPA. the President of Ukraine. and those who managed to flee were hunted down by soldiers with allegiance to anti-Soviet nationalist formations.

The appendices to this monograph contain hitherto unpublished documents from the Central Archive of Federal Security Service of Russia. based on documents from the Ukrainian and Russian archives.6 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyIntroduction leaders to solve the “Jewish issue” and the ways they employ towards those means become public information is another question that also points to far more serious implications. Dr Shimon Samuels. . to analyze the current Ukrainian and foreign historiography on the subject.12. which gives way to various speculations. and the life of Jew soldiers of the UPA. and second. expressed his protest to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. to study the main issues. 27. The author had two inter-related goals: first. No matter what Ukrainian government and their supporting historians say. Polish people and pro-Soviet Ukrainians. This monograph is devoted to the participation of the OUN and UPA in the extermination of Jews. The subject. has not undergone any significant scientific study yet.5 It is hard to counter-argue his statement. participation of UPA soldiers in extermination of Jews in the summer of 1941. amendments of the OUN programmes on the “Jewish issue”. against honoring Roman Shukhevich with the title of ‘The Hero of Ukraine’. disclosing the connection of the OUN with the Nazi Secret Service and the crimes of the OUN and UPA. The monograph describes pre-war plans of the OUN with regard to Jews. the Head of The Simon Wiesenthal Center for International relations. This is a known fact.com. related to participation of the OUN and UPA in the Holocaust. Terry Davis. participation of UPA troops in anti-Jewish campaigns.2007. The questions above are also far from rhetorical: in the end of December 2007. however. by giving this title Ukraine had expressly violated its obligations as a member of the Council of Europe combating racism and the Holocaust. but their content gives a broader view of the activity of the OUN and UPA. Ukrainian nationalists did take part in the extermination of Jews. the recently emerged 5 SWC urges Council of Europe to condemn Ukrainian for rabid anti-Semitic outburst that defamed Simon Wiesenthal and victims of the Shoah // Wiesenthal. According to Dr Samuels. The second edition of the book contains the information on the formation of the attitudes towards the “Jewish issue” in the official publications of the OUN in the late twenties and early thirties. The above mentioned documents are not related directly to the subject of the research.

the author does not consider this monograph comprehensive and final. and made a number of valuable comments as well. Canada) provided the author with some of his publications. the managing director of “REGNUM” information agency (Moscow) took the trouble of issuing the first edition of this book. living in Russia. His help increased the reference base of the research. Canada and Ukraine. a historian from Dnepropetrovsk took the trouble of reading certain parts of the monograph and made a number of valuable comments. a representative of the Publishing House “Chronicles of UPA” in Ukraine. a historian and writer. (Toronto. Iliya Altman (Moscow) has always taken kindly my research. has been ever kind and prompt in providing me with the documents. and two years ago suggested writing a few articles on the activity of the OUN and UPA for the Russian “Encyclopedia of Holocaust”. published by his office. Canada) kindly provided the manuscript of his research work “Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: Krakiwski visti. Vladimir Ischenko (Kiev) kindly provided unpublished documents on the history of the OUN and UPA. Marko Carynnik. Oleg Rosov. He also provided documents from Ukrainian archives and several publication of highest bibliographical value. post-publication it would be impossible to negate the OUN and the UPA’s contribution in the extermination of Jews. The University of Alberta Professor (Edmonton. . and the Vinnytsia Exhumation”.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyIntroduction 7 information and comments of colleagues-historians are also taken into consideration in the second edition. Co-chairman of the Russian Foundation “Holocaust”. stored in the State Central Archive of the state authorities of Ukraine and the Central Archive of non-governmental organizations of Ukraine. the NKVD Murders of 1941. but firmly believes that. The book could never be published without the support of many people. which were not available in Moscow. This monograph is the direct consequence of his suggestion. A special word of Thanks goes to Mr Gomzyak as his views on the OUN and UPA are very different from the author’s. Modest Kolerov. Ivan Himka. Igor Gomzyak (Lvov). However.

8 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyIntroduction Many of my friends in Ukraine. . “It’s not about me. June 2009. I do as requested. This is characteristic of today’s Ukraine. and remain grateful for all their help. requested their names to be withheld. it’s about my family here in Ukraine… there are so many morons here” – said another friend. but might interfere with my career” – one of my friends explained. “They won’t do me any harm. who directly or indirectly contributed.

CHAPTER 1 Historiography of the Problem .

published by emigrants. New-York. Up to the “archive revolution” of the 90’s. anti-Jewish campaigns were prohibited by the OUN head of the territory Ivan Klimov. the informational resources on this subject were very limited. This was done by all our people”. could only use reminiscences. “In every settlement along our way I personally paid attention to opposing German provocations to anti-Jewish or anti-Polish actions. emigrant OUN members begged to differ. The contradiction in the memoirs of different people made it even more complicated. few German reports on the situation in the occupied Ukraine. While Jewish and Polish people consistently reaffirmed the participation of Ukrainian nationalists in massacres and slaughter. 178.6 According to the OUN member Bogdan Kazanovsky. and at the same time. for their studies. London. 1941. and at times these accusations are justified. The reasons for the latter are clear. stated that the OUN people did not take part in the massacres of Jews in the summer of 1941. and the other group denies this. One group believes that the OUN and UPA took an active part in extermination of Jews. and some of the OUN and UPA documents of doubtful authenticity. because after them. willing to study the OUN and UPA attitude to Jews. p. Progoloshennya vidnovlennya derzhavnosti Ukraini (30 червня 1941: Проголошення вiдновлення державности Украïни). 30th of July. Both parties accuse each other of political intentions and usage of “propaganda tools”. known under the name “Legenda” (the legend). once a deputy of the Ukrainian police commissioner approached Klimov with a question of what should be their attitude towards German anti-Jewish campaigns. Today the researches have divided into two opposite groups. 1967. This state of affairs shows not only the complications of the issue. Tornoto. the turn of Ukrainian 6 Stetsko. Y. one of the leaders of the OUN(B). wrote Stetsko.10 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 CHAPTER 1 Historiography of the Problem The attitude of the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army to Jewish people is one of the most controversial problems in the OUN and UPA historiography. but also its political significance. a lack of scientific studies on the matter. Any researcher. As Kazanovsky states. . Klimov said in response: “We are not interested in the extermination of Jews. Yaroslav Stetsko.

Медична опiка в УПА: Документи.. I had issued an order for all OUN members to take no part in anti-Jewish activities.9 It was impossible to make out to what extent the statements of the OUN memoirists were true. Lvov. doctors and some other professionals. B. (Obvinyaet zemlya) Мoscow. the most significant of their works being a booklet. Lebed. 1991. Warszawa. Toronto. Turowski. “Most of the UPA doctors were Jewish people. Jewish doctors were considered equal citizens of Ukraine and leaders of the Ukrainian army. helped not only soldiers but also for the civilians. pp. W. I should emphasize that all of them were honestly doing their hard duty.7 Nikolay Lebed. arranged field hospitals and hospitals in settlements. УПА на Волинi в 1943 роцi // Волинь и Полiсся: Нiмецька окупацiя. They stayed with the army in very tough circumstances. London. 1992. 264. but these are few and far between. they gave a completely different picture. Zbrodnie nacjonalistow ukrainskich dokonane na ludnosci polskiej na Wołyni u 1939–1945. and even when they had a chance to join the Red Army. materiyaly i spogady).Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 11 people will come. Many of them died as soldiers. матерiяли i спогади. . Drogobich. 1993. The booklet is titled “Medical aid in UPA” and reveals the reminiscences of Jewish doctors who worked in those troubled times. Шляхом Легенди: Спомини. (UPA na Volyni v 1943 rotsi // Volyn i Polissya: Nimetska okupatsiya). Украïньска Повстаньска Армiя.10 Most of these books 7 8 9 10 Kazanivsky. M. book 1. did not prevent publishing in Poland and Ukraine a number of works on the OUN and UPA. ii geneza. You will shortly receive written instruction on the issue”. 1990. saved by UPA from the Hitler’s forces. p. J. went around the areas. as mentioned above. The lack of sources however. fighting for the same ideals as the whole Ukrainian Nation”. We helped several Jewish officers from the Ukrainian Galician Army. p. published within the series “UPA Chronicles”. iï генеза. book 1. All archive documents were out of bounds for scientists. For more details see also: Omelyusik. so they could not confirm or deny this information. (Shlyakhom Legendy: Spomyny). Siemiaszko. 69. Maslovsky. (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya. V. brought forward some more arguments to prove there were no anti-Jewish sentiments in the OUN and UPA. рiст i дiï у визвольнiй боротьбi украïньского народу за Украïньску Самостiйну Соборну Державу. rist i dii u vyzvolniy borotbi ukrainskogo narodu za Ukrainsku Samostiynu Sobornu Derzhavu). 34–35.8 Emigrated historians-nationalists and memoirists wrote a lot on the subject of Jewish people in UPA. 1989. ex-head of the OUN Security Service. who wanted to join our organization for covert operations… They readily agreed to work for the OUN. Land accuses. As for the reminiscences of Jewish and Polish people. 1975. Toronoto. (Medichna opika v UPA: Dokumenty. M.

including extermination of Jewish people. Spare doctors. p. eliminate without mercy. but the issues of Ukrainian nationalists exterminating Jewish people was also touched upon. At the same time. Edited by O. The publications were mostly based on the recollections of witnesses. 19. were written in journalistic genre and as a rule did not meet the strict requirements for scientific works.12 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 were mainly describing the massacres of Polish people in Volyn. should be eliminated after their work is finished” – Prus. the lack of reference to the source prevents us from using this quote as scientifically confirmed. A logical consequence of the “denunciative” the OUN and UPA historiography was the first book. the authors of the publications produced a large amount of information. R. who denied OUN and UPA participation in massacres.12 The advantage of the book was consolidation of previously published information on victimization of Jewish people by Ukrainian nationalists. far less convincing and susceptible to falsehood. Lisenko. Prus. 2006. The directions on extermination of Jews “both individually and as a national group”. chemists. The Jews. V. Кyiv. Kulchitsky. 2001. quoted by Prus. E. E. Veselova. Dowody zbrodni OUN i UPA. Bitter truth: The evil of the OUN and UPA (Confessions of a Ukrainian). Despite the fact that the possibility of such an order having been issued is confirmed by the directives of OUN SS of 1943 and 1944. it is doubtful that the order of the Commander in Chief of UPA. . pharmaceutists.2007. prawdziwe zbrodnie // Rzeczpospolita. disadvantage – journalist style and usage of the OUN and UPA documents of doubtful genuineness. Kyiv. For more details see: Rutkowska. 2000 . Execute by hanging for any attempt of violating orders. V. OUN in 1941. Sergiychuk. quoted by Prus. (Girka Pravda: Zlochinnost OUN-UPA (Spovid ukrainstya)) Toronto. 185). Warsaw. Prus. who can not be used for digging trenches and fortifications. 1995. nurses. is genuine (“To treat Jews in the same way as Polish and gypsies. mentioned above (compare: Prus. E. The document “Policy on treating minorities”. Patrilyak.05. O. Introduction by S. E. Holocaust po banderowsku…. Fałszywy opis. Shukhevich. also quoted by Prus. For example. part 1. some of the OUN orders on extermination of Jewish people that Prust mentions in his work were later found in the Ukrainian archives. 103–104). pp. Holocaust po banderowsku…. OUN v 1941 rotsi: Dokumenty (The OUN in 1941: Documents) / Institute istoriyi Ukrainy NANU (The Institute of history of Ukraine of NSAU). keep them under arrest in field hospitals and watch their hands.13 11 12 13 Polischuk. However. s.11 However. А. I. part 1. E. 129). Toronto. W. s. V. D. devoted only to their attitude to Jewish people. 1995. Stola. escape or intentional harm to patients. which made the statements of Ukrainian emigrant historians and memoirists. carried out by UPA soldiers. Poliszczuk. are actually an extract from the same directive. 46. Holocaust po banderowsku: Czy Żydzi byli w UPA? Wrocław. A geewhiz approach resulted in several factual mistakes in the above works. Wrocław. several photographs of “OUN and UPA victims” had wrong titles. 177.. Holocaust po banderowsku…. is actually one of the paragraphs of the OUN(B) directive “Struggle and activities in war time” (compare: Prus. s. Holocaust po banderowsku. This book of the Polish historian Edward Prus “Holocaust po banderowsku” (Holocaust in Bandera style) was published in two editions.

Zhanna Kovba. occupied by the Nazis. M. 180. on the other hand she says that common OUN members often violated their leaders’ orders and helped Jewish people. Iliya Altman. M. Jews of Ukraine in the times of WWII. Rivne. pp. includes a very important document – minutes of the OUN members’ meeting that took place in the middle of July 1941 in Lvov. but could not formulate a final conclusion. Gon. “Kommunistychniy” factor ukrainsko-evreyskih vzaemyn zakhidny Ukraini (1935-1939) («Комунiстичний» фактор украïнськоєврейських взаємин у Захiднiй Украïнi (1935–1939 рр. 2002. 1941–1945). He states that the attitude of the OUN towards Jewish people remained negative both before and during the war.15 One of the leading Russian historians. (Yevrei Ukrainy v roky Drugoi Svitovi viyny). Мoscow.17 He 14 15 16 17 Levitas. and later on some publications appeared devoted to the attitude of Ukrainian nationalists to the “Jewish issue”. 108. p. M. 230. On the one hand. Zh. PhD in History. Kyiv. 9. 1941–1945. Altman. published in 1997. 2005.) // Galicia.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 13 The opening of the Ukrainian archives for research and reference in the 90’s helped lay a scientific base for research on the OUN and UPA history. 220–225.14 This statement sounds at least doubtful. As Levitas states. I. Iz krivdoyu na samoti: Ukrainsko-evreyski vzaemini na zakhidnoukrainskih zemlyah u skladi Polshi (1935–1939) (Iз кривдою на самотi: Украïнсько-єврейськi взаємини на захiдноукраïнських землях у складi Польщi (1935–1939)). . different in their attitude to the “Jewish issue” – “radical and democratic”. Lvov. because the minutes show the participants’ totally negative attitude to Jewish people. 1998. The monograph of Felix Levitas. Historians could now study dozens of thousands of archive documents. M. L. Gon. in her monograph “Humanity in the Abyss of Hell” also spoke about the OUN and UPA attitude to Jewish people. Initially scientists seemed focused on the UPA struggle against the Soviet system. many of them were published too. F. a historian. (Zhertvi nenavisti: Holokost v SSSR. M. the difference was only in their preferred tactics. has a far more specific opinion on the history of the Holocaust. Studies of this subject were mainly carried out within research of the Holocaust in Ukraine. M. this document proves that there existed two groups in the OUN. Gon. she states that the OUN(B) had no clear policy on treating Jewish people.16 The truth of his statement was also confirmed by Ukrainian historian Maxim Gon in his research devoted to the relationships between the Jewish and Ukrainian people in Western Ukraine in 1935–1939. pp. Victims of hatred: Holocaust in the USSR. Kyiv. 1997. A. Lyudyanist u bezodni pekla: Povedinka mistsevogo naselennya Skhidnoi Galycyny v roky “ostatochnogo rozvyazanya evreiskogo pytannya” (Людянiсть у безоднi пекла: Поведiнка мiсцевого населення Схiдноï Галичини в роки «остаточного розв’язаня єврейського питання»). 2003. Кovba. p.

Kyiv. July 1941: The Wehrmacht and the Beginning of the Holocaust in Galicia: From a Criticism of Photographs to a Revision of the Past // Crimes of War: Guilt and Denial in the Twentieth Century. 2005. (Проблеми історії України: факти. Carynnik M. Boll. S. Kyiv. . 8. 2001. no. July 1941…. Alexander Kruglov and Ivan Himka studied the massacres that took place in Lvov after it was occupied by German troops. Kruglov. Zloczow. Blutige Ouvertüre: Lemberg. Kyiv. For more details see: Vysotsky. 2005. Золочів мовчить (Zolochiv movchit) // Krytyka. Boll. Kyiv. // “Gazeta 24”. no. I. 13. 5. В. Dostovirnist svidchennya: relyatsia Ruzi Wagner pro lvivskiy pogrom vlitku 1941 (Trustworthiness of the witness statement: Ruzya Wagner’s report on the Lvov massacre in the summer of 1941) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times).21 There are witness statements saying that at least certain military men of “Nachtigall” took part in killing Jews. issue 15. 2. 2006. took part in the extermination of Jews in Lvov. members of this organization arranged campaigns on destroying Jews’ belongings and exerted psychological pressure on them.19 These scientists used German documents that revealed active participation of the OUN members in both anti-Jewish campaigns. referring to the decision of West German court on the “Case of Oberlander”. criminals. Organizatsiya ukrainskyh natsionalistiv i Ukrainska povstanska armiya: Fakhoviy vysnovok robochoi grupi istorykov pri uryadovoy komisiyi vyvchennya diyatelnosti OUN i UPA (Oрганiзацiя украïнських нацiоналiстiв i Украïнська повстаньска армiя: Фаховий висновок робочоï групи iсторикiв при урядовiй комiciï з вивчення дiятельностi ОУН i УПА). and proved that even though before WWII. heroes. p. 10. Нeer. судження. 30 Juni 1941: Mit dem Einmarsch der Wehrmachttruppen beginnt der Judenmord // Der Zeit. Lvov.18 Bernd Ball and Marko Carynnik did research on the mass extermination of Jews in Zlochew and Dubno in early July 1941. 2003. 10. Hannes Heer. Juli 1941: Die Wehrmacht und der Beginn des Holocaust in Galizien // Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft. and is responsible for deaths of many Jews”. А. Kyiv. Zloczow. suzhdennya. the OUN did not see Jewish people as their main enemy. Alexander Kruglov states that the Prosecutor’s office of Bonn has determined that “there is a high probability of the Ukrainian Platoon of the 2nd company of “Nachtigall” squadron” having had their contribution in the acts of violence against the Jewish people in NKVD prisons.20 However. New-York. p. July 1941: Extermination starts (Nachalo unichtozhenia) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times). 2002. В.22 18 19 20 21 22 Ukrainski pravoradicaly ta evreyi Zakhidnoi Ukrainy (druga polovina 1930 rokov) (The Right Ukrainian radicals and the Jews in the Western Ukraine (second half of the 1930s) // Problemy istoriyi Ukrainy: Facty. “Nachtigal”: betrayors. Himka. 2008. Lvov. no. Official Ukrainian historians deny their participation. Much more controversial was the question whether the soldiers of the Ukrainian squadron “Nachtigall”. Thorough studies of certain massacres of the Jews in the summer of 1941 also helped to clarify the attitude of the OUN towards the “Jewish issue”. Kruglov. 26. пошуки). no.14 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 based his studies on many authentic documents. poshuki. А. no. 2002. H.

2008. 9.. Grzegorz Motyka. Zhittepis Yaroslava Stetska vid 1941) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times). The OUN activity in Bukovina in 1940–1941 (Diyatelnist OUN na Bukovini u 1940–1941) // Z arkhiviv VUChK-GPU-NKVD-KGB 2000. Historians Ivan Fosty and Mikhail Koval wrote that members of “Bukovinsky Kuren” participated in killing Jews in Kiev. consisting of Ukrainian nationalists. no. 1999. For more details see: Nahmanovich. sbu. M. Autobiography of Yaroslav Stetsko of 1941. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and its Attitude toward Germans and Jews: Yaroslav Stets’ko’s 1941 Zhyttiepis // Harvard Ukrainian Studies. C. Carynnyk. Defacto this issue of the journal was published in 2002.gov. Fostyi. Kyiv. a Polish historian. 96–99. 1991. 2007. 3–4. C.02. (Bukovinsky kurin i masovi roztrili evreiv Kieva voseni 1941) // Ukrainski istorichesky journal (Ukrainian historical journal). Babin Yar (September 1941 – September 1943) (Babin Yar (veresen 1941 – veresen 1943)) // Ukrainski istorichesky journal (Ukrainian historical journal).. no. 2–4. Karel Berkhoff (The Netherlands). one of the leaders of the OUN(B). published on the official web-site of Ukrainian Security Service. K. . I.23 but lately this opinion has been doubted. 2003. 2006. and came to the conclusion that Ukrainian nationalists treated Jews as enemies. 1. Warszawa. G.” – he wrote. since the amount of scientific information on this subject is absolutely insufficient. [Quoted from the e-version. 287–298. written in the summer of 1941. Brief summary see: Berkhoff. no. K. Alexander Ischenko (Ukraine) and Alexander Dyukov (Russia).ua]. The article represents the opinions of such historians as Mark Carynnik (USA).26 The article included an excerpt from the “Autobiography” of Yaroslav Stetsko. Carynnyk. V.24 It is impossible to determine whose point of view is closer to the truth. M. published in the Harvard Ukrainian Studies journal by Karel Berkhoff and Mark Carynnik.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 15 Another subject of many heated discussions is the participation of “Bukovinsky Kuren”. “Moscow and Jews are main enemies of Ukraine. a much more significant contribution to the studies of the OUN-UPA attitude towards the “Jewish issue” was made by an article. He included new internal OUN documents into scientific studies. no. no. – “That is why I support extermination of Jews and introducing the German methods of extermination [elimination] 23 24 25 26 27. Motyka. and also ventured a reasonable estimate on the number of Jews killed by UPA. The Organization of the Ukrainian Nationalists and its attitude towards Germans and Jews. s. (Organizatsiya Ukrainskih natsionalistov. in shootings of Jewish people in Babiy Yar. He was one of the first to note the anti-Jewish activities of the OUN SS in 1943-1944. Bukovina kuren’ and mass execution of Jews in Kyiv in the autumn of 1941. 25 However. 3. devoted two parts of his monograph “Ukrainian Guerilla Movement” to the massacre in Lvov in July 1941 and the OUN attitude to Jewish people. Zhanna Kovba (Ukraine). i stavlennya do nimtsiv ta evreiv. 1942–1960: Dyiałalność Organizacji Ukraińskich Nacjonalistów i Ukraińskiej Powstańczej Armii. Berkhoff. Ukraińska partzyantka.

30 Berkhoff and Carynnik’s article changed the state affairs and the existing status-quo. The works on “denunciative historiography” were as a rule ignored and considered non-scientific. It was impossible to ignore an article. 4. Bistrukhin. Gritsak. Levitas. 26. p. pp. 162. 1996. were proved false. there have been just a few references to anti-Jewish campaigns in publications. Povstanska rozvidka die tochno i vidvazhno: Dokumentalna spadschina pidrozdiliv spetsialnogo priznachennya OUN ta UPA. F. G. 2006. Mech i trizub: Rozvidka I kontrrozvidka puhu ukrainskih natsionalistov ta UPA (1920–1945) (Меч і тризуб: Розвідка і контррозвідка руху українських націоналістів та УПА (1920-1945)). D. Legiony Ukrainskyh Natsionalistiv. excluding their assimilation etc. saying that he opposed anti-Jewish campaigns. Gunchak. p. published in 1996. Garvard patronue nenaukovi metody istorychnogo doslidzhennya (Гарвард патронує ненаукові методи історичного дослідження) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh . M. Kyiv. no. Ukrainian historians devoted very little time to studies of this issue. related in particular to the “Autobiography” of Yaroslav Stetsko. Problemy istoriographiyi: istoriya ta iyi dzherela (Problems of historiography: history and its sources) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украïнський визвольний рух). Lvov. 2005. there was only one significant article by Yaroslav Gritsak “Ukrainians in anti-Jewish campaigns in the course of WWII”. D. V. the works of historians on Holocaust also drew little of public attention. Y. 1940–1950-ті роки). This accusation..16 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 of Jews. Ukraintsi v antiyevreyskih aktsiyah u roky drugoi svitovoi vyiny (Ukrainians in anti-jewish campaigns during WWII) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I” (Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї»). For more details see also: Kosik. Vedeneyev. Carynnyk.3. 2006. dedicated to combat activity of the OUN and UPA. Киïв. p. L. Jewish people of Ukraine…. Bistrukhin. K. (Evrei Ukraini…). Т. G. Thus. p. For more details see also: Vedeneyev. 253–264. announcing the documents “doubtful” and even “counterfeit”. 179.. And though the “Autobiography” of Yaroslav Stetsko was introduced as a scientific source by Levitas.28 this article by Berkhoff and Carynnik’s drew much more attention that Levitas’ work. K. 1941-1942: Istoriya vinikennya diyatelnosti. Kyiv. was put forward by a historian from Lvov Taras Gunchak31 However. C. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists…. 1940-1950-ti roki (Повстанська розвідка діє точно і відважно: Документальна спадщина підрозділів спеціального призначення ОУН та УПА. Patrilyak. his arguments were not convincing and the state27 28 29 30 31 Berkhoff. 1999.29 Apart from that.”27 The authors of the article also included other evidences of anti-Jewish policy of the OUN leadership. Before that the issue of the OUN-UPA attitude to Jewish people did not receive much attention of Ukrainian historians and publicists. Hence. 1941–1942: Iсторiя виникнення та дiятельностi). I.. published in a serious academic journal. Stetsko’s post-war statements. It unleashed a barrage of criticism from pro-OUN historians. (Легiони Украïнських Нацiоналiстiв.

OUN sotrudnichala s natsistami i unichtozhala evreyev (The OUN collaborated with the Nazi and exterminated Jews) // Izvestiya (Moscow). For more details see also: Vyatrovich. A. 11. Kyiv-Moscow. Lvov. Vladimir Vyatrovich. Evreyi v borbe za nezavisimuyu Ukrainu (Jews in the struggle for Independent Ukraine) // Korny (Roots). 48. А. Rusnachenko. Ukrainska derzhava u planah OUN (1939–1950 roki): istoriko-politologichniy analiz. Kurilo. Ostrog. Dyukov. as proved by discussions of historians and publicists. Old arguments were repeated of Jewish members of the UPA and “Soviet propaganda”. 159–160. published his book. For more details see also: Rybak. Byli li Banderovtsy antisemitamy? (Were Bandera people anti-Semites?) // Komsomolskaya pravda (Moscow). 2008. 08-14. 9.02.2007. Ob uchastiyi OUN-UPA v Holokoste: “Moskva i zhidovstvo – glavniye vragi Ukrainy” (The OUN-UPA participation in Holocaust: “Moscow and Jews – chief enemies of Ukraine) // IA “REGNUM”. Ukrainsko-evreyskiy konflikt 1941 roku v Galichyne: Sproba poshuku prychyny (Українськоєврейський конфлікт 1941 року в Галичині: Спроба пошуку причини) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I” (Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї»).33 These statements sounded convincing to only some people. Nakonechniy. 2007. these materials 32 33 34 35 36 (Украïнський визвольний рух). pp.2008. Carynnyk. no.32 There were more attempts to clear the OUN from the accusations of the extermination of Jews. Vovk. given in the journal “Krytyka” (criticism). Kyiv. Himka.35 Public interest in the problem and its political significance played their part: shortly afterwards. 154. . Grachova S. the Head of Liberation Movement Research Center in Lvov. Despite all assurance of “scientific objectivity”. V. Vony zhyly sered nas? (Did they live among us?) // Krytyka. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? Rozdumy nad knizhkoyu Volodymyra Vyatrovicha (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews? Deliberations over the book of Vladimir Vyatrovich) // Ukraina moderna (Contemporary Ukraine). Zolochiv movchit (Золочів мовчить) // Krytyka. Gogun.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 17 ment was later on disproved by Canadian historians Taras Kurilo and Ivan Himka. 2007. Kyiv.02. M. 1939-1950: historical and politologycal analysis). 178–190. was propaganda material distributed by OUN itself. the first ever monograph on the attitude of the OUN towards Jews. I. S. “Evreysky vopros” dlya OUN-UPA (“The Jewish issue” for the OUN and UPA) // Weekly publication “2000”. Lvov. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv: Formuvannya pozitsiyi na tli katastrophy (Ставлення ОУН до євреїв: Формування позиції на тлі катастрофи). 2006. Kyiv). no. 3. 14.36 Unfortunately. as well as stated that neither OUN nor UPA issued orders on extermination of Jews. p. when depicting the attitude of the OUN to Jews. А. no. (The Ukrainian State in the OUN plans. For more details see also: Girik. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (1920–1950) (The OUN attitude towards Jews (1920–1950)) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украïнський визвольний рух). this monograph can only be considered as revising the facts. A. А. Lvov. Dyukov. p. 25. A. “Shoa” u Lvovi. 2. Dyukov.34 Russian historians joined these discussions as well later. Vyatrovich. Ne pro pidruchnyky yidetsya (Не про пiдручники йдеться) // Krytyka. 10. 2005. Dyukov. 2006.2007. 2005. 2006.02. 253. А. 7. 2005. vol. no. The main source for Vladimir Vyatrovich. 133. Lvov. E.. Of course. 7. T. Kyiv. no. («Шоа» у Львовi). no. 1. 2003. we are astonished at the way Mr Vyatrovich uses archive documents.. I. vol.10. pp. p.2008. published in Kyiv. V. A. 2007. 15.

21]. 96. arranged by the OUN in the summer of 1936. source. “In order to accuse V. Klimov (August 1941) and directives of the OUN SS on secret extermination of Jews serving in UPA. pp. V. Gunchak. Germans – to Berlin. Kosik. were ignored as well. Mr Vyatrovich also “didn’t notice” many anti-Jewish campaigns of the summer of 1941. Kosik of an intention to conceal some documents. 12-13. P. UPA v svitli nimetskyh dokumentiv (УПА в свiтлi нiмецьких документiв) / Edited and introduction by T. In Zhanna Kovba’s book “Humanity in the Abyss of Hell” we find a reproach to V. He also omitted a number of other very important documents: address of the OUN(B) regional leader of 01 July 1941. We are surprised at Vyatrovich’s claims to the historians involved in studies of the OUN-UPA attitude towards Jews. Potichniy. given in the directive “The OUN struggle and activity during the war” (May 1941). though somewhat peculiar. instead of only asking rhetorical questions”– he wrote.18 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 are a valuable. We know that already in 1991 diasporic historians in Ukraine published a German report. while widely using the propaganda material. it would be well to know for yourself where those documents are. Russian – to pits. 1991. Jews – on hooks!”38 How can Vyatrovich not know this publication? 37 38 Vyatrovich. one should use it with discretion and always verify the information against inside documents. p. vol. published in the OUN official publications. However. Jews – on hooks”). carried out by OUN members. because he had not included German documents on the OUN anti-Semitic mottos into the book “Ukraine and Germany during WWII” (mottos like “Poles – over San. A large number of anti-Semitic articles. directive № 6 by an OUN Leader I. Toronto. He also ignored the reminiscences of witnesses.37 It is at least odd to hear this from a person. ignored most of the anti-Jewish provisions. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (OUN attitude towards Jews). Vyatrovich tires to convince the reader that this reproach has no grounds. not used for propaganda. Poles and Germans! Poles – over San. In the description of the OUN attitude to the “Jewish issue” Vyatrovich somehow managed to omit the large-scale anti-Jewish campaign. [Litopys Ukrainskoy Povstanskoy Armiyi (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chronicles). which mentioned a motto of the OUN used in the autumn of 1941: “Viva Independent Ukraine without Jews. Mr Vyatrovich. book 3. After this campaign over 100 Jewish families were deprived of their houses. a diasporic historian. showing participation of the OUN and UPA members in the elimination of Jews. claiming to be a specialist in the OUN-UPA history. .

OUN v 1941 rotsi. others – ignore the sources that do not fit the author’s views. it was stated that the OUN “did not allow for its ideological and political descend to anti-Semitism. A. he kept assuring that Ukrainian nationalists had nothing to do with extermination of Jews during the war. but when repeated regularly.2008. Kyiv. Мoscow. 16-22. how should we treat their motto “Moscow. Vtorostepenny vrag: OUN. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? Rozdumy nad knizhkoyu Volodymyra Vyatrovicha (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews? Deliberations over the book of Vladimir Vyatrovich) // Ukraina moderna (Contemporary Ukraine). УПА и решение «еврейского вопроса»).01. we can not state that it has been studied thoroughly. Kyiv.42 This statement is far from reality. rushing about in search of “National History”. (The OUN in 1941). 17–19. 129. CSA SBPGU.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 19 So it is no surprise. Some publications do not meet tough scientific criteria. Акт 30 червня) 1941. list 1. Kak sozdavalas legenda o Nachtigall (The legend of Nachtigall – how it was created) // Weekly mirror. List 2. 576. 2. I. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. At the same time. now that the archives are open and Ukrainian historians are actively publishing their works. 23. that the conclusions. p. sheet 35. Poland. p. are far from adequate. He conducted active propaganda of revisionist views on the OUN and UPA history. Kurilo. p. part 1. Himka. V. 101. sheet 12. V. For instance. 2008. given in Vyatrovich’s monograph. sheet 87. no. Vyatrovich. 261. UPA i resheniye “evreiskogo voprosa” (Второстепенный враг: ОУН. One can’t help thinking that the researches of the last couple of years turned out to be not very productive. p. Magyars and Jews are enemies! Destroy them!”40 issued by the OUN(B) regional leadership in the beginning of war. it was in high demand among the modern Ukrainian authorities. and later on – Head of the State Sectoral Archive of the Ukrainian Security Service.2008. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. Vyatrovich was first appointed Chairman Advisor of the Security Service of Ukraine on research and scientific work. the work of Vyatrovich was heavily criticized by both Russian and Ukrainian scientists.. .41 Nevertheless.02. file 63. historical researches now have 39 40 41 42 Vyatrovich. pp. still others describe only certain aspects of the problem or speak very little about it at all. For more details see: Dyukov. Though hardly based on scientific research and solid facts. In early 2008. it might get the status of a “well known fact” in the Ukrainian society. file 42. stock 3833. 2008. part 2. even with numerous discussions of historians and publicists on the subject of the OUN and UPA attitude towards Jews.”39 If that being the case. Ukrainsko-evreyskiye burgouazniye natzionalisty: Ob ukrainskoevreyskom sotrudnichestve v borbe za nezavisimuyu Ukrainu (Ukrainian-Jewish bourgeois nationalists: on the collaboration of Ukrainians and Jews in the struggle for independent Ukraine) // Ukrainskaya Pravda. See for example: Vyatrovich. In interviews to mass media. file 18. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv… (OUN attitude towards Jews…). T. V. So.

Dashkevich. Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy.20 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 a great number of sources available.44 Originals of some very significant inside documents have till now not been found (we speak first of all about directives of the OUN Security Service). V. but their content is available in the documents of Soviet State Security service. Khudzik. OUN v 1941 rotsi: Dokumenty (The OUN in 1941: Documents) / The Institute of history of Ukraine of NSAU. 2006. 2. Warsaw. compiled by the members of the Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies. О. the number of published copies of the booklets “OUN in 1941” and “OUN in 1942” is stunningly low (150 and 300 copies correspondingly). О. no. Kyk. directives of “the OUN struggle and activity during the war” (May 1941). 1939–1955 (Украïнський здвиг: Подiлля. prepared by the OUN(M) before the war. Акт 30 червня 1941: Збiрник документiв i матерiалiв) / Institute ukrainskoy arkheographiyi ta dzhereloznavstva NANU (The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU). Introduction by V. Kyiv. Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah radyanskih organiv derzhavnoi bezpeki (1940–1950) (Roman Shukhevich in the documents of the Soviet State security bodies (1940–1950)) / Institute of National Source Studies. 2001. 1943–1959) / Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies of NASU. S. I. V. Kokin. обкомiв партiï. НКВС-МВС. Apart from the already mentioned documents (minutes of the OUN members’ meeting in July 1941 in Lvov and Yaroslav Stetsko’s “Autobiography”) historians can at present use such crucially important documents as decrees of the OUN Great Congresses and Conferences. book 1. К. Introduction by I Patrilyak. Patrilyak.43 Draft Constitution of Ukraine. N. Kokin. 1942–1945) / The Institute of National Memory of Poland. MDB-KDB. МДБ-КДБ. Kyiv. Unfortunately. Lisenko. V. Viyskovi plani OUN(B) u taemniy Instruktsii Revolutsiynogo provodu (traven 1941) (Вiйськовi плани ОУН(б) у таємнiй Iнструкцiï Революцiйного проводу (травень 1941 р. 2007. Kulakowski. Edited by B Gronek. Sergiychuk. Akt chervnya 1941: Zbirnyk dokumentiv i metrialiv (Украïнське державотворення. “Integrated General Plan of the OUN Insurgent headquarters” (spring 1940). Edited by V. Pshennykov. Edited by О. Dzyuban. Kyiv. 2002. V. propaganda materials of both OUN groups. 1–2. Kulchitsky. O. Kyiv. as well as by members of the Institute of Ukrainian History of the NASU. Y. published by Ukrainian and Polish research workers. 2006.45 43 44 45 For more details on this document see: Patrilyak. Toronto. Tukholsky. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. 1939–1955) / Kyiv National University of Taras Shevchenko. Lvov. 2000. S. 1–2. NKVSMVS. Kyiv. to let them objectively describe the OUN and UPA attitude towards the “Jewish issue”. Kyiv. hence they are not available for research workers. Kentiy. 2005. Veselova. 1. [The UPA Chronicles. Sergiychuk. Borotba proty UPA i natsionalistichnogo pidpillya: Informatsiyni dokumenty CK KP(b)U. New Series. and first of all – internal documents of both OUN factions. Sergiychuk. orders and directions issued by the OUN(B) leadership. vol. Patrilyak. I. 2005. Serdyuk. S. vol. Introduction by V. Lozitsky. OUN v 1941 rotsi: Dokumenty (The OUN in 1941: Documents) /The Institute of history of Ukraine of NSAU Edited by О. V. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. Sergyichuk. obkomiv patriyi. pp. 4. Ukrainski zdvig: Podillya. Sergiychuk. Edited by A. Pristayko. vol. Lisenko. M. Edited by О. P. Most of these documents were published in booklet form.)) // Ukrainian historical journal. Introduction by V. 1943-1959 (Боротьба проти УПА i нацiоналiстичного пiдпiлля: Iнформацiйнi документи ЦК КП(б)У. I. Introduction by S. Mayevsky. Sergiychuk.] . Pavlenko. The Institute of political and ethno-national researches of NSAU. V. I. Veselova. E. Serdyuk. Kyiv.

1–12. Their field reports to the Ukrainian headquarters of guerilla movement represent an interesting source. vol. no. 1933. M. Soviet guerilla groups were also active in the territories. New Series. no. Kentiy. V. I. MDB-KDB. V. 1983–1991. I. book 1. p. 1–12. is the journal “Building up the nation”. 1930. 1–12. Gunchak. Himka. obkomiv patriyi.49 but they reveal some information. 1997–2000. no. 1928. Introduction by V. 1–12.. Himka.. 1993. no. On peculiarities of Kosik’s selection of documents for the publication see for example: Kurilo. Kosik. no. Toronto. P. 1943–1959) / Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies of NASU. Sergiychuk. part of them were published within booklets and prepared by Ukrainian emigrant historians. Potochniy. Kosik V. no. Ukraina i Nimechchina v Drugij svitovij vijni (Украïна i Нiмеччина в Другiй свiтовiй вiйнi). 1943-1959 (Боротьба проти УПА i нацiоналiстичного пiдпiлля: Iнформацiйнi документи ЦК КП(б)У. p. 1929. Ukraina v Drugij svitovij vijni u documentah: Zbirnik nimetskih arhivnih materialov (Украïна в Другiй свiтовiй вiйнi у документах: Збiрник нiмецьких архiвних матерiалiв). Paris – New-York – Lvov. 1–12. an official publication of the OUN leadership. This is proved in particular by Vladimir Martinets. 255. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews?). Lvov.. no. For more details see: Kurilo. 4]. 1932. Live data on the OUN and UPA activity is given not only in German documents. 2002. 1934. M. Toronto. . 259.46 The articles in this journal were of a programme nature – for the OUN members they became a peremptory doctrine. Lozitsky. Kyiv. НКВС-МВС. МДБ-КДБ. occupied by the Nazi. and statements of arrested OUN-UPA mem46 47 48 49 50 Rozbudova natsii: Organ provodu Ukrainskih natsionalistiv (Розбудова нацiï: Орґан проводу украïнських нацiоналiстiв (Prague). for understanding the OUN attitude towards Jews in the end of twenties and beginning of thirties. UPA v svitly nemetskih dokymentiv (УПА в свiтлi нiмецьких документiв)/ Comp. very important for our research. 1931. Borotba proty UPA i natsionalistichnogo pidpillya: Informatsiyni dokumenty CK KP(b)U. compromising the OUN and the UPA.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 21 A very important source of information. I. T. 1–4. обкомiв партiï. 1–12. Some of the reports were published in the first volume of “Struggle against UPA and Nationalists’ underground”. under the aegis of the Institute of Ukrainian Archaeography and Source Studies in the so-called “New series” of multi-volume work called “UPA Chronicles”.48 As a rule. Edited by A. vol.47 There is also a third group documents – German documents on UPA activity. one of the OUN ideologists. Books 1–3. NKVS-MVS. T. 1–8. [The UPA Chronicles. but the information in these reports is sometimes incorrect. Pavlenko. in his memoirs. Introdution by T. these booklets omit documents. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews?).50 One more very important source – the investigation materials from the Soviet State Security Service.

. 9]. 2008. one should go through numerous statements.51 Only some of them contain the information. conducted not by Soviet State Security people. Упор Editor. Kyiv. The analysis of one of the statements (so called “Ruzya Wagner report” on the massacre in Lvov). but by the OUN Security Service members in Ternopol area. Ischuk. shows the high degree of authenticity of this information source. but historians would have to work a lot to reveal these documents and introduce them as scientific informational sources. 2. However. Till 2004. 1944–1945) / The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU. [The UPA chronicles. the witnesses speak mostly about Nazi crimes. I. done by a Canadian historian Ivan Himka. who handed them over to the local archive shortly before his death. 442–444. collected by the Jewish Historical Institute in Warsaw. 1944–1945 (Боротьба проти повстанського руху i нацiоналiчного пiдпiлля: протоколи допитiв заарештованих радянськими органами державноï безпеки керiвникiв ОУН i УПА. most of them hand-written. introduction by O. Dostovirnist svidchennya: relyatsia Ruzi Wagner pro lvivskiy pogrom vlitku 1941 (Trustworthiness of the witness statement: Ruzya Wagner’s report on the Lvov massacre in the summer of 1941) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times). Toronto.22 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 bers and interrogation records turned out to be far too brief and barely sufficient to provide valid information on the subject of our research. Unfortunately. After the war the statements of the survived victims were. the general informational potential of this kind of source is quite significant. S. 2007. one of the inhabitants of Ozerna village in Ternopol area. these documents were buried in the courtyard of Saphron Kutny. collected by Emergency Commission on investigating the crimes of German Fascist occupants and their accomplices. vol. Kyiv. the information in these statements is very important for investigating the anti-Jewish massacres in the summer of 1941. At the end of 2006. new series. a publication in two volumes of these documents was issued as a part of “UPA Chroni51 52 53 See for example: Borotba proty povstanskogo pukhu i natsionalichnogo pidpillya: protokoly dopytiv zaareshtovanikh radyanckimi organami derzhavnoy bezpeki kerivnykiv OUN i UPA. related to our research. Kokin. For example: Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems).52 However. and in order to reveal details of nationalists crimes. for instance.53 There also exists quite an unexpected source of information – records of interrogations. Himka. no. Historians do not make much use of witness statements. There were no large-scale publications of this information source. pp. 448–450. Not only the State Emergency Commission collected the data and witness statements of the Nazi terror victims.

stock 3833. After-war reminiscences and memoirs are the least reliable source of information. 219. Borotba proti UPA… (Боротьба проти УПА…). no. Акт 30 червня 1941). Bystrukhin. CSA SBPGU. since it was received from the OUN Security Service. stock 62. 129. sheet 94–95.55 I. For example. “Nachtigal” v zapitannyah i vidpovidyah («Нахтiгаль» в запитаннях i вiдповiдях) / Introduction by V. list 4. part 2. file 42. Stetsko. 1–3. sheet 35. When checked against archive documents. 125–126. Stetsko directly participated in forming the Ukrainian militia for “extermination of Jews”. but sometimes one can see statements related to the events of beginning of the war. a drop of blood. pp. (Украïнське державотворення. denies the anti-Jewish massacre in Lvov in June and July 19941. file 372. the statements. list 1. prove false. during his stay in Lvov he had not seen “a single dead body in the streets. SSA SSU. see: Papakin. 261. pp. Mech i trizub: Rozvidka I kontrrozvidka puhu ukrainskih natsionalistov ta UPA (1920–1945) (Меч і тризуб: Розвідка і контррозвідка руху українських націоналістів та УПА (1920-1945)). sheet 21–38. CSAPOU. file 75. file 12. Akt chervnya 1941. p. list 1. p. the former OUN and UPA members continue to deny the obvious facts. Books 1–2. Lvov. sheet 2. Y. a former military man of “Nachtigall” squadron. Miroslav Kalba. Lebed and B. During the first days of war. Potichny. that. despite the numerous published documents. pp. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941).59 54 55 56 57 58 59 Borotba z agenturoyu: Protokoly dopytiv Sluzhby Bezpeki OUN v Ternopilschyni. sheet 36–37. part 1. Toronto. Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. stock 57.57 where they adopted their official antiJewish policy. 52. file 63. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. G. [The UPA chronicles. 1946–1948) / Edited. 1946–1948 (Боротьба з аґентурою: Протоколи допитiв Службы Безпеки ОУН в Тернопiльщинi. file 46. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. 77. file 277. Lebed was a part of the OUN Security Service. Kosik. This information is totally reliable. p.54 The interrogation records contain mostly information about the events of 1946–1948. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 23 cles”. vol. sheet 87. stock 1. nor a single dead body of people hung on street lamp posts”. . 5. given in the memoirs of Y. List 2. sheet 10. 208–210. 2006. dependable only when the information is substantiated by archive documents.. “Ozernyanski arhiv” – novi dzherela do istoriyi ukrainskogo ruhu otporu («Озернянський архiв» – новi джерела до iсторiï украïнського руху отпору) // Ukrainian Archives. 2005. Book. He says. Kazanovsky (quoted at the beginning of this chapter). 2008. sheet 10. introduction by P. 1942–1945). which was absolutely not interested in revealing such facts. Klimov prepared leaflets with anti-Semitic mottos for the OUN(B) regional leadership56 and took part in the first war time conference of the OUN(B). p. D. including anti-Jewish campaigns. vol. list 1. Kalba. 23. stock 3833. Акт 30 червня 1941). p. 576. N. file 18. 483. part 1. Akt chervnya 1941. 453. stock 13. file 451. sheet 12. CSA SBPGU. arranged by OUN people. list 22. 43–44. which eliminated Jewish non-professionals who had joined UPA58 It is still quite common. 1. G. and N. Lvov. Vedeneyev.] Detailed information on the above documents is available. (Украïнське державотворення. M.

ua. Directive № 6 of the OUN head of the 60 61 U sluzhby bezpeki Ukrainy vidbuys Gromadski istorichni sluhannya “Zvinuvachennya proti “Nahtigalyu” – istorichna Pravda chi politychni tehnologiyi” (У Службі безпеки України відбулись Громадські історичні слухання “Звинувачення проти “Нахтігалю” – історична правда чи політичні технології”) // Sbu. Alexander Ischuk. and emphasized that there were no official orders from the OUN leaders to participate in campaigns against Jewish population in Lvov. – explained A. “the OUN leaders knew about it. such as mentioned in the directives “The OUN Struggle and activity during the War”. Taina ukrainskogo bataliona Nachtigall (The secret of Ukrainian squadron Nachtigall) // RUpor.24 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 It is hard to think of a more cynical lie that the above statement. proving that by summer 1941 this organization had a clear anti-Semitic position.61 Sometimes archive discoveries may change perspectives and shift viewpoints on the problem drastically. The documents states that on 4-7 July 1941 after their arrival to Lvov. and these ‘discoveries’ are followed by wide-scale PR campaigns. 16-22. they informed the member that it was German provocation aimed at discrediting Ukrainians. made a statement that he had discovered a document. but the above was not the case. proving that the OUN leaders took no part in anti-Jewish campaigns in July 1041 in Lvov. The main information sources for historians-revisionists are data prepared by the OUN propagandists. Ukrainian and foreign historians have published a whole number of official OUN documents.2008. where they describe the events from 22 July through September 1941. For instance. Gestapo representatives approached Ukrainians with an appeal to conduct a three day massacre of Jewish people.60 This statement was immediately published in the mass media.gov. the Appeal of the OUN(B) regional leaders dated 1 July 1941. prepared by the OUN members.2008.2008. a representative of USS State Archive. However.02. official Ukrainian historians are following the same pattern in their attempts to clear the OUN image. 06. By now.info. 06.02. on 6 February 2008. . Kyiv. and photocopies of two pages of the mentioned documents were published on the same day. Vyatrovich. proving that the OUN and UPA were exterminating Jews. also distracting attention from the struggle for independence and promoting crime and anarchy”. Taking the side of the OUN memoirists. so that the German police had an excuse to interfere. in the course of a Public historical hearing arranged by Ukrainian Security Service. Ischuk. they are persistent in ignoring the numerous documents published by their colleagues. He said it was a document titled “To the book of facts”. V. Kak sozdavalas legenda o Nachtigall (The Legend of Nachtigall – how it was created) // Weekly mirror.02. odd it may seem.

In 2008. since here we deal with the OUN propaganda materials. the Nationalists had started massacring Jews on 30th June itself..62 The documents further states that already in July 1941. as the German documents clearly show. But their PR campaign has nothing to do with history as an established stream of science. p. OUN v 1941 rotsi (OUN in 1941). 260 (with the reference to CSA SBPGU. published by USS: Dyukov. But the directives published in 2006 by the members of the Institute of Ukrainian History of NASU signed by Klimov himself and dated 6th August 1941. does not reflect reality as well. However. 161. M. Stetsko says that the assassination was attempted by ‘Polish circles”. Carynnyk. that anti-Jewish and extermination campaigns had been conducted by Germans without any involvement of Ukrainian police. clearly prove that he ordered the use of the mottos “Free Bandera!” and “Heil Adolf Hitler!”63 This obviously does not sound as refusal to cooperate with the Nazis! Clearly. the document published by the Ukrainian Security Service contains a large number of false statements. I. created in 1943–1944 whereby the OUN hoped to get support from the USA and Great Britain.. Another document. stock 3833. which would state. sheet 36–37.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 25 territory Ivan Klimov dated August 1941 etc. in his “Autobiography” written in summer of 1941. For instance. the record dated 6th July 1941 states that a Gestapo agent attempted assassination of an OUN Leader Yaroslav Stetsko. list 1. For that the OUN regional leadership in the Western Ukraine ordered to make up a “special collection of documents. 2. stock 3833. A. vol. the OUN(B) Leader in Western Ukraine had refused cooperation with the Nazis. C. 483. Himka. There are also more than enough German documents. Moreover. published by the Ukrainian Security Service. T. list 1. entered the city. file 43). sheet 4. one of such non-existing documents was again used by Ukrainian historians-revisionists. See also about the document. CSA SBPGU. OUN sotrudnichala s natsistami i unich- . pp. giving evidence of the fact the Ukrainian nationalists took part in extermination of Jews in July 1941 in Lvov. p. K. which is before Einsatzgrupp B. the OUN propaganda group had to use plain forgery. currently held responsible for extermination of Jews. for which they needed to “clean up” their image. CSA SBPGU.65 62 63 64 65 Berkhoff. and in return Gestapo had to undertake punitive measures against the Polish people. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews?). The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists…. No surprise. file 46. list 3. 453. stock 3833. Kurilo.”64 It is clear that to make this book. file 7.

There were very heated discussions on the participation of the “Nachtigall” squadron and the “Bukovinsky Kuren” in the killings of Jewish people. Carynnik and I. M. was G. 18. Dyukov. J. Be wary of faulty Nachtigall lessons // Kyiv Post. Carynnik. I. Ball and A. and they made it possible to give an objective and thorough description of the OUN and UPA attitude towards the Jewish people. Vyatrovich. Gon provided description of pre-war relationship between Ukrainian and Jewish people. One of the few historians. A. J.02. currently enjoying serious support from the government. A. F. Himka and T. Ukrainian historians-mainly revisionists (V. M.03. serious scientific studies of the subject first appeared only in the latter half of the 90s. B. Despite all the above mentioned facts. related to the “Jewish issue” in the official and semi-official OUN publications in the end of twenties and beginning o thirties. True and False Lessons from the Nachtigall Episode // BRAMA. A great number of documents on the OUN and UPA history were introduced as sources of scientific information. are trying to impose the false view on the public – that the OUN and UPA had nothing in common with extermination of Jewish people. and revealed the clear anti-Semitic trend.26 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 1 Summary Despite the fact that the OUN and UPA attitude towards Jewish people was often touched upon by research workers. Byli li Banderovtsy antisemitamy? (Were Bandera people anti-Semites?) // Komsomolskaya Pravda (Moscow). M. . tozhala evreyev (The OUN collaborated with the Nazi and exterminated Jews) // Izvestiya (Moscow). Kruglov studied the key anti-Jewish campaigns in the beginning of July 1941 and the OUN’s contribution. Kovba. 11. who touched upon this issue.2008.2008.2007. Levitas. Ischenko et al). Himka.2008. The issue of Jewish people serving in UPA did not become a subject for serious scientific study. Motyka – he described the extermination of Jewish people serving in UPA. I. Altman.03. 15. though the public interest to this problem is quite high. ZH.02. Himka did a thorough research of the political and ideological directives of the OUN on the “Jewish issue”. Kurilo gave a brief but quite informative summary of the publications. Such researches as Hans Heer. K Berkhoff. 27. Himka.

CHAPTER 2 “Jewish Issue” in the OUN pre-war plans .

inhabited by Ukrainian people. 29. The Congress of Ukrainian nationalists in 1929 (Конгрес Украïнських нацiоналiстiв 1929 р. .” – said Leonid Kostarev in his speech during the Congress of the Ukrainian nationalists in 1929. “Proletariat dictatorship has end66 67 68 69 70 Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï). the founding fathers vision fell woefully inadequate. Ibid. no. 1. The Ukrainian Socialist party refused to set up an electoral coalition with The Ukrainian Democratic Union.68 In their discussions of trade and manufacturing the Ukrainian nationalists clearly showed their negative attitude towards Jews. it had no clear view on the “Jewish issue”. In 1928 during the Polish Seym election campaign a large number of legal Ukrainian parties used anti-Semitic statements. p.70 Anti-Semitic stereotypes of “Jewish dominance” in the economy gradually transformed into deliberations on the “Jewish” character of the “occupant” authorities in Ukraine. 1928. 196. p. p. But on the issues of multi-cultural populace residing in Ukraine. The main goal of OUN was to establish Ukrainian Collegiate Independent State (UCIS) which would include all the territories. the same refers to the unit “Ukrainian field”.). 1928.. and with the USSR power it’s ruled by the Moscow-Jewish body of authorities for industry. Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï).28 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 CHAPTER 2 “Jewish Issue” in the OUN pre-war plans When the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists was founded. because the latter “had arrangements with the German and Jewish bourgeoisie”.66 The Labour Party treated anti-Semitic statements as means of attracting the electorate. no. p. Ibid. 30. 217.67 The Ukrainian nationalists leaders approved of anti-Semitic propaganda: in the first issue of “Building up the nation” journal anti-Semitic mottos were described as “very good”. 5. “The industrial sector of Ukraine all over the country is in the hands of metropolises or Jews – an anti-national and anti-State element.69 A similar statement was published in “Building up the nation” in the article of Yurko Rudenko: “The industrial sector is owned by monopolistic capital. By the end of the twenties of the 20th century the anti-Semitic mottos were well received by the Polish population of Ukraine.

p. 2. Polischuk.. Ibid. The Congress of Ukrainian nationalists in 1929 (Конгрес Украïнських нацiоналiстiв 1929 р. first of all Polish people. is a much more detailed document than the “Appeal”. Munich. 5. Naris istorii OUN. 11–12. p. 1929. 267. 109. no. p. Mirchuk. V. residing in the territory of Ukraine. 177. published in “Building up the nation” in the first issue of 1929. Bogush in his article. “The Congress did not discuss the Jewish issue separately and made no decisions it.74 Another opinion states that the “occupants” were not national groups. 1929.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 29 ed up with the authorities in the hands oа Russian-Jewish minority in Ukraine. published in “Building up the nation” in the last issue of 1928.). V. and it has the statement on the “total elimination of all occupants” in “Foreign policy” section. We believe the second opinion is more reasonable. (Girka Pravda: Zlochinnost OUN-UPA (Spovid ukrainstya)). 295. contain no anti-Semitic statements. a historian and publicist from Canada.73 The modern historiography gives two interpretations of the above statement. the analysis of the evolution of the OUN attitude towards the 71 72 73 74 75 Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï). p. 1968.71 The influence of anti-Semitic stereotypes was very strong among the Ukrainian nationalists.72 Nevertheless. Bitter truth: The evil of the OUN and UPA (Confessions of a Ukrainian). 1930. According to Victor Polischuk. and first of all they were Poland and the USSR. Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï). . The “Articles of the Ogranisation of Ukrainian nationalists”. adopted at the Congress. p. p. Ibid. 1928. 5. However.” – later on said Nikolay Stsiborsky. no. except for the above mentioned speech of L. “total elimination of all occupants” means physical elimination of alien national groups. no. The Congress of Ukrainian nationalists in 1929 (Конгрес Украïнських нацiоналiстiв 1929 р. the final appeal of the Congress. 289. 425.75 Besides.). contained a significant statement: “only total elimination of all occupants of Ukrainian land gives the Ukrainian Nation the possibility of extensive development. p. which took place in the beginning on 1929. P. p.” – said V. 93. but states. no. The issue of the policy towards national minorities (including Jews) was not much discussed at the Congress of Ukrainian nationalists. (Нарис iсторiï ОУН). one of the chief ideologists of the organization and a political referent of the OUN headquarters. the working materials of the first Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists. within the boundaries of our own country”. Kostarev. 1–2.

30

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2

“Polish issue” and ways of solving it shows that the idea of ethnic cleansing of Polish people residing in Ukraine emerged rather late – in the end
of 1942 – beginning oа 1943.76
However, in case of Jews the statement of “total elimination of all occupants” could have dreadful consequences, even if the “occupants” wereу
alien authorities and not national groups. The fact is that the Ukrainian
nationalists of those times saw “Nationalist publications wrote about the
“Jew community” and the “Russian-Jewish domination” in the Soviet
Ukraine. For example, “Building up the nation”, the same issue where
they published the appeal of the Congress of Ukrainian nationalists, has
an article titled “National and proletarian revolution”. The article stated
that “proletarian revolution” in Ukraine was supported only by certain
“Russian-Jewish groups”: “Russian and Jewish population of Ukraine
supported not only proletarian revolution, but such supporter of the old
regime and such enemies of Ukrainian State as Denikin, Wrangel”; at
that time “the people of Ukraine see Soviet authorities as alien power
(Moscow-Jewish power)”; “Moscowites and Jews laid hands not only
power bodies”; “Moscow-Jewish authorities conduct Russian policy in
Ukraine”.77
In the same issue of the journal we find V. Bogush’s article “Economic
relationship between Ukraine and Russia in the USSR”, where he says that
such “Russian-Jewish” dominance in Ukraine existed back in the Tsar
times, when all the trade was concentrated in the hands of Russian and
Jews.78 Thus, we see that Ukrainian nationalists set tight connections between Jews and “occupational” Soviet authorities.
This statement, published in the first issue of “Building up the nation”
of 1929, was further developed in the following issue of the journal, in the
article of already mentioned V. Bogush “Russian-Jewish dominance and
the role of Russian culture in the Soviet Ukraine”. The first paragraph of
the article said: “Russians and Jews seized power in the Soviet Ukraine
and now rule over millions of Ukrainian workers and farmers”.79 The au76

77
78
79

For more details see: Dyukov, A. R . “Polsky vopros” v planah OUN(B): ot nasilstvennoy assimilyatsiyi
k etnicheskim chistkam (The “Polish issue” in the OUN(B) plans: from froced assimilation to ethnic
cleansing) // Zabytiy genotsid. “Volynskaya reznya” 1943-1944: documenty i issledovaniya (Forgotten
genocide. “Massacre at Volyn” in 1943-1944: documents and investigation materials), Мoscow, 2008,
pp. 63–89.
Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï), 1929, no. 1–2, pp. 9, 13, 14.
Ibid., p. 26.
Ibid., no. 3–4, p. 85.

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2

31

thor further on states that “the Soviet power bodies consist of mainly Jews
and Russians”.80
We should bear in mind that anything published in “Building up
the nation” was a programme to follow for common OUN members.81
The readers were to get a clear picture of Jews being alien and hostile to
Ukrainian people, because the former had first been part of the Tsar and
later on Soviet regime. So a question logically followed: What is to be
done to Jews?
Yuri Milyanich tried to answer the above question in his article “Jews,
Zionism and Ukraine”, published in “Building up the nation”.
“The “Jewish issue” is becoming one of the major political problems in Ukraine. Unfortunately, neither Ukrainian publicists, nor
Ukrainian activists devote attention to the issue.
Nevertheless, reality remains reality: there are over two millions of Jews in Ukraine, they are alien and mostly hostile element
in our national State. Jews have done enough harm to our liberation movement. This has happened all the time in our history and
is happening now; be it Poles, Russians, Bolsheviks or Germans
– the Jews were always on the opposite side and fought against
Ukrainians. And that too despite, or perhaps due to, unbelievable tolerance and friendly attitude of Ukrainian people towards
Jews. In our struggle against Poland they fortify the Polish front,
in the struggle against Bolsheviks they support the latter, and in
the struggle against Russian influence they are the most dedicated
followers and distributors of the latter.
Apart from a whole number of enemies outside, Ukraine has
an internal enemy – Jews. Not only had they done harm to us all
the time, Jews have not changed their attitudes up to date; keep
doing harm and will carry on until Ukrainian people find some
ways to protect themselves, until Ukrainian people force Jews to
give due respect to the political and national systems of the State.
Just as Ukrainians set up defense against invaders, in the system
of Ukrainian liberation policy the time has come to think about
Ukrainian policy towards Jews.
80
81

Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацii), 1929, no. 1–2, p. 88
Kurilo, T., Himka, I. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews?),
p. 255.

32

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2

What should we do to Jews? There are over two millions of
them in Ukraine. Should we let them infest the Ukrainian national system?… Relocate them? But where? Two million people
are not so easy to relocate or get rid of in any other way. No one
wants them; everybody wants to be free of them. Except Spain, no
other Christian European country managed to solve the Jewish
issue once and for good.”82
The articles then says that in the course of establishing Independent
Ukraine the struggle against Jews will be “inevitable” and Jews, knowing
that, interfere in the process of formation of the new State. 83 The article
concludes: “During the struggle against the hostile Jews we must set up
our own system and use the ways of solving this issue which are of the
most benefit to us. The problem is complicated and deep-rooted, since we
had ignored for quite long. However, it must be solved.”84
Milyanich’s article confirmed the OUN negative attitude towards Jews:
anti-Semitism was becoming one of the ideological foundation principles
of the organization. Logically, the OUN publications contained more antiSemitic materials in the course of time, first of all related to “Moscow-Jewish power”. “Provocations, violence and deaths have created the system,
ruled by the Moscow boor, with sadist Jews as servants”, – wrote an illegal
journal “Surma”.85 Similar ideas we can find on the pages of “Building up
the nation”.86 This propaganda was not in vain: according to the information of Polish police, the campaign against a communist Jew, conducted
by Ukrainian nationalists caused rapid growth of anti-Semitism in the
Western Ukraine.87
However, there were people among the OUN leaders who considered
it possible to give up the old anti-Semitic stereotypes. In 1930, one of the
chief ideologists of the organization, Nikolay Stsiborsky, published his article “Ukrainian nationalism and Jews” in the Journal “Building up the
Nation”. Stsiborsky noted the strong anti-Semitic trends in Ukrainian society. “Most of Ukrainians have an extremely negative attitude to Jews.
82
83
84
85
86
87

Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï), 1929, no. 7–8, p. 271.
Ibid., p. 272.
Ibid., p. 276.
Surma. 1929, no. 12, p. 22.
See for example: Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï), 1930, no. 3–4, p. 53.
Gon, M. M. Ukrainski pravoradicaly ta evreyi Zakhidnoi Ukrainy (druga polovina 1930 rokov) (The
Right Ukrainian radicals and the Jews in the Western Ukraine (second half of the 1930s), p. 376.

1931. pp. 1–2. Jews will have more favourable conditions for working and living than they have now at the occupied Ukrainian territories. the Professor of Ukrainian Liberal University in Prague. and in this the views and desires of the authorities and common people are miraculously identical”. no. the Jews in Western Ukraine could not have wished for a better Nation to live in. pp.89 Against the background of the openly anti-Semitic propaganda published in “Building up the nation”. 276–292. 7–8. cultural and other activities… As for apprehensions that equality of Jews might harm the national identity. no. Already in the following issue of “Building up the nation” they started publishing the series of articles related to the “Jewish issue”. 11–12. 127– 137. – “is to persuade Jews that the emerging Ukrainian State is of no threat to them. 267. no. wrote Stsiborsky. p. 9–10. Mitsyuk’s article had been published during three years almost in every issue of the journal. 11–12. industrial and economic structure. in this new State with the new social. written by Alexander Mitsyuk. pp. 218–230. which made the latter apprehensive about Ukrainian nationalists. no. 272-273. 3–4. pp. 1932. we should keep in mind that Jews are not such a national minority in Ukraine who could have any grounds to oppose our independence… The task of the State authorities will be to create favourable conditions for Jews so that they could preserve their natural racial. Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï). But that article remained an exception from the general rule.88 It was that negative attitude of Ukrainian people toward Jews. no. no. 70–79.. “The duty of the Ukrainian society” – said Stsiborsky. the government will treat Jews as an equal national group and will give them opportunity to participate in the social. Moreover. On the contrary. pp. 18–28. pp. 5–6. pp. no. 1–2. 172–181. Stsiborsky’s article was a blast. pp. . If the plans he described had been implemented.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 33 The negative and often hostile attitudes to Jewish people are wide-spread among Ukrainians. Ibid. We must point out to Jews that our movement sees no grounds or benefit in limiting the rights of the Jews in Ukraine. and at the same time be involved as equal participant in common social and state interests and its positive creation”. cultural and religious characteristics.90 and 88 89 90 Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï). 13–25. no.

Merciless economic laws forced Jewish and Ukrainian people fight amongst each other. The author gave grounds to his view and opposed the statement of Stsiborsky. no. issued by the occupants. 180–194. no. Kurilo. 1931. 253–256. pp. 75–86. . Will villagers buy from a Jewish or a Ukrainian shop? Whose products will enjoy higher 91 92 93 no. 137. 9–10. 11–12. The fact is. 11–12. pp. no. no. p. the series was directly ordered from Mitsyuk. Note that during WWII Mitsyuk published a series of articles in Ukrainian newspaper “Krakow news”. Himka. 3–4. 277–287. “Building up the nation” started publishing the Mitsyuk’s articles. exactly on this subject. Anti-Semitic trends among them were strong for very practical reasons. and were of course very appreciated by the OUN activists. no. pp.93 The articles of Mitsyuk in “Building up the nation” gave “scientific” grounds for the appeal to struggle against Jews. 7–8. 226–235. pp. no. 256. 3–4.91 The only fact of systematic publications of his articles in the official OUN journal proves that the leaders of the Ukrainian nationalists estimated the materials as highly important. 1943: Ukrainsko-evreiskiy vidnosini pid chas Drugoi svitovoi viyny (“Кракiвськi вiстi”про євреїв. p. 7–8. T. Himka. 75–87. pp. “Mitsyuk’s work is one of the most significant anti-Jewish publications ever produced by Ukrainian intellectual tradition”. who had said that the social role of Jews is explained by their lack of rights.. 1994. For more details see Himka. Himka. The main trend of Mitsyuk’s works was the demonstration of Jews’ “parasitism”. that in the middle of 1930 the programme of the OUN ideologists was published. 1943 рiк: Украïнсько-єврейськi вiдносини пiд час Другої cвiтової війни) // Фiлософська i cоцiологiчна думка. pp. Kurilo. 5–6. As noted by Canadian historians T. pp. and thus took the wind out of sails of those who wanted to mend the ties between Ukrainians and Jews. 296–300. T. that would ensure consistent social and economic development for the citizens. 1930. I. pp. pp. 9–10. I.92 And in the beginning of the following year. By all appearance. Kurilo and I. 257. p. no. “Krakowski visti” pro evreyi. turned into an eastern province of Poland. remained just a dream. 130–138. 5–6. no. which anticipated the required research of “the heterogeneous elements (by race)” facilitate the decay of the Ukrainian State. 118–131.34 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 later on were published as a separate book titled “Ruralization of Jews in general economic conditions”. Rozbudova natsii (Розбудова нацiï). I. no. A Ukrainian State. no. 5–6. 185–196. 1933.. The series was titled “Jews in Ukraine” and contained extremely anti-Semitic and pro-Nazi articles. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews?). Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews?). no. pp. In reality they had the poverty-stricken Western Ukraine. 5–6.

152. First the OUN tried to move away from anti-Jewish campaigns. Iz krivdoyu na samoti (Iз кривдою на самотi).”95 Soon however. 10–11. For the nationalists. “Ukrainian farmer! Ukrainian worker! The land owned by local Jews is the property of the Ukrainian Nation. Kick them out of the village. 8. especially when it was a clear law violation. Get away Jews!”94 As it was said so it was done. Surma. M. From this day on nobody will work for a Jew. the reason for the poor state of Ukrainians was in Jews and Poles. Stanislavsky and Styisky districts. Kalusky. The village boycotted Jewish shops. M. and in the houses of Jewish people windows were shattered. Jews should disappear from the Ukrainian land. M. and the best way to do it is to set fire on 94 95 96 97 Gon.. 77. OUN members conducted a campaign in the villages of Zhidachivsky. “Recently Jewish people in Stryi area were attacked and robbed. Gon. 77. The Ukrainian nationalists started leading anti-Jewish campaigns. we need to get rid of them. – “Don’t buy from a Jew. The local OUN leaders gathered and made a decision saying that “Jews are harmful for the Ukrainian nation. p. 1932. when they broke windows of Jews’ residences. Let our motto be Get away Jews!”96 In 1935. Iz krivdoyu na samoti (Iз кривдою на самотi). The Jews are eternal enemy of the Ukrainian Nation. and conducted them on a wide scale. the situation changed. . – Polish mass media promptly reacted to it and accused the Ukrainian underground organizations of this crime. M. p.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 35 demand? Such questions were much more important for Ukrainian people that abstract ideological concepts. Ibid. The OUN leadership in the area stated in its “Bulletin” that they have nothing to do with the above attacks. “Don’t let Jews rob you. – wrote the “Surma” journal in autumn 1932. distributed by OUN people in Korostov village of Zdolbunovsky district. This was also stated in a leaflet.97 Another hate campaign on a wider scale was conducted in the summer of 1936 in Kostopol district. no. because answers to those questions determined their welfare. p. p. distributed in Beliv village of the Stanislavsky province. Those who work for Jews will be condemned and severely punished.” – said a leaflet.

and found the German way of solving the Jewish issue quite suitable.36 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 their houses. M. by the Minister of Foreign affairs of the Third Reich. because by the end of the 30s..”100 Escalation of hatred towards Jews promoted further radicalization of OUN attitudes. shops etc. and communist Jews were the enemy. isolated and sent away from Ukraine altogether. V. Kyiv. p. von Lahusen. Himka. p. 2004. p. one of the OUN HQ members. Head of 2nd (subvert) Abwehr department. Ibid. 98 Gon. Martinets in his article analyses the “Jewish issue” from the angle of racial theory. 102. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews?).102 Their task was to arrange anti-Polish rebels in the West of Ukraine and clear the territory from “undesired elements”. a prominent OUN member V. It’s not surprising. Towards the former economic boycott was advised. headed by Colonel Roman Sushko. made during the proceeding of International Military Court in Nuremberg on 12th September 1939. Ukrainian nationalists had been actively cooperating with the Nazi services. 6. Iz krivdoyu na samoti (Iз кривдою на самотi). over 100 Jewish families lost their homes. Admiral Canaris. 99 100 . Ibid.101 Martinets’ suggestion had much in common with the anti-Jewish policy implemented in the Nazi Germany. I. I. According to the directive there was a difference between “Jews” and “communist Jews”. “The task was to get in touch with the Ukrainian nationalists. “against them we should fight with all our energy and use terror. Kurilo. 102 Organizatsiya ukrainskyh natsionalistiv i Ukrainska povstanska armiya: Fakhoviy vysnovok robochoi grupi istorykov pri uryadovoy komisiyi vyvchennya diyatelnosti OUN i UPA (Oрганiзацiя украïнських нацiоналiстiв i Украïнська повстаньска армiя: Фаховий висновок робочоï групи iсторикiв при урядовiй комiciï з вивчення дiятельностi ОУН i УПА). According to the statement of E. An indirect confirmation of this is the task given to the OUN by Nazi leaders before invading Poland. T. 2005. the Abwehr of OUN members founded a raiding force code-named “Bergbauernhilfe”. Lvov. The conclusion was as expected: Jews were to be fought against as enemies. von Ribbentrop. In 1938. 257–258. The group consisted of about 600 people. the OUN regional HQ made a clarification in their attitude towards Jewish people. M. the corresponding order was given to the supervisor of Abwehr.”98 As a result. On 15th August 1939. ЗB 3. 101 Derevenskiy. Pitannya natsionalnyh menshyn v etnonatsionalniy kontseptsiyi OUN (Питання нацiональних меншин в етнонацiональнiй концепцiï ОУН) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украïнський визвольний рух).99 Several months after this campaign. 11. p.

p. file С-9079.” – said an NKGB USSR agent planted in the OUN. Thankfully. p. In 19401941 this collaboration encouraged further radicalization of the OUN attitude towards Jews. in particular. After the victory in Polish campaign. p. bearing 103 Judgment at Nuremberg: Collection of records. 121. his plan was not implemented.104 The German Secret Services. they meant intelligentsia and the circles bearing national resistance to the Nazi ideology…”103 Clearly. 1.106 Further on we can see that the anti-Polish and anti-Jewish collaboration between the OUN and Nazi secret service was considered a positive experience by the OUN leaders. p. This gradual change in the attitude can be clearly seen when we compare the two OUN plans of anti-Soviet rebels. stock 65. Nazi leaders considered it convenient to use OUN groups for the extermination of Jews. 181. When they spoke about Polish people. One of them. sheet 221–234. that would result in exterminating Polish and Jewish people in Poland. who informed the OUN leaders and joined Gestapo. 1990. SSA SSU. Groscurth. 4. The Ukrainian population of the province. were warned that they should only work against Poles and Jews. V. 106 Stepan Bandera u dokumentah… (Stepan Bandera in the documents…). 104 Trofimovich. s. in order to initiate a revolt in Poland. 99. . H. could now be handed over to Ukrainians. Stuttgart. Rol Nimecchyny ta SSSR v ukrainsko-polskomu konflikti 1934-1945 (The role of Germany and the USSR in the Ukrainian-Polish conflict in 1939-1945) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I”(Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї») 2003. Ribbentrop spoke to Canaris about it in person. the houses and shops. Note that in 1940-1941 the collaboration between the OUN headquarters and Gestapo was of clear anti-Polish and anti-Jewish character. Мoscow. 105 Ibid. vol. the “Bergbauernhilfe” was dismissed.. 1970. and they were ready to repeat it. “The OUN headquarters allowed nobody to join Gestapo without informing the former. no. in gratitude of services and assistance rendered by the OUN awarded them legal status. 357.105 This approach was certainly favoured by the Ukrainian nationalists. and its members joined the “Werkschutz” subdivision (security of industrial objects). received quite a number of privileges. vol.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 37 who already had contacts with the Intelligence Service. created by the Nazis. and some of its members joined the police troops in the eastern territories of occupied Poland. seized from Jews. 4. 28. 122. Those. Tagebücher eines Abwehroffiziers 1938-1940: Mit weiteren Dokumenten zur Militäropposition gegen Hitler. vol.

By the time the “Integrated general plan” was made. it is crucial. but by the time of his arrest they had not reached the regional headquarters. stock 9.. On this night.”108 The part “Main tasks for unit headquarters” stated that it was necessary to “spread havoc and dissociation among the enemy (indiscriminate shootings of the enemy)”. Victor Kurmanovich in the spring of 1940. stock 16.. sheet 216–225. His statement holds great significance for our research. while the young and radical Bandera had the activists of the Western Ukraine. it was not indicated who was to be included in the “black lists” for extermination. SSA SSU. The introduction part said: “The first night of action is very important. file 19. 109 Ibid. between the factions supporting Andrey Melnik and Stepan Bandera. According to the “Integrated general plan”. the split was not yet final. sheet 25–58.38 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 the title “The Integrated general plan of OUN rebel headquarters”. SSA SSU. 339. ex-General of Ukrainian Galician Army.110 Under further interrogation Maksimov explained that the “black lists” were made on the spot. SSA SSU. 40. For instance. file 63. headed by Bandera. By the spring of 1940. said they were not clear enough. – wrote Ivan Maksimov. list 33. The old nationalist Melnik was supported by the executive members of OUN. 57. 1. member of OUN Lvov regional headquarters. his document was used by the Krakow OUN regional leadership. “This is a mandatory condition for our victory. one of the tasks of the rebel forces was to eliminate all elements hostile to the nationalists. p. p. file 75170-FP. was prepared by one of the OUN leaders. there emerged a split in the OUN. enemy spies etc). as we don’t know for sure who of the local population represents personnel “detriment for the OUN”.” – emphasized the author of the document. p. 110 Ibid. as evident from an excerpt from his interrogation records: 107 Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah… (Roman Shukhevich in the documents… ). Despite the fact that the author of the “Integrated general plan” supported Melnik. who received these instructions. We also must escalate turmoil. . vol..107 The plan described in detail the tasks of anti-Soviet armed operation and the action planned during the revolt. 1. vol. 91.109 The OUN underground leaders in Western Ukraine. stock 6. in the autumn of 1940 (who was subsequently arrested by the Soviet State Security Service). 108 Ibid. sheet 104–116. “The lists are not ready yet. the enemy must lose its manpower (informers. p. everybody on the black list must be eliminated.

Collecting information on the attitude of the population toward the Soviet system and the revolt. NKVD members and people coming from the eastern parts of Ukraine. made by the OUN. people cooperating with the Soviet Government. regional. but taking into consideration the anti-Semitic trends. SSA SSU. hostile to the OUN and the revolt. besides. 4. 2. vol. this is a highly likely possibility. 1. Question: What was done for implementation of this part of the mobilization plan? Answer: The OUN intelligence service and areal. file 75170-FP.. 1. hostile to the OUN and the revolt”? Answer: The third point of the plan included collecting information on all object of military. Question: Who was included in the “black lists”. state and economic significance that were to be captured in the first place. We can not say for sure if the Jewish people were also included. and what did the OUN plan to do with those people? Answer: In particular the “black lists” included national minorities. district and province leadership were making the “black lists” but the lists have not reached the main headquarters yet”. as well as people taking an active part in the social and political activities. 98–99. leaders of the Red Army. Question: How do you understand the third point of the mobilization plan “Reconnaissance and registration of all forces. but also “national minorities. “Zapilie” – establishing of the state government. General mobilization – as a reserve. Vol. Reconnaissance and registration of all forces. described above. hostile towards the revolt. and “black lists” included not only representatives and supporters of the Soviet government. sheet 236–243.111 Clearly. stock 6. p. hostile to the revolt. Combat staff – OUN members. the “Integrated general plan” was amended on the spot.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 39 “Question: What was included into the mobilization plan? Answer: Mobilization plan had the following parts: 1. hostile to the revolution”. . 3. 111 Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah… (Roman Shukhevich in the documents… ). the OUN intelligence service was to make the “black lists” of people.

// Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украïнський визвольний рух). 113 UPA v svitli nimetskyh dokumentiv (УПА в свiтлi нiмецьких документiв). arranged by Melnik in Rome. but against Jewish people as 112 Grivul. p. – “Anti-Jewish attitude of Ukrainian people is used by the Moscow Bolshevist government. vol.”114 This resolution of the OUN(B) was of crucial nature then. at the threshold of German attack against the USSR. “Jews in the USSR are the most dedicated supporters of the Bolshevist regime and are the advance guard of Moscow Imperialism in the Ukraine. The Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists fights the Jews as they are the support of Moscow Bolshevist regime. stock 1. and conducted their own Congress in Krakow. During the 1940’s. The resolutions of that Congress were promptly translated into German and sent to the leaders of the Third Reich. p. calling them “betrayers” and “opportunists”. 163. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. this did not happen either. book 1. sheet 192. in order to distract their attention from the actual cause of the problem. p. list 23. In April 1941. . 36. T. and explains to the population that the main enemy is Moscow. Despite the OUN hopes that either Turkey or Germany would attack the Soviet Union. Conferentsiy ta inshih dokumentiv z borotby 1929-1955 (ОУН в свiтли постанов Великих Зборiв. part 1. 114 OUN v svitli postanov Velikih Zborov.113 The resolution of the OUN(B)’s second Great Congress clearly showed the dangerously negative attitude of the organization towards Jews. 3. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). and to direct their anger during the revolt to massacring the Jews. Акт 30 червня 1941). 1955. who did not understand the worth of revolutionary struggle. p.40 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 The “Integrated general plan” was not implemented. The failure to implement the plan further aggravated the split between Melnik’s and Bandera’s factions in the OUN.” – wrote Melnik supporters about the estranged “Bandera group”. laid an extra burden on our organization and caused so many failures. 29–33.). these criminal enemies of the revolution abandoned the people. p. file 926. 2004. The conflict inside the OUN reached its peak. the Ukrainian underground nationalists in the Western Ukraine suffered quite a number of tough attacks from the NKVD.” – said the resolution. Lvov. “In 1940. CSAPOU. Do pytannya konflictu v OUN 1940-1941 (Dо питання конфлiкту в ОУН 1940–1941 рр). Bandera group announced disavowal of the resolution of OUN’s second Great Congress. 11. Конференцiй та iнших документiв з боротьби 1929–1955 р.112 The Bandera people reacted. It proved that during the war. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. 43. the activity of the Ukrainian nationalists would be directed not only against representatives of the Soviet system.

prevent all access to government authorities.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 41 well. he must be watched by our supervisor and eliminated for any minor fault. i. A number of contemporary Ukrainian historians have tried to interpret the anti-Jewish part of the resolution of OUN(B) second Great Congress in a different way. just before the German invasion of the Soviet Union. а) Have rights equal with Ukrainian people and are allowed to return to their native land. Jews. and forcefully assimilated. Poles. exterminate intelligentsia first of all. Russian. persuading them that they are Ukrainians. only of the Latin tradition. . the OUN(B) developed a new plan “The OUN struggle and activity during the war”. same for Russians and Poles. the principles of the OUN attitude towards national minorities were as follows: “National minorities are subdivided into: а) amicable to us. saying that the OUN(B) was planning to fight only the Jews supporting the Soviet system. But the internal documents of the OUN(B) do now show this distinction. the directive covered the national issues as well. According to point 16 of part “Instructions for the first days of the state system arrangement”. and make emerging of intelligentsia impossible. If it is essential to leave a Jew on his position in the economic administration. removed from government bodies in order to prevent sabotage. b) Are exterminated in the course of struggle. In May 1941. b) hostile to us. This directive differed from the “Integrated general plan” by giving more details on certain points. Jews must be isolated. and not Jews as a nation. but the fact that such a task existed conveys a great deal to us. We have already mentioned the “Integrated general plan of OUN rebel headquarters” made in the spring of 1940. close access to schools etc. It included meticulous description of activities to be arranged by the new government and military organizations. apart from those supporting the regime: moving to their lands. Unlike the “Integrated general plan”. For example. e. Leaders must be eliminated. The words “Jew” and “Bolshevik supporter” were treated as synonyms. Action against Jews was of course a secondary task for the OUN. members of all enslaved nations. the so-called Polish villagers must be assimilated.

as they are the main support of NKVD and Soviet Authorities in Ukraine. sheet 16–22. p. During chaos and disarray. part 1. stock 309.42 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 In certain areas of administration only Ukrainians can be heads and leaders. sheet 38. 37. file 1. 117 CSA SBPGU. sheet 32. p. CSHAU. who are sent by Moscow to colonize Ukraine and create a national intrusion. 93. stock 3833. list 2. CSA SBPGU. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). list 2. part 1. – “we may eliminate undesired Polish. file 1. stock 3833. Heydrich. Jews. not in the end of June. K. 153. 118 RSMA.” “We should keep in mind that there activists. who still dream of Great Poland…”119 115 CSA SBPGU.”117 We should note that the quoted paragraph is almost identical to the Order № 1 of R.). Assimilation of Jews is impossible. 103–104.. Chief of Security Police and SD. part 1. . M. 129.” – the paragraph went. as stated above. sheet 57–76. list 2. Russian and Jewish activists. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. file 2887. Berkhoff. The military section of the directive had a special paragraph on “clearing the territory from hostile elements”. 119 OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941).”115 Point number 17 explained: “Our system should be formidable for our enemies. enemies-outsiders. C. Poles in Western Ukraine. D 25. Carynnyk. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists…. who should be neutralized in the course of establishing a new revolutionary system in Ukraine. list 1. Terror is the treatment for enemies – outsiders and betrayers. 116 Ibid. Акт 30 червня 1941.”118 Only the OUN Directive was released earlier – in May 1941. stock 3833. to initiate local massacres. sheet 17. p. list 1.”116 Terrorist action against enemies of the OUN was to begin right after the armed operation. Outsiders. fi le 1. sent to Ukrainian land to strengthen the power of Moscow in Ukraine. especially supporters of Moscow Bolshevist imperialism. These activists are: Russians. stock 500. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. p. Further clarification to the point of “clearing the territory from hostile elements was given in the section “Organisation of Security Service. which said “it is reasonable. mostly various Asians. both individually and as a nation. p.

.”123 In every area a “camp for interned. asocial elements and prisoners of war” was to be established in order to keep people under arrest.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 43 Establishment of a new state system should have started with mass arrests of those “enemies of Ukraine” who had not been eliminated during the armed operations. the following people were to be excluded from kolkhoz: “1. p. To make lists of all former members of NKVD. intended for Jews. p. 143. 123 Ibid.122 Just in the same way “unreliable and hostile to the nationalist revolution elements” at large industrial plants were to be interned and taken under arrest. NKGB. NKVD members. prosecutor’s office and journalists of Bolshevist mass media. NKVD and NKGB members must be interned and taken under arrest. 139. part 1. All representatives of Bolshevist system. kolkhoz. secret agents etc.124 The section “Organisation of Security Service” stated: “After establishing the People’s Militia in the region. 120 OUN v 1941 rotsi (Th e OUN in 1941). the directive went. all concealed Red Army soldiers. 121 . who joined the community in order to promote exploitation of villagers. p. plant) must surrender to the People’s police. the regional superintendant should start systematic arrangements for order and safety in the region. Besides. after police units were arranged in villages “all Jews must report to the People’s police troops. “all Jews. Ibid.. According to the directive. prosecutor’s office and The Bolshevist Communist Party. 124 Ibid. All outsiders. secret agents and others. All citizens of the village (area. NKGB.”120 According to the same directive. Jews. 138. Jews. working in the community as overseers of Bolshevist system. who are not members of kolkhoz community must be “interned and taken under arrest”.”121 All those. related to NKVD.. 122 Ibid. 131. 3. 2. In connection to that is it required: 1. p.

44 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 2.”125 OUN members expected to face much more obstacles in cities than in villages. Jews and others. Povstans’ka rozvidka die tochno I vidvagno (Повстанська розвідка діє точно і відважно). p. p. list 2. stock 3833.. who were active at time of Ukrainian nation persecution.” – said the directive. register all outsiders like Russians. with domination of Jews and Russians. 150. 129 OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). 130 Ibid. sheet 57–76.”129 “This is the time of national revolution. part 1. G.128 In general. p. “Big cities in Ukraine are mostly populated by outsiders. capture all political archives. The directive ordered police members: to register all Jewish population. part 1. p. French. Russians. the place is cleared from NKVD members. To intern non-Ukrainians described in point 1 and 2 above. – “so there should be no tolerance towards long-settled outsiders. 152.” – stated the directive. arrangements for a new proper life in town may start. 145. 128 Vedeneev.. Poles. “After the order is set in town. every attempt of the outsiders in Ukraine to act in any organized way. To make lists of individual. Poles. Ibid.. First of all they are non-Ukrainians: Jews.”127 The structure of the prospective Ukrainian police included a special “communist and Jews” subdivision within Investigation Departments. p. create an archive of communist-Jews activity. CSA SBPGU.”130 The second statement was to be supported by propaganda. Czechs and all other who could cooperate with the enemy. 147. 126 . D. file 1. 3. Russians. 248–249. approved by the OUN(B) headquarters for distribution: “No mercy to Red blood-sucker! No mercy to their servants! Stalin’s and Jew commissioners – first enemies of the nation!” 125 OUN v 1941 rotsi (Th e OUN in 1941). the same scheme was to be used here as well: repressions against supporters of the Soviet system and against “hostile” national minorities. 127 Ibid.126 However. The directive mentions mottos. Bystruhin. the OUN Security Service and Ukrainian Police were to “strangle at birth.

their assimilation is impossible. Consequently they are either exterminated or sent away from the country. prisoners of war – soldiers of the Red Army. The third stage of solving the problem of national minorities takes place after the war. 41–46. file 2887. NKVD people. 156–162. p. After the Soviet troops retreat. Акт 30 червня 1941. Jews. list 2. save Ukraine!” “Workers! Don’t let destroy your plants and factories after the Red Army leaves! Kill the enemies among you – Jews and secret agents.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 45 “When the war begins. stock 309. in particular. have very limited rights. part 1. pp.”131 The summary of the above statements of the directive “The OUN struggle and activity during the war” gives us the following concept for solving the national issue: after Germany invades the Soviet Union. As for the Jews. and first of all – police forces. CSA SBPGU. and Jews are sent. and everybody who want war and our death! They are the major enemies of the nation!” “Ukraine is for Ukrainians! Death to Moscow-Jewish community! Destroy community. list 1. Jewish and Russian people who remain free. would end up being persecuted both individually and as a national group. or isolated. Jews. Those Polish. They would kill representatives of the Soviet System. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. CSHAL. Polish and Russian people assimilate. sheet 77–89. kill Bolsheviks who give you orders! Destroy headquarters. sheet 26–42. can’t hold any administrative posts. . In case Jews turn out to be irreplaceable professionals. Polish activists. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). the OUN(B)’s plan of action with respect to the “Jewish issue” almost word for word repeats similar Nazi concepts. they work under close supervision of police and are eliminated for any minor fault. political instructors. file 1. OUN members on the Soviet territory would start armed operations. In every region police sets up special camps. Polish activists and Jews. stock 3833. The leading 131 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. they are not allowed education in their mother tongue. As we can see.). shoot Russians. establishing of the new state authorities would begin. where representatives of the Soviet power.

and “break their back bone” He 132 Altman. they were to be forcefully assimilated. p. 1941-1945 (Victims of hatred: Holocaust in the USSR. stock 3833. Stsiborsky wrote that it was necessary to implement tough policies with respect to national minorities in Ukraine. 133 . p. 63–89. list 2.”134 Curiously enough.” An exception is made for “individuals of Jewish nationality” who are subject to a separate law. was prepared by none other than Nikolay Stsiborsky – the very person who in 1930 suggested that Jews should be given equal rights as all other citizens. The “Jewish issue” is mentioned in the draft Constitution of Ukrainian State. 216. I. A. the draft of the Constitution showing a clear discrimination for Jews. “Polsky vopros” v planah OUN(B): ot nasilstvennoy assimilyatsiyi k etnicheskim chistkam (The “Polish issue” in the OUN(B) plans: from froced assimilation to ethnic cleansing). CSA SBPGU. For more details on the evolution of OUN’s methods for solving the “Polish issue” see: Dyukov. sheet 1–9.46 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 Russian researcher of the history of Holocaust believes that OUN people. forceful relocation or isolation. and after the Ukrainian State is established. During combat operations Poles. A. p. 2) people of other nationalities. instead of elimination. were not to be persecuted as a national group. It is worth mentioning that the OUN(B) in its official instructions prescribed more severe measures against Jews than against Poles. took their instructions related to persecution of Jews and translated them from the German language. part 1.133 Melnik’s faction had a far vaguer position with regards to the “Jewish issue”. 220. 134 OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). prepared by the OUN(M). 1941-1945). By 1941 his view changed into radical anti-Semitic attitude. R. Just before Germany invaded the Soviet Union. The article on citizenship states: “At the moment of announcement of the Ukrainian State the following people have Ukrainian citizenship: 1) all people of Ukrainian nationality residing within the borders of the Ukrainian State. Zhertvy nenavisty: Holokost v SSSR. file 7.132 Anti-Jewish articles of the directive of 1941 clearly show that his assumption is far from improbable. unlike Jews. this fact shows the great significance of the anti-Semitic component in the OUN ideology. However illogical it may seem. whose fathers or who themselves have resided within the borders of the Ukrainian State since 1 August 1941.

The OUN leaders were offered to take chairmen posts in Ukrainian OUN centers in villages and towns. who followed the advancing German troops in Ukraine: 1. The Ukrainian Committee was supervised by the OUN(M). ZYBYCHANSKY Myroslav listed the following known to him directives for the above groups. Reveal and eliminate Soviet guerillas. d. 139. 21–22. p. 7–8. e. Introduce OUN terror regime. sheet 107–108. eliminate village activist groups and Soviet system supporters among the population. Lvov. Tragediya Galitskogo evreystva (The tragedy of Jews in Galicia). The troops were to consist of active OUN members. stock 100. mainly with terrorist actions. E. conduct massacres of Jewish people…”136 Zybychansky’s statements are confirmed by the OUN(M) propaganda materials. where he demanded that OUN people start terror activity… It was suggested that OUN leaders should gather reconnaissance troops headed by German spies and special agents. 136 FSB CA.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 47 spoke separately of the “Jewish issue”. get close to administration of various German-Ukrainian authorities. file 8. where they had to start the OUN terrorist activity. b. list 11. its official publication spoke about “Jewish 135 Maslovsky. s. Proboem (Пробоєм). introduce terror groups. such as: а. create false guerilla groups for provocative actions. no. 1941. for which they needed “special plan and methods”. there is an article “Jewish issue in Ukraine”. so they had more ways for the terrorist actions. . published in “Krakow News” newspaper of the Central Ukrainian Committee several days before the war. 1997. For example. police etc. Prus. Andrey Melnik issued a directive. Organize and lead all nationalist forces to struggle against the Red Army and Soviet system.135 We can get the idea of what these methods were from the statements an OUN(M) leader Myroslav Zybychynsky: “By the time Germany started the war against the Soviet Union. and sent after the advancing German Army to Ukraine. c. Holocaust po banderowsku…. V.

1941. The two factions were unanimous in their views with respect to this issue. J. vol. The influence of anti-Jewish stereotypes was very strong among Ukrainian nationalists. SSA FISU. . Typescript. Tragediya Galitskogo evreystva (The tragedy of Jews in Galicia). The issue of the attitude and policy towards national minorities was not given due consideration during the Congress.-P. which took place in the beginning on 1929. hostile to Ukrainians and having tight connections with “occupational” Soviet authorities. the NKVD Murders of 1941. 1. 207. 21–22. but of tactical and personal nature. The author gave no direct answer to the questions of how the “Jewish issue” should be solved. the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists initially had no clear view on the “Jewish issue”. 2008. 1. file 10876.138 The above comparison of the OUN(B) and OUN(M) positions confirm this information. 138 Stepan Bandera u dokumentah… (Stepan Bandera in the documents…). For quite a long time OUN ideologists and propagandists only repeated anti-Semitic statements of “Moscow-Jewish” reign in the Soviet Ukraine and “Jewish predominance” in the economy. Lvov. and the Vinnytsia Exhumation. Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: Krakivs'ki visti. “Building of the nation”. p. p. For OUN(M) members as well as for OUN(B). “There were no ideological or political contradictions between OUN(B) and OUN(M) up to March 1942” – said later on one of OUN top leaders. 18 June. However. Summary Established in 1929. V. vol. but stated that in the course of establishing Independent 137 Maslovsky. Zionism and Ukraine”. sheet 114–116. the official OUN journal. the working materials of the first Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists.137 In 1940-1942 the conflict between Bandera and Melnik OUN factions were not of ideological. Some time later anti-Semitism became one of the OUN ideological foundation principles. described Jews as a national group. arrested by Soviet authorities. About “Krakowksi visti” see: Himka.48 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 dominance in Ukrainian land” and the need for vengeance and punishment. where for the first time in OUN official publication the requirement to solve the “Jewish issue” was announced. Krakowksi visti (Краківські вісті). the Jewish people represented the enemy. contain no anti-Semitic statements. The first proof of that was Milyanich’s article “Jews.

economic and cultural life in the new Ukrainian State. and later on were published as a separate book titled “Rupalization of Jews in general economic conditions”. published his article “Ukrainian nationalism and Jews”. they were allowed to receive houses and factories. taken away from Jews. shops and storehouses. Mitsyuk’s articles had been published during three years almost in every issue of the journal. The materials published in OUN official press enforced those anti-Semitic trends. isolated and sent away from Ukraine altogether. Martinets’ suggestion sounded very similar to anti-Jewish policy conducted in the Nazi Germany. In 1938 a prominent OUN member V. Escalation of hatred towards Jews further promoted the “requirement” to solve the “Jewish issue” in the OUN ideology. and were of course very appreciated by the OUN activists. knowing that.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 49 Ukraine the struggle against Jews will be “inevitable” and Jews. . The articles of Mitsyuk in “Building up the nation” gave “scientific” grounds for the appeal to struggle against Jews. Nevertheless. there were people among the OUN leaders who considered it possible to give up the old anti-Semitic stereotypes. Practical consequences of anti-Jewish propaganda of Ukrainian nationalists emerged very soon: in the middle of 30s OUN members conducted wide scale campaigns of boycotting shops run by Jewish people. the Professor of Ukrainian Liberal University in Prague. received a number of benefits. This approach contributed to a deeper radicalization of the OUN attitude towards Jewish people. Nikolay Stsiborsky. However. For instance. residing on the Polish territory occupied by the Nazi. written by Alexander Mitsyuk. Ukrainian nationalists. The conclusion was as expected: Jews were to be fought against as enemies. In the beginning of the war against Poland the Nazi leadership was planning to use troops consisting of Ukrainian nationalists to exterminate Jews and Polish intelligentsia. In response to Milyanich’s article. The second publication was an exception to the general rule. one of the chief ideologists of the organization. Already in the following issue of “Building up the nation” they started publishing the series of articles related to the “Jewish issue”. which said that the Jewish people should have the same rights as all other nationalities. set fire to their houses. but the sudden termination of combat operation prevented the implementation of this plan. Martinets in his article analyzed the “Jewish issue” from the angle of racial theory. interfere in the process of formation of the new State. as well as the opportunity to take an active part in all areas of social.

This addition was taken into account and further developed in the directive “The OUN struggle and activity during the war”. one of the OUN leaders Victor Kurmanovich prepared the “Integrated general plan of OUN rebel headquarters”. Polish activists and Jews. OUN(B) views on the ways with the “Jewish issue” were identical to those of the Nazi. It is easy to see that the OUN anti-Semitic attitude developed exactly as in Nazi Germany: from common anti-Semitism to struggle against Jewish trade and finally – extermination of Jewish people. Poles. including. Their arch enemies remained Moscow and Poles. It is worth mentioning that the OUN(B) in its official instructions prescribed more severe measures against Jews than against Poles. this fact shows the great significance of the anti-Semitic component in the OUN ideology. contained appeals for vengeance and punishment of Jews. It is also known. it did not specify who the enemies are. Polish activists. After the war Polish and Russian people were to be assimilated. not allowed to hold any administrative posts. their soldiers also had orders to exterminate Jews during the war. that Melnik supporters planned to limit Jews’ rights in the future Ukrainian State. were to have limited rights. Jewish people were to be exterminated both individually and as a national group. supervised by Melnik supporters of the Ukrainian Central Committee. prepared in May 1941 by OUN(B) members. Local OUN leaders decided that together with representatives of the Soviet system they should exterminate “hostile national minorities”. and the publication “Krakow News”. soldiers of the Red Army taken as prisoners of war and Jews. the police forces. were to arrest the remaining representatives of the Soviet authorities. set up by the Ukrainian nationalists. Jewish people. . After retreat of the Soviet Army. However illogical it may seem. The plan included instructions for “shooting of the enemy” in the beginning of war. Jewish people were not the main enemy for Bandera people. The OUN(M) position with respect to the “Jewish issue” was much less clear that that of Bandera faction. by all appearance.50 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 2 This change of attitude is clearly seen when comparing the documents related to OUN arrangements of anti-Soviet revolts in the Western Ukraine. However. who were still free. the Ukrainian nationalists were to start eliminating representatives of the Soviet authorities. According to this document. after Germany attacks the Soviet Union. At the same time. However. In the spring of 1940. and Jews – sent out of the country or isolated. Jews and Russians. By the summer of 1941.

CHAPTER 3 Extermination starts: the OUN anti-Jewish campaigns in the summer of 1941 .

That is why I support extermination of Jews and believe we must introduce the German methods of extermination. as they help Moscow enslave Ukraine. I consider Moscow the main enemy. as he wrote in the report to Bandera on 25 June 1941. and arrested two more people. “only Jews were arrested”. list 3. 77. Stetsko. Carynnyk. and after the next death of a German soldier.52 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 CHAPTER 3 Extermination starts: the OUN anti-Jewish campaigns in the summer of 1941 The German attack against the Soviet Union gave the Ukrainian nationalists the opportunity to start implementation of their plans. stock 3833.. A separate unit headed by an OUN(B) leader Yaroslav Stetsko was sent to Lvov. file 12. A German soldier was killed in a village near Krakowets. which included anti-Jewish campaigns. Before the combat action. pp. excluding assimilation of Jews etc in Ukraine. listed in the directive “The OUN struggle and activity during the war”. the OUN(B) established “mobile groups” that were to follow the advancing units of Wehrmacht. 139 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. .139 Stetsko had extreme anti-Semitic views. stock 3833. spreading political propaganda and setting up the “Ukrainian police”. having radical antiSemitic views. CSA SBPGU. Акт 30 червня 1941).” – he wrote in the same report. Stetsko did not stop at that. list 1. M. His objections were heard. CSA SBPGU.” – he wrote several weeks later. 140 Berkhoff. “Moscow and Jews. In return. – “are archenemies of Ukraine and bearers of demoralizing Bolshevist international ideas. but Jews are hostile and harmful. file 7. p. K.”140 So it is not surprising that it had to be Stetsko who initiated the large-scale anti-Jewish campaigns. “We are busy setting up police forces to help exterminate Jews and protect the population. The mobile unit of Stetsko was the first to encounter the “Jewish issue”. who keeps Ukraine in captivity. the German leaders shot two villagers. to proclaim the Independent Ukrainian State. sheet 5–6. 162. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. Organizatsia Ukrainskih natsionalistiv… (The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists…). 5. sheet 10. who turned out to be Ukrainian nationalists. was indignant at such unscrupulousness of the German allies. C.

they took as prisoners. 1946–1948). the crucial factor in this case was not the person only. 142 . and killed the soldier hitting him with carbine gun on the head. sheet 21–21. extermination of harmful and hostile elements (NKVD people.”141 The Ukrainian nationalists started their armed operations on the territory of the Soviet Army. p. 141 Sergiychuk. Ukrainskiy zadvig: podillya (Украïнський здвиг: Подiлля). 1942–1945). Gumenyuk and his gang set machine guns on the roofs and kept the passing troops under fire. Poles. OUN fighters attacked state institutions. a Jewish woman Regina Krohmal.”143 However. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. V. gathered all OUN members and reasonable men and said that a war is going on and we should take arms and fight for UCIS. 886. I saw that Yuzef Gumenyuk was kicking a soldier of the Red Army. “Those who stayed alive. 249. That very night we killed 18 secret agents. extermination of “undesired elements” started after the retreat of the Red Army. A farmer Roman Otomanchuk. p. secret agents. This is clearly stated in the leaflet of the Northern mobile group: “Actions of the unit: assistance in establishing State order. a strange person came to our village. 1946–1948 (Боротьба з аґентурою: Протоколи допитiв Службы Безпеки ОУН в Тернопiльщинi. The tasks of mobile groups initially included extermination of “harmful elements”. p. Jews and Poles have no right to live” was apparently widely-spread among the Ukrainian nationalists. 0192/336. Russians). 29. Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. I was at that meeting. propaganda. 143 Borotba z agenturoyu: Protokoly dopytiv Sluzhby Bezpeki OUN v Ternopilschyni. residing in Perevoloki village of Ternopol. because he had a wife and children. The Institute of the national memory of Poland. vol. arranging the OUN network. but Yuzef Gumenyuk had no pity for him and said that he had been waiting for too long for the chance to take his revenge on communists. Jews and Poles have no right to live. most of them were Jews. Jews. small units of the Red Army and undertook several attempts to capture prisons. He said communists. book 1. Jewish people being one of the enemies. part 2.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 53 However. this incident was not typical: in most cases. the OUN members had started terror campaigns against “undesired elements”.” – recollected the resident of Zeleny Ust. even before the German troops arrival. According to the instruction of May 1941. where their accomplices were kept under arrest. the soldier cried and begged to leave him alive.”142 The opinion “communist. later on told: “When the war between Germans and Bolsheviks broke out. “When the Soviet troops retreated. 43.

The main task of Stetsko’s group was to proclaim the Ukrainian State. Kyiv. it was to provide armed support to the new “Ukrainian government”. passing through the city. Zh. Dostovirnist svidchennya: relyatsia Ruzi Wagner pro lvivskiy pogrom vlitku 1941 (Trustwor- . the Ukrainian nationalists tried to arrange a revolt in Lvov. and tried to capture prisons of the city. The OUN(B) leadership hoped that this initiative will be supported by the Nazi authorities. his first order being to establish “Ukrainian police. treated Jews as murderers of those people and tortured them mercilessly…”145 144 Kovba. who had been shot before the Soviet troops retreated. Lvov. As for the “Nachtigall” squadron. and early morning on 30th June. with mobile group of Yaroslav Stetsko following. The first thing to do for the seized was to take away corpses and clean up the prisons at Zamarstinovskaya. Members of Stetsko’s group arranged a meeting of representatives of the Ukrainian society and read out the “Act of 30th June 1941”. where they were forced to bury the bodies of shot convicts. The Red Army troops left the city on the night of 29th/30th June. A. Some of the arrested Jews were convoyed to prisons. intending to set free their associates under arrest. 2000. Yaroslav Stetsko was announced the Prime Minister of the “Ukrainian government”. July 1941. 145 Himka. entered the city. Ukrainians and Gestapo people. all the more so because the overseers. p. Proclamation of the Ukrainian State was not a problem. Lyudyanist u bezodni pekla (Людянiсть у безоднi пекла). – This task was given to common Ukrainians. the “Nachtigall” squadron. founded by the Abwehr and consisting of Ukrainian nationalists. Just several days after Germans attacked the USSR. I. 52. The blame for these deaths was laid on Jews.54 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 Among the first victims of the Ukrainian nationalist terror were Polish and Jewish people of Lvov. – recollected later a Jewish woman Ruzya Wagner. Kruglov. It was terrible job. They shot units of the Red Army. because just some months before during German invasion against Yugoslavia the “Independent State of Croatia” was established following the same scenario. “They started seizing Jews to send to works. p. so “Ukrainian police” immediately started arresting Jewish people. The motive for the above was discovered bodies of shot convicts in Lvov prisons. Lonskogo and Kazimorovskaya (Brigidka) streets.”144 At the same time the city witnessed wide-scale anti-Jewish campaigns. and it was acknowledged by the Nazi. 12.

while combat action was still going on in the Western suburbs… There are a lot of members of the Ukrainian organization outside in the streets.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 55 On the next day. p. The only thing to do for the head of Einsatzgrupp Brigadeführer SS Otto Rash was to help arrange them on a larger scale. 147 Kruglov. headed by Sturmbannführer SS Gunter Heerman. . Geidrich. the leading part of Sonder Battalion 4B. the Head of Security Police and SD.7 arrived to Lvov at 5 a. there are assumptions that they disfigured bodies of the shot convicts in Lvov prisons. Kyiv. p. July 1941. Around 3000 shot by NKVD.”147 According to Order № 1 issued by R. including Jews. stock 500. moreover. the task of Einsatzgruppen included arranging massacres of Jews by the local population148 However.149 doing this as a way of propaganda. just killed by the “Ukrainian thiness of the witness statement: Ruzya Wagner’s report on the Lvov massacre in the summer of 1941). bearing yellowblue badges. set by Russians. sheet 17. The head of Einsatzgrupp B reports that the Ukrainian revolt in Lvov on 25. sheet 225–226. p. Мoscow. list 10. 146 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. 149 Similar practice was applied in Latvia during the first days after German troops occupied the country. anti-Jewish campaigns in Lvov had been started before the soldiers of Einsatzgrupp arrived to the city. Now the population acts aggressively against Jews. The city has in some places suffered from combat action destructions and fires. the representative of Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Germany. reported to Berlin: “Arrived to Lvov last night. 13. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. A. and settled in NKVD building. some also armed. entered the city. 2000. This Sonder Battalion was part of Einsatzgrupp B. For more details see: FSB CA. affiliated with the command of the 17th Army. 98. 148 RSMA.m. Collection of documents on extermination of Jews by the Ukrainian nationalists in 1941–1944. Soldiers of Einsatzgrupp joined shootings of Jews. Акт 30 червня 1941).41 was severely suppressed by NKVD. They also announced Jews. its task being elimination of Nazi enemies. Latvia under the Nazi yoke: collection of archive documents. stock 100. p.6. p.”146 On the same day. Pfaleiderer. file 1. and the following report was sent to Berlin: “The Headquarters of Einsatzgrupp 1. Lvov. 2006. list 1. 45. file 25. 65–67. On the next day the main troops of Einsatzgrupp entered the city. 26. prison is on fire.

and bright future. 197. p. p. an OUN(B) leader in the Western Ukraine (also known under the name Legenda): “People! Know! Moscow. I. sheet 18. 129. 222. Magyars and Jews are your enemies! Destroy them! Know! Your leaders are the leaders of Ukrainian nationalists. natural national life on YOUR land where there are: NO RUSSIANS NO JEWS NO POLES. any Jewish or Polish person was a legal target to be shot. 486. The leaflet signed by Andrey Melnik and issued on 5th July said: “Death to Jewish henchmen – communist Bolsheviks!”153 Another OUN(M) leaflet was address to young Ukrainians: “OUN brings YOU. part 2. list 1. Poland. part 1. Акт 30 червня 1941). file 74. anti-Soviet and anti-Jewish attitudes among people of the city were strengthened. stock 3833. p. part 2. 154 CSAPOU. 576. sheet 24. Акт 30 червня 1941). 2. In the morning of 1st July they put posters on walls of the buildings. OUN. CSA SBPGU.150 Thus. CSA SBPGU. 261. stock 57. list 2. 151.”154 150 CSAPOU. the OUN(B) regional headquarters issued another important order – on establishing the Ukrainian armed forces. Your Chief leader is Stepan Bandera!”151 Later. The wording had been prepared before the war by Ivan Klimov. Altman. Zhertvy nenavisty (Victims of hatred). p. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. p. sheet 87. Мoscow. 153 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. sheet 35. List. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. Ukrainian nationalists also started anti-Jewish propaganda. list 4. list 1. stock 3833. sheet 80. freedom. sheet 12. 152 OUN v 1941 rotsi`(The OUN in 1941). file 41. with the appeal of the OUN(B) regional headquarters. file 18. as the victims of Bolsheviks. file 246. youth of Ukraine. 2002. The order announced “collective responsibility (familial and national) for all faults against the Ukrainian State. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. OUN v 1941 rotsi`(The OUN in 1941). part 1. stock 166. stock 3833.”152 Thus. 151 . A. Ukrainian Army and the OUN. Anti-Jewish appeals were issued by the OUN(M) too. p. sheet 8–9. CSA SBPGU. list 3. p. file 63. file 370. file 42.56 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 police”.

lying on the ground. A. A few were ordered to break concrete and dig out bodies and others were taken away to small backyards and shot there. According to the statement of Maria Goltsman. Lvov. 2005. blood flowing and mixing with dirt. July 1941. they evoked slaughterous instincts of the mob. Artsishevsky street. Dostovirnist svidchennya: relyatsia Ruzi Wagner pro lvivskiy pogrom vlitku 1941 (Trustworthiness of the witness statement: Ruzya Wagner’s report on the Lvov massacre in the summer of 1941). p. “on the third day after the German troops had entered Lvov. has this record for 1st July: “During the commanders’ meeting we could hear shots from the prison of the Chief Political Administration. 10. a group of Ukrainian police officers headed by German officers brought approximately 20 citizens of Lvov. – Inhuman cries. The group of convoyed people included professors. 157 Himka. deformed bodies and faces of the beaten up. I. to interfere and stop that. were poked by sticks and dragged around. Zolochiv movchit (Золочів мовчить) // Krytyka. among them women. They replied “Das ist die Rache der Ukrainer” (It’s the vengeance of the Ukrainians) and we heard approval in their tone”. Extermination of Jews in the USSR during the German occupation (1941–1944): Collection of documents. 46. and they howled of pleasure… Women and old people. on 1st July there was a real massacre against Jews and Russians. – The newly established Ukrainian police were also tasked to capture Jews. When voracious slaughterers whipped off the clothes from some woman and started beating her up with sticks. lawyers and doc155 Carynnyk. we requested some German soldiers. p. Kruglov. But those “lucky ones” who were working. passing by. broken heads. kept by the 1st mountain division . Jerusalem 1991. 156 .”155 Ukrainian nationalists and soldiers of Einsatzgrupp started a real Jew-hunt. to building 8.157 Violence towards arrested Jews was practiced in various sophisticated ways. “Germans seized Jews right in the streets and in their houses and forced them to work in prisons. killed during the past weeks. not always had a chance to return home.”156 “In the meantime the “fun” continued. p. As the Ukrainian population in Lvov insisted. 13. The register of combat action. no. – recollected Ruzya Wagner. where Jews were being forced to bury Ukrainians (several thousands). 76. Every morning around 1000 Jews were gathered and sent out to the three prisons. M. and this time not only of Jewish people.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 57 Appeals of both OUN factions resulted in new killings. – recollected Rabbi David Kakhane.

Roman Shukhevich yak providnyk.”160 The “Ukrainian squadrons” mentioned above refer to “Nachtigall” squadron. which means they were Ukrainians”. 95. Bronislav Goltsman. list 67. It’s not our job to deal with them. 161 Kalba. 160 Kruglov. 159 . M. consisting of the Ukrainian nationalists. they were hesitant to criticize Germans. The German officers made those people collect garbage from the ground in the yard with the mouth (not using the hands) and beat them with sticks. p. added that policemen. perpetrating all this violence.58 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 tors. before they entered the city the battalion chief Roman Shukhevich ordered: “Don’t spill anyone’s blood. A battalion chief of Brandenburg subversive regiment wrote in his report of 1st July: “On 30 June and on 1st July 1941 large-scale violence was unleashed against Jewish people where some of them turned into the worst massacres. Lvov. Don’t commit any crimes or revenge against our enemies. Lvov. As it was already said. p. the main task of this squadron was to support proclamation of the Ukrainian State. a soldier of “Nachtigall”. sheet 106-106. commanding officer and personality)// General Roman Shukhevich – “Taras Chuprynka”. Commander-in-Chief of the UPA). A. but did not see any reason for the torturing and shooting of Jews. Hamburg. Golovniy Komandyr UPA (General Roman Shukhevich – “Taras Chuprinka”. and since they saw German soldiers as role models. They could not make out any difference between Wehrmacht and the police. who yesterday mercilessly shot Jewish robbers. arrested indiscriminately. July 1941. The police forces appointed were unable to accomplish their tasks. “had yellow-blue identification signs on the uniform sleeves. According to the reminiscence of Myroslav Kalba. We speak about the very same squadrons. 2007. Ibid. 1941–1944. As the reports of squadrons say. file 75. but now reject merciless violence.. They considered it necessary to mercilessly punish the guilty Bolsheviks. s. 13. Five people of the convoyed group were shot on the same day behind the nearby railroad body. komandyr. sheet 64–64 overleaf. stock P-7021.”158 Maria’s husband. Such acts undermined discipline in the Ukrainian squadrons. their own forces were shocked at the acts of violence and tortures. including women and children. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht: Dimensionen des Vernichtungskrieges. They provoked the local population by their cruel and disgusting behaviour towards helpless people. Ludina (Roman Shukhevich – as champion. 2002. Poles or Jews. which entered Lvov early morning on 30th June.”161 158 SARF. Toronto.159 The action of Einsatzgrupp caused objections on the part of Abwehr. 355.

a former Polish minister. 1960. and shot. one of them as I remember was to a seminary of Abragamovich. . Pankin Ivan. Luschik and Punchak told me that they personally shot Polish scientists at Vuletskaya mountain. Мoscow. Yaroslav Shpital. a member of “Nachtigall”: “In the city of Lvov the squadron was located in different premises. ”We stayed in a house at Dragomanova street (former Mokhnatskogo street). whose tasks included extermination of people on the “black lists”. Nikolay Lebed.”162 “Black lists” are mentioned by another OUN member. several small groups were established within the squadron. in the left wing on the ground floor. The arrested people were taken to certain places. at night they were taken outside to the backyard. These lists were made according to the OUN directive of May 1941. in building number 22. and stated their last names too. Nevertheless. as I know. 162 Crimes of Oberlander: Report of the press-conference for Soviet and foreign journalists.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 59 This quote clearly shows that Shukhevich undoubtedly treated the Polish and Jewish people as enemies. but their extermination was the task of newly established “Ukrainian police” and not that of “Nachtigall”. Panchak Vasily and others. After 4-5 days this group returned and they told that they had arrested and shot many people in the city. He arrived in Lvov on 2nd July and was one of the personal security guards for an OUN(B) leader. following the order of Oberlander and Shukhevich. Among the selected there were Luschuk Grigory. From our platoon and other platoons too a group of 8-10 people was selected. This information is confirmed by the post-war statement of Grigory Melnik. – People were kept under arrest in the cellar of this building. one by one. conducted in Moscow on 5th April 1960. Pankin and Luschuk said that they and other participants of other subversive groups received lists of people to be arrested from Oberlander and Shukhevich. and then the arrested were shot dead according to Oberlander and Shukhevich’s order. “I clearly remember the name of Professor Bartel.

164 . The bodies were taken away quickly.”163 Modern Ukrainian historians doubt the statements of Grigory Melnik and Yaroslav Sheptal. Verbrechen der Wehrmacht: Dimensionen des Vernichtungskrieges. “Here I witnessed the first shootings of Jews carried out by “Nachtigall”. “Endlosung” in Galizien. A. A. Arrests and shootings were done according to lists prepared in advance. p. 95. I say “Nachtigall” because during the shootings the soldiers… wore Wehrmacht uniform. They used small-bore rifles and handguns to make less noise. The 163 Crimes of Oberlander: Report of the press-conference for Soviet and foreign journalists. 13. “We speak about the very same squadrons.60 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 The shooting was done by Germans and the soldiers of “Nachtigall” squadron. Kruglov. one of the former members of SD operation group “Lvov” stated during the interrogation in 1964. interrogated and beaten.”164 There is also mentioning of “Nachtigall” soldiers taking part in killing Jewish people on 30th June in the report of the battalion chief of Brandenburg regiment. 165 Kruglov. 1941–1944. Bonn. s. 13. trucks brought a group of arrested people who were straight away taken to the second floor. I don’t know where. I saw with my own eyes that people lying on the ground were lit by electrical flashlights. as I took an interest in that… I determined that the soldiers in German uniform doing the shooting spoke Ukrainian language. . One night. however the information that members of “Nachtigall” participated in shootings of Lvov Jews was received by the West German court too. The Jews were shot.165 Apparently some of the “Nachtigall” soldiers were used for “individual extermination” of the OUN enemies. I saw all this from the window of the room where I stayed. 488. Мoscow. July 1941. After that they were thrown out of the window from the second floor on to the concrete yard. conducted in Moscow on 5th April 1960.. Lvov. and those who were still alive were shot dead. Th. July 1941. Those who were alive were shot dead. Sandkuhler. according to the “black lists”. During the three days dozens of people were shot. 1996. who yesterday mercilessly shot Jewish robbers”. s. 2002. in the yard of a school by members of Wehrmacht units… I realized only later that those were Wehrmacht units. p. Lvov. For example. Hamburg. Der Judenmord in Ostpolen und die Rettungsinitiativen von Berthold Beitz 1941-1944. 1960. calling them part of the “Soviet propaganda”. Then they were taken away.

36–37. I pointed out that now. Lebed assured me that he will gladly be at our service. Poliszczuk. we must intensify our cooperation. provided to us. 2005. Toronto. W. А. G. Head of the second Abwehr. p. 634. Lebed further support and said that his earlier work was much appreciated by the head of Security police and Security Service in Lvov. 2005. rational and systematic cooperation.”167 166 167 The Holocaust: Encyclopedia. so further explanations were not required. that on the contrary. following the interests of joint struggle against Bolsheviks and Jews. Tkachenko. . Tkachuk. 2000. p. during the war. In any case. Kyiv. Gerasimov. I promised Mr. s. I conveyed your congratulations and thanked him on your behalf for the valuable cooperation and support. on 14th July 1941. Dowody zbrodni OUN i UPA. The Ukrainian nationalists and members of Einsatzgrupp B eliminated around 4 thousand of Jewish people in Lvov during several days. participation of the Ukrainian nationalists in campaigns against Jewish people in Lvov was approved by the Nazi. Mr. Voytsekhovsky. and said that Mr Lebedev’s assistance should not end after the victorious German troops enter Lvov city. supported by members of Einsatzgrupp. As for the practical implementation of our cooperation. Introduction by I. Documents accuse: collection of documents on cooperation between the Ukrainian nationalists and SS of the Fascist Germany / Comp. He would be grateful if appropriate directives were given by us to other individuals in Ukrainian circles in Lvov. Мoscow. I emphasized that the main goal of our conversation is to establish possible long-term. our cooperation should continue and become even closer now. we are currently discussing several events that you will be informed of. 614. said the following: “On 2nd July I spoke to Mr Lebed. А. From his remarks I understood he knew what I meant. were conducted by the “Ukrainian police”. Theodor Oberlander in his report to Lahusen. but there is no doubt that their contribution was quite significant.166 It is not possible to estimate the exact contribution of the OUN members into this crime.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 61 large-scale campaigns however.

Mr. mostly in cities. like Warsaw. We need to do away with them. but we can’t have it. like Krakow. Gupalo: The main thing is that there are so many Jews all around. and relocated to other places. A German who marries a Jew. Mr. Levitsky: In Germany. . The records of OUN conference in Lvov on 18 July 1941 do not need any further clarification: “Mr. There is no way they should be allowed to stay in the center. Part of them should be eliminated. Mr. They have cinemas and theatres. We need to take drastic measures. Now some are already eliminated… It’s a fact that some mixed with Ukrainian blood. Mr. where a ghetto was set up behind a high wall. becomes a Jew. Especially in the center. The young and able work. Won’t let them live like that. they should flee. They were sent away from several cities. Golovko: Jews are impudent. As soon as the Ukrainian husband had ruined himself or went bankrupt. I like the German approach. Mr. many married Ukrainian women. In Germany they are different: half-Jew. Gupalo: We have many Jewish members. And Jewish men lived very well with Ukrainian wives. Mr. who are respected. We must look at every case separately. they divorced. Mr. Lenkavsky: Every case should be analyzed separately. Can’t say “Jew”. Must force them move out. but have no food. Golovko: In Ukraine many men married Jewish women. Stepan Lenkavsky was one of such leaders and modern historians describe him as a “prominent figure in OUN”.62 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 Many OUN leaders shared the idea that cooperation with the Nazi should be continued in relation to the “Jewish issue”. and there are even those who had been baptized before the revolution. Lenkavsky: Describe Jews. for instance Berdichev. Or maybe give them some city. quarter-Jew. We are more interested in the situation in the area… every Jew must be registered. Jews have Aryan paragraph. Levitsky: Germans use professionals…I believe the German way of solving the “Jewish issue” is not good for us. These Jewish women married Ukrainians for their own benefit.

Акт 30 червня 1941). conducted by the Ukrainian police. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). pp. p. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). p. 53. A. Juli 1941. 169 UPA v svitli nimetskyh dokumentiv (УПА в свiтлi нiмецьких документiв). Zlochew had very active and powerful underground OUN forces. brought them to the prison of the Chief Political Administration. Altman.”170 An anti-Jewish campaign. the massacre of Jews in Zlochew did not involve Einsatzgrupp B members. part 1. book 3. the “Ukrainian police” and soldiers of SS division “Viking” gathered local Jews at the square near the prison and started a real 168 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya.”168 In this case as was said. so was it practiced. In Dobromil they set a synagogue on fire. the motive for it was discovery of dead bodies of some Ukrainian nationalists in the local prison. Ukraina v Drugiy svitoviy viyni u dokumentah: Zbirnik nimetskih arkhivnyh materialiv (Ukraine in WWII in documents: collection of German archive documents). Toronto. pp. 171 Boll. Акт 30 червня 1941). . p.171 On 3rd June. V. So. 179. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. 1.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 63 Mr. 192–194. M. file 9. Zloczow. 2002. in Samobr 50 Jews were killed by the furious crowd. the report of the head of SD Security police of 6 July 1941 contains information about arrests of Jews in Ternopol. 338. p. list 1. The last paragraph of the report gives high estimation to the work of the nationalists: “Wehrmacht is satisfied with the decisive actions taken against Jews. 170 Kosik. part 2. Мoscow. pp. 189–190. a “revolutionary Ukrainian government” was set up in the city with units of the “Ukrainian police” under its command. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. After the Soviet troops left. 333. Lenkavsky: For Jews all measures are to be used in order to exterminate them. Just as in Lvov. 221–222. 70 Jews “were convoyed by Ukrainians and killed”. The police was the main force in the later on following anti-Jewish campaign. During this campaign 20 Jews “were killed in streets by soldiers and Ukrainians”. The German documents prove that anti-Jewish campaigns were carried out by the Ukrainian nationalists in all big cities. Zhertvy nenavisty (Victims of hatred). 1991. stock 3833. comparable in its scale to Lvov massacre. took place in the town of Zlochev on 2nd-3rd June. and they didn’t stay long in the city. vol. which was captured by the armed forces. It’s important to note that unlike in Lvov. В. s. sheet 1–12. 8. I. In Lvov people of the city pursued and tortured around 1000 Jews. 327.”169 In the report of 16th July 1941 we can find a similar praise: “The Ukrainian population showed praiseworthy activity against Jews during the first hours after the Red Army retreat. CSA SBPGU. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення.

recollected. Voronkevich. “On the way we saw with our own eyes the victims of the Bolshevist and Jewish terror. they said that Jews were threatening them and that 172 SARF.”173 “SS together with civilian gangsters commit robberies. “In the city and the tower. police and the Ukrainian nationalists went around the city. They seized people. that in two villages we shot all Jews. including me. 174 Ibid.” – says another German document. all physically able were ordered to dig pits. guarding prisoners of war. file 86. Instead. Alishkevich and others.64 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 slaughter. s. women and children are also being killed. Antonyak. We saw a lot of people in streets and when asked. who was a member of the reconnaissance unit of “Nachtigall”. dated 3 June. throw people out of their own apartments and have already killed many. After the pits were ready the people. “We stayed in Zlochew for several days. stock Р-7021. After that German executioners started shooting the people in pits with machine guns and submachine guns. 7. list 67. When people were gathered at the square.” However. who has been quoted above. and that strengthened our hatred towards Jews so much. sheet 22–23. I stayed alive as I lay under people and was only injured in the leg. thanks to the Ukrainians. The following record was found in a soldier’s diary.174 It is interesting to note that some time later “Nachtigall” squadron appeared in Zlochew. Grigory Melnik. Zloczow. The officers ordered to find communists among the prisoners and then eliminate them. Abram Rozen in his post-war statement said: “On 3rd July 1941 German SS units. Boll. 173 . headed by Sagaty. I stayed in the pit till darkness and then escaped and was hiding in cellars all the time. wide-scale shootings and killings of Jews and Russians are taking place. as of now no evidence has been found to prove the participation of “Nachtigall” soldiers in campaigns against Jews in Zlochew. Juli 1941. there is conclusive evidence of “Nachtigall” soldiers killing Jews in Vinnitsa region.. 10. This way around 3500 civilians were killed. and brought them to prison saying they would work there.”172 The witness’ statement is confirmed by the report of the 1st unit of 295 infantry division. s. Because it was raining heavily the pits were not covered straight away. В. Vanne. were ordered to lie down in the pits next to each other. and threw trench bombs into the pits. There was one incident which took place while passing one of the villages.

arranged the “Ukrainian police” service after the retreat of the Soviet troops. 2000. 62. Mendel and Vorun. 179 CSAPOU. file 928. p.”180 Similar crimes were committed by Kozlovsky’s comrades. In the summer of 1941 they shot dead two members of the Internal Affairs Agencies. recollected: “In July 1941 armed people. p. the secretary of the local communist organization. Vedeneyev. 26. 176 Fostiy.178 On 7-8 June in Kosuv village of Ternopol region OUN soldiers killed 80 Jewish people. Zhertvi nenanvisti (Victims of hatred). 164. came to Kuzmin village and announced that they would kill all men of the local population. Josef Korchinsky and Peter Terletsky. including women and children. Mech i trizub (Меч і тризуб). I. p.) // З архівів ВУЧК-ГПУ-НКВД-КГБ.176 On 7th June. Vedeneyev. we killed all Jews in that village.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 65 they were scared to sleep inside their houses. a resident of Kamenets-Podolsk region. gathered by Petr Voynovsky. I. file 57. arranged a massacre of Jews in Miliyevo village. they were 175 CSA SBPGU. list 1. stock 100. sheet 57–59. p. 177 Ibid. 2007. G. sheet 17. . A.177 In Trubov settlement nationalists eliminated all Jewish men and wanted to burn alive their women and children. I. D.179 In the Mogilnitsy settlement of Ternopol region Leonid Kozlovsky. Kyiv. but German soldiers stopped them. 2–4. On 5 June 1941 a group. V. Legiony Ukrainskyh Natsionalisstiv (Легiони Украïнських Нацiоналiстiв). a member of OUN Bukovinsky leadership. 178 Altman. and killed around 120 people. Diyatilnist OUN na Bukovyni v 1940-1941 (Дiятльнiсть ОУН на Буковинi у 1940–1941 рр. Patrilyak. teenagers and children aged 6 months to 12 years old). consisting of 18 people (elders. of Bandera’s forces. file 7. sheet 231–234.”175 There were massive killings of Jews by the Ukrainian nationalists in the rural area. Bistrukhin. So. So men dressed in women’s clothes. But when they were found. and killed small children taking them by legs and hitting with their head against trees. Odisseya Vasiliya Kouka: Voenno-politichesky portrait poslednego komanduyuschego UPA (Vasily Kouk’s “Odyssey” – political and military portrait of the last Commander-in-Chief of the UPA). 181 Ibid. According to the statements of the villagers “in July 1941 he arrested three Jewish families: Gelis. an OUN member. 180 FSB CA.181 Evgenia Vaisburg. no. 45 Jews were killed in Borovtsy village and 54 – in Kiselevo village. 223. list 11. the chairman of kolkhoz and two Jewish families. D. and then threw them into a pit. following the order of an OUN(M) leader Stepan Karabashevsky. K. list 23. They all were taken to the woods. where he shot the adults. stock 3833. stock 1.

pp. Philkenshtein.66 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 stripped naked in public and shot dead. p. stock 57. А. 62. think about it. I. . S. Акт 30 червня 1941). my father was ordered to strip. Armed men came to our house and took my mother. they reviewed “mostly the cases of people accused of cooperating with NKVD. Jewish. those people do not even have a right to live. book 1. distributed at that time by the Ukrainian nationalists. no historian in the world will remember them either.”186 A similar order was issued by Murovich. accused of disloyalty to the OUN(B). D. file 370. Just have a look at the people in your Army units (some text is unreadable). you are successors of the glorious Kazak knights. 426. 23–24. 223. Kyiv. sheet 3 overleaf. for instance by Zhitomir regional administration: “The Jews are ordered to register without delay with police authorities. in Stanislavskaya region secret courts convicted around 450 people. how dare you move in the woods together with Jews and gypsies and rob your Ukrainian brothers. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. 184 Vedeneyev. Victims of hatred. 259. Vasily Kouk. V. as stated by a court clerk. For example. Ukrainian soldiers of the Red Army. Mass extermination of Jews in Podolia // the catastrophe and resistance of Jews in Ukraine. 185 Borotba z agenturoyu: Protokoly dopytiv… (Боротьба з аґентурою: Протоколи допитiв…).”182 It is curious to see that the leaflets. The directive on the above was issued already on 11 July 1941. don’t be deceived. list 4. Kyiv. had anti-Jewish.”185 The Ukrainian police forced the Jews who were left alive to wear arm bands with the image of “star of Judah”. I. the head of Radekhovsky local administration: “You must ensure that the Jewish population wears a white arm band with 182 Altman. p. 186 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. 1999. sister and myself out to the yard and beat us.”183 In some areas the violence against the OUN enemies and Jewish people was of pseudo-judicial appearance.184 and in Chertkov town of Ternopol region. 2007. wear a white arm band on the right arm with blue hexagram on it and come immediately to work for clearing the city. 183 CSAPOU. anti-Polish as well as anti-gypsy mottos: ”Ukrainian soldiers of the Red Army. they made him stand naked in a corner of the room and shot him dead. of Polish and Jewish people. p. gypsies and other rascals. p.

Those who disobey and refuse to wear it. a shop selling bread for ration cards and a variety store. They could share the income of the enterprise equally between themselves and the OUN… Both said they were OUN members. a restaurant. and that if more was needed then the Jews of Yagolnitsa had the money. It is forbidden to greet Jews and shake hands with them. 188 Motyka. A part of the money was used for the organization itself. 282. At this time Sapischuk and Sovyak had settled in Yagolnitsa town and had a bakery. p. The money amassed from robbing Jews was invested by the OUN members into enterprises.Aktchervnya1941(Украiнськедержавотворення. They called themselves Sapischuk and Sovyak. file 15. pp. They came to me with a request to speak to the district prefect. 98 (reference to: CSA SBPGU. In the beginning of October I quit the job in court. must be boycotted.”188 Jews became a “legal victim” for robbery and blackmail. an OUN member: “In august 1941 when I worked in a court. They told that they had arrived from Germany and were planning to set up a trade and a production company in Yagolnitsa town. Here is the statement of Evgen Lipovoy. sheet 42–43. book 1.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 67 the Jewish blue hexagram on it. sheet 12). 578–579. CSA SBPGU. list 2. G. One of the local leaders of the OUN “Levko” said in his order of 1 August 1941: “9. So I started going to their restaurant for lunches and sometimes for dinners too. stock 3833. and was employed as a teacher in Dolina village. which were also taken away from Jews.Акт30червня1941). 189 Borotba z agenturoyu: Protokoly dopytiv… (Боротьба з аґентурою: Протоколи допитiв…). s. must be arrested.”187 Ukrainians were not allowed to interact with Jews and Poles. Then they told me that they had the required money for setting up the company. so he would let them control Yagolnitsa town. Ukraińska partzyantka…. list 1. Financially they were doing very well. stock 3833. file 3. those who disobey this order. . 10.”189 187 Ukrainskederzhavotvorennya. It is forbidden to sell food to Jews and Poles. a trade and industrial town. two strangers came up to me. I saw with my own eyes how they in the evenings changed into German Uniform and went to town to rob local Jews.

vol. On 28 June the OUN propaganda department sent the following message to the OUN Security Service: ”Archpriest Tabinsky told us the following: Our police together with German authorities are now conducting mass arrests of Jews. but send you this message for information and further use. stock 3833. SSA SSU. stock 65. who for gold or money release the Jews subject to arrest. Jews. In some cases the police let people free. there are people among our police forces. The OUN leaders were furious when they got to know this. sheet 221–234. Long live Ukraine!”190 One more internal document shows the zeal of the Ukrainian nationalists in the struggle against “undesired elements”. file 23. vol.68 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 The money from robberies was used for “national struggle”: Sapischuk. According to the information received by Archpriest Tabinksy.”191 As mentioned before. file С-9079. their leaders and officers must be prepared and provided to the OUN regional leadership. 191 . 99. p. and then we shall have control over buildings and houses. 192 Stepan Bandera u dokumentah… (Stepan Bandera in the documents…). The Ukrainian policed carried out arrests of the Jewish people in cooperation with occupation forces. it is the directive of the OUN(B) regional leaders. vol. list 1. CSA SBPGU. CSA SBPGU. sheet 50–51. Ibid. file 46. It is necessary to explain to Germany that at this moment the house management units are actually Polish. mentioned in the statement above. 465–466. made in August 1941: “In every city we must take accommodation management under control. The lists of Poles. a similar scheme (collaboration with Gestapo against Jews and Poles) was implemented by the OUN in 1940 and beginning of 1941 in the occupied territories of Poland. Towards that we must take people from villages. Jewish and communist organizations working against Ukraine and Germany. regularly shared the profit with the local OUN HQ. 2. p. list 1. stock 3833. sheet 51. p. for a certain amount of money. 389. 4. 190 OUN in 1941.192 Now the collaboration continued. We don’t have any specific information on this matter.. 1.

Bandera received this message from Erwin Stolze. In many towns the Ukrainian police established special units called “Ukrainian security service”. Ukraina v Drugiy svitoviy viyni u dokumentah: Zbirnik nimetskih arkhivnyh materialiv (Ukraine in WWII in documents: collection of German archive documents). persecute and kill… Poles are equaled to Jews. 1. list 1. Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. M. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists…. but also the Poles. 161. “When I announced to Bandera during our meeting that our cooperation is over. sheet 27. Carynnyk. K. 391. 253. I. . p. which by then was under the total control of the Ukrainian nationalists. list 3. M. part 2. sheet 3. The head of the Security police and SD in his report of 18 August 1941 described the situation as follows: “The Ukrainian police continue to ravage. vol. p. 195 FSB CA. as he believed that connection with us meant that he was the acknowledged leader of the nationalist movement.. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941).194 In August 1941 Abwehr decided to stop supporting the OUN(B). and they are ordered to wear arm bands.”196 A similar appeal was issued also on 6th August. sheet 6.”193 Partial disarming of the “Ukrainian police”. was another warning sign for the latter. Klimov. file Н-20944. stock 3833. 196 CSA SBPGU. Yaroslav Stetsko was even kept in prison for a short time: arrested on 9th July and released on 16th July. and that Ukraine is to become a German colony.. The only confusion was that the OUN people were persecuting not only Jews and communists. 1. 194 Berkhoff. vol. C. sheet 4. 197 Ibid.” – told Stolze later. p. issued directive № 6 with the following orders: 193 Kosik. Superintendants in cities and field commanders partially disarm police forces. “Legenda”. “Ukrainian Gestapo” etc. file 7. p. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення.195 Nevertheless. 447.197 Stetsko’s decisions were fully supported by the OUN(B) leaders in the Western Ukraine. stock 3833. They were explained that there is now way there could be any “Independent Ukraine”. By that time the German authorities had arrested OUN(B) leaders Stepan Bandera and Yaroslav Stetsko. Акт 30 червня 1941). On 1 August 1941 Yaroslav Stetsko appealed to Ukrainian people to “help German Army everywhere in fighting against Moscow and Bolsheviks. the OUN(B) continued supporting the Nazi authorities. file 6. he was frustrated and overreacted.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3 69 The Nazi appreciated the fact that the Ukrainian nationalists supported anti-Jewish campaigns. V. CSA SBPGU.

70

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3

“On all walls, buildings, fences etc. slogans: “Viva Independent
Ukrainian State! Long live Yaroslav Stetsko! Free Bandera! No return to Ukraine for Polish and Jewish Misters and bankers! Death
to Russians, Poles, Jews and other enemies of Ukraine!
Long live Adolf Hitler!
Long live German Army!
Long live Ortscommandant!”198
Similar slogans were published in the mass media, controlled by the
Bandera group. “Ukrainian people know that the Organization of Ukrainian nationalists, lead by Stepan Bandera, is fighting persistently and courageously for the nation’s freedom and independence, for land and power
for Ukrainians, for their free, happy and government ordered life without
kolkhozes, landlords, Russians, Poles, Jews, commissioners and their terror,” – as we can read in one of the August issues of “Krements news”
newspaper. – “Ukrainians know, that the German Army helped them get
rid of the Moscow-Jewish yoke. The German Army crushed Red Moscow
invaders, and that is why the OUN cooperates with the German Army
and helps it, and appeals to all Ukrainians to do the same.”199
It’s easy to see that the OUN(B) texts, pledging support to the occupant
army, are full of anti-Jewish statements. It’s not surprising, as in the summer of 1941 the Ukrainian nationalists gave full support to extermination
of Jews by the Nazi and took an active part in their campaigns as well.

Summary
German attack of the Soviet Union let both OUN factions start implementation of their plans on “eliminating the undesired elements”, including the Jewish people. In addition to pre-war instructions and orders, the
OUN(B) regional leadership issued an order on “collective responsibility
(familial and national) for all faults against the Ukrainian State, Ukrainian Army and the OUN”, thus making any Polish or Jewish person a le198

OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941), part 2, p. 453, 483; CSA SBPGU, stock 3833, list 1, file 46,
sheet 36–37.
199
Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. Акт 30 червня
1941), p. 394.

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 3

71

gal victim for persecution, irrespective of their age or sex. Propaganda of
both OUN factions called to exterminate enemies – communists, Jews
and Poles.
The direct consequences of the above were anti-Jewish campaigns
in the summer of 1941. Jews were killed by the OUN soldiers and the
“Ukrainian police” both in rural areas and big cities. The largest campaigns on extermination of Jews took place in Lvov and Zlochew, in the
course of their action the nationalists cooperated with units of Einsatzgrupp “B” and soldiers of SS division “Viking”. At the same time Jewish
and Polish people in Lvov, who were on the “black lists”, were also eliminated by some soldiers of the Ukrainian “Nachtigall” squadron.
Killing of Jewish people by the Ukrainian nationalist went together
with violence. In full accordance with the order of OUN(B) regional leadership on collective responsibility, not merely Jewish men fell victims to
the Ukrainian nationalists’ violence, but also women and children. There
were incidents when German soldiers stopped OUN’s massacres and violence against Jewish people.
Despite the failure to proclaim the “Independent Ukraine” in the summer of 1941, OUN(B) leaders continued supporting the occupants, in particular vis-à-vis the “Jewish issue”. The “Ukrainian police”, controlled by
the nationalists, actively participated in the Nazi’s anti-Jewish campaigns.
Both OUN factions conducted ant-Jewish and anti-Polish propaganda.
Those Jews who managed to stay alive, were limited in rights and forced
to wear arm bands with the image of “Star of Judah” and were victims of
blackmail and robberies carried out by the OUN people. The Ukrainian
nationalists tried to introduce similar measures against the Poles, but this
resulted in counteraction by the occupying authorities.
Thus, in the summer of 1941 both OUN factions supported extermination of Jews by the Nazi and took an active part in anti-Jewish campaigns.

CHAPTER 4 Correction of the anti-Jewish course of the OUN(B) .

part 2. p. file 42. Berlin was also in denial about the conflict of OUN(B) and the Melnik faction. two of the top OUN leaders – Sennik and Stsiborsky. Among them were prominent Ukrainian nationalists. who treated Ukraine as a future colony of the Third Reich. . stock 3833.200 The Bandera faction. but also against their political opponents. On 13th September Heydrich. list 1. sheet 32. 493. in their turn. During the large propaganda campaigns they encouraged Galicia residents and the Ukrainian population of the area to support their struggle not only against German troops. The OUN(B) agitation for “Independent Ukraine” caused much consternation among the Nazi leadership. p. the chief of RSHA.201 but for the German authorities this bad had gone on for too long and they swung into action.. who were shot on 30th August in a street of Zhitomir by a member of Bandera faction.74 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 CHAPTER 4 Correction of the anti-Jewish course of the OUN(B) By the autumn of 1941 the relationship between the OUN(B) and the Nazi had further worsened. all 200 OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). 489. On 30th August two of the OUN(M) leaders – Omeliyan Sennik and Nikolay Stsiborsky – were killed in Zhitomir. 201 Ibid. We assume that Bandera group will continue the terror acts in order to reach their political goals. 491. CSA SBPGU. signed the order to arrest OUN(B) leaders: “The Bandera people have been too active recently in their attempts to establish independent Ukrainian state by all means. denied any participation in the crime. The OUN(M) leadership immediately accused OUN(B) of this murder. We propose the following: a) To arrest all more or less significant leaders of Bandera OUN faction on suspicion of abetting in the murder of the Melnik group representatives. By this moment more than 10 members of the Melnik group of the OUN have been killed. In order to ensure the success of the campaign.

but they still hoped to resume the collaboration. in a memorandum addressed to Rosenberg. list 11. file 63. M.”204 But the Nazi had no plans to cooperate with Bandera group. as robbers. 565. p. 1946.” – it clearly stated in the memorandum. and the Ukrainian Bureau in Vienna. stock 3833. list 1. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). 7. 528–531. located in Berlin.203 Moreover. sheet 210–211. List 1. on 25th November 1941 Einsatzgrupp “C-5” issued the order to secretly shoot members of Bandera group: “All activists of Bandera movement must be arrested immediately and after a thorough interrogation must be quietly eliminated. “Just like the agents. as well as the office of the Ukrainian Service for mass media matters. This security force will collaborate with the German forces. It is critical to disclose and neutralize those secret agents. 547–552. building 78 in Mecklenburgische Straße. 205 The collection of reports of the State Emergency Committee on the crimes of German Fascist invaders. with high level of national consciousness and steadfast reputation. the official OUN documents. located in Landstraße-Hauptstraße. Kosik. such as “Regulations for OUN operations implementation” of 14th September 1941 and the appeal of the regional OUN(B) leadership to the Ukrainian nationalists (November 1941). file 1. V. sent later. they try to evoke hostility against the Ukrainian national struggle and Germany. Curiously. p. in Generalgouvernement and in the scene of operation. CSA SBPGU. file 22. the proposed time being the morning of Monday 15th September. sheet 211–213. Execute a thorough search of offices and resident apartments of the OUN(B) leaders subject to arrest. sheet 16–17. Д .. CSA SBPGU. it is impossible to accomplish this task within short time without the knowledge of the area and contacts with the local population… It is necessary to establish a powerful security force that would consist of local people.”205 202 FSB CA. contain no anti-German statements or mottos. stock 3833. on 9th December the OUN(B) again offered their services to the Nazi. sheet 49–50. 173. However. Moreover. part 2. “The Bolshevist Moscow has left plenty of secret agents in Ukraine. 1945… b) To close down offices of Bandera movement. list 2. The nationalists will be happy to assist in establishing such a force and conducting related operations.”202 This repression from the German authorities was a debilitating blow for the Bandera people. Ukraina v Drugiy svitoviy viyni u dokumentah: Zbirnik nimetskih 203 .Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 75 suspects must be arrested at the same time all over the country. stock 100. Мoscow. 204 Ibid. p.

p. stock 1. as we can see. the trend of the Ukrainian nationalists to oppose the German occupants did not change their negative attitude towards Jews. p. the OUN’s methods were even more radical. included penetrating into the police troops and local administration. CSA POU. Bandera people conveniently shifted the blame to the Jews. as well as exterminating Jews and communists. Thus. I. file 76. Zhertvy nenavisty (Victims of hatred). stock 1. 224. 365. p. OUN v 1941 rotsi (The OUN in 1941). OUN(B) people surrendered Jews to the Germans without a moment of hesitation. 88. the new motto of the nationalists of the autumn of 1941 was: “Viva Independent Ukraine. when the need came. as was ordered by the OUN(B). p. Lvov. And so it was done: the tasks. 96. 86. this change had no effect on the OUN(B) attitude towards Jewish people. part 2. 60. 206 UPA v svitli nimetskyh dokumentiv (УПА в свiтлi нiмецьких документiв). p. given by the OUN(B) leaders to underground forces. list 22. proposed by the Ukrainian nationalists. among others. M. p.207 But the logic of underground struggle sometimes forced Bandera people to use Jews for their benefit. vol. A. 1. V. file 76. they were forced or blackmailed to do that. 209 Kosik. without Jews. sheet 613. However. where the “final solution of the Jewish issue” was approved. OUN v 1942 rotsi (The OUN in 1942). 2. Ukraina v Drugiy svitoviy viyni u dokumentah: Zbirnik nimetskih arkhivnyh materialiv (Ukraine in WWII in documents: collection of German archive documents).”209 Of course. For instance. p. occupy leading posts. 210 OUN v 1942 rotsi (The OUN in 1942). The methods for addressing the Jewish issue. . When the storages were discovered by the Germans.”208 Also German security service registered several occasions. pp. when Bandera people provided Jews with fake passports. OUN v 1942 rotsi (The OUN in 1942). on 17th June 1942 the police and SD of the occupied eastern territories mentioned in their report that the OUN(B) activity was funded. p. 553. CSA POU. by Jews too: “It was confirmed that even Jews gave the money. According to German documents. Perhaps. sheet 613..76 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 Such activity of the Nazi authorities literally forced the OUN(B) to accept an anti-German attitude.210 arkhivnyh materialiv (Ukraine in WWII in documents: collection of German archive documents). Poles and Germans! Poles go away to San. 208 Altman. as the motto “Jews to gallows!” had been proposed before the Wannsee Conference. 152–153. 95. book 3. 207 Ibid. Germans – to Berlin and Jews – to the gallows!”206 So. were as radical as those used by the Nazi. vol. in the beginning of 1942 the Ukrainian police in Roven region set up secret weapon stashes. list 22.

The OUN(B) propaganda included clear anti-Jewish appeals. 1995. – When we realized that Germans did not approve of that and started shooting us. for physical labour. The official documents of the organization still revealed the negative attitude to the Jews. CSA SBPGU. Toronto. Some are left alive in small places. 212 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. CSA POU. stock 3833. 213 Kouk V. stock 63. Акт 30 червня 1941). In April 1942 The Second Conference of the OUN(B) accepted the following resolution: “Despite the negative attitude to Jews as a weapon of Moscow-Bolshevist Imperialism. the date of one year anniversary of the “Proclamation of the Independ211 Ideya i chin: Organ Provodu OUN. at present we consider it inappropriate to take part in anti-Jewish campaigns. 214 See for example: OUN i UPA v 1943 rotsi (The OUN and UPA in 1943). p. 1942–1946). O course we can not put the blame for those campaigns on the OUN. p. file 15. p. Thus. despite the available opportunities. the order. 82. we set up Ukrainian military units. 2007. 98–99. 52. 18. list 1. rare and situational. p. (Iдея i чин: Орган проводу ОУН.214 So. – recollected an OUN(B) leader Vasily Kouk later on. OUN people took an active part in massacres of Jews. we disguised those units as police and continued to train the people. OUN v 1942 rotsi (The OUN in 1942). of course. 450. sheet 1–5. issued by an OUN(B) leader on 30th June 1942.”212 There were many OUN people among the members of Ukrainian police. file 7. shows a lot to us. “When the war broke out. which was often involved into anti-Jewish campaigns. list 1. pp. sheet 81–86. disguised as police members. But the fact that OUN leaders. Lvov. . for we can’t be a blind weapon in the hands of others and distract the public attention from the main enemies. for example. arranged by the Nazi. They brought the Jews to Bolshevist cities and shot them. Akt chervnya 1941 (Украïнське державотворення. did not stop killings of Jews by Ukrainian police. On 6th August 942 the OUN(B) regional leadership in Kamenets-Podolsk region noted with satisfaction: “The Germans solved the “Jewish issues” on their own. Lvov.”211 The “inappropriateness of anti-Jewish campaigns” was conditioned among the rest by the fact that the Germans were busy solving the “Jewish issue” and that too in a radical way. 1942 -1946. UPA v zapitannyah ta vidpividyah Golovnogo Komandira (УПА в запитаннях та вiдповiдях Головного Командира).”213 OUN great influence on formation of Ukrainian police was mentioned in German documents as well.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 77 Cooperation of OUN(B) members with Jews in the spring of 1942 was.

1. vol. In order to solve the issue. issued on the same day. Our honor calls to defend ourselves. SSA SSU. file 19. Together with the Ukrainian people (mainly refers to peasants) they survive various political events. 35. stock 13. CSA SBPGU. vol. 71. 100. sheet 200–207.78 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 ent Ukrainian State”. Magyars. Ukrainians. p. on the other side Germans with their colonial policy make their presence very visible. 157–158. file 372.215 The OUN(B) appeal. V. 345. 1. 218 This did not mean a radical change of the policy. must 215 OUN v 1942 rotsi (The OUN in 1942). 1942: “The Chief Military Unit orders Regional Military Units: To solve the issue of national minorities when the armed operations for the independence begin. stock 3833. p. But Russian activists. OUN v 1942 rotsi (The OUN in 1942). the action plan of the OUN(B). Stepan Bandera u dokumentah… (Stepan Bandera in the documents…). file 63. are in a tough situation. p. file 42. 218 Vyatrovich. 217 Stepan Bandera u dokumentah… (Stepan Bandera in the documents…). 35. 1. stock 3833. said the following: “We. book 1. mentioned a “brutal Jew-Rus” as an enemy. 216 . given in the appeal. vol. p. 154. Starting from the second half of 1942 Bandera people published no propaganda materials with appeals to exterminate the Jews.. we still feel the breath of the Moscow and Jewish invasion. file 63. At the same time the struggle is going on with Moscow-Jewish bolshevism and our political mind tells us to wait… We do not call people to barricades. sheet 64. do not start physical fights with the new owners of Ukraine [the Nazi] for the territory. stock 13. Russians. 97. stated that “Germans.”217 Nevertheless. p. Ibid. Jews and Poles” were the “enemies of the Nation. p. as they have assimilated in Ukraine and present no threat. SSA SSU. CSA SBPGU. sheet 104–119 overleaf. list 1. Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah… (Roman Shukhevich in the documents…). sheet 16. SSA SSU Stock 9. CSA SBPGU. list 1. Romanians. the national minorities – enemies of the nation – must be exterminated. Russians should not be touched. file 372. sheet 16–16ov. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (The OUN attitude towards Jews). as we can see from the resolutions of the First Military Conference of OUN(B) in October.”216 At the same time. the “Jewish” policy of the OUN(B) was soon amended. list 1. 103. stock 3833. sheet 200–207. struggling against Ukrainians. Our primary and still main enemy is Moscow. On the one side. p. vol.

must be eliminated one day before the mobilization is announced. p. as we must keep in mind the liquidation of the Western frontline. By the autumn of 1942 all people of Ukraine realized the 219 Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. according to the resolution of the same Conference: “Pay special attention to Russians and Jews. 210. Czech and Romanians. given in the resolution of the OUN(B) First Military Conference. also with their belongings. were to be killed. Army soldiers must not be used for that. The most active enemies. 5.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 79 all be registered and eliminated.. and members of all anti-Ukraine organizations. stock 13. Poles must all be relocated. the OUN(B) slightly changed their methods of solving the “Jewish issue”. Elimination will be done by police and in certain cases – by the SB. part 1. 1942–1945). vol. as these Russians are enemies of the Ukrainians. 220 Ibid. Those. Armenians should be treated just as Jews. 2. SSA SSU. In the hope to get support from Great Britain and the USA. instead they must be sent out of the country with some of their belongings. Bandera group leaders rejected the idea of exterminating all Jews. who were soldiers of the Red Army and members of the guerilla movement. Political leaders and Jews must be eliminated. as England and the US will protect them. and the Nazi plans before the attack of the Soviet Union: relocation of the Jews. elimination of Jewish prisoners of war and military commissioners. taking into consideration that they are loyal to Russia. 208. Don’t touch Magyars. as well as prisoners of war. But the Jews.”219 As indicated above. Jews should not be exterminated. 5. residing in Ukraine. sheet 21–38. . But the main goal of the Military Conference was of course not the “Jewish issues”. and decided to send them out of the country instead. 3. must be eliminated. file 372. who refuse to leave. especially in small towns. p. We should reckon with the Jews as they have much influence in England and the US.”220 It’s easy to see the resemblance between solutions for the “Jewish issue”. They are to be counted and registered beforehand by regional and district military units. Don’t touch the other national minorities of the USSR. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. 4.

Toronto.225 During the “Volyn slaughter” there were many victims among Jewish people. p. 224 Omelyusik. file 75135-ФП. 345. 1989. p. stock 9. UPA na Volyni v 1943 rotsi (The UPA in Volyn area in 1943) // Volyn i Polissya: Nimetska okupatsiya (Volyn and Polesye: German occupation). p. 226 One of the exeptions – “Appeal to Ukrainian nationalists” dated May 1943. over 40 thousand people were killed during those campaigns. SSA SSU. book 1. and against the orders of OUN leaders they had armed conflicts with the Germans.221 the representatives of the lower levels of this organization gained the permission for armed resistance to the occupants. stock 13. According to Polish historians. In the summer of 1943 UPA troops arranged large-scale ethnic cleansing campaigns in the residential areas of Polish communities. which mentions bygone . who robbed and killed Ukrainian people. Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah… (Roman Shukhevich in the documents…). stock 65. 28. file 63. sheet 17. CSA SBPGU. 2003. stock 3833.223 More military units of the OUN(B) were formed. p. stock 6. 5. 103. The witnesses state that one of the reasons for establishing the UPA by the OUN members was Soviet guerilla active operations in the area of Polesye. vol.”222 Alongside with that. Sheet 19–41.80 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 evil essence of the Nazi occupation regime. 87. 225 Makarchuk. vol. 163–164. SSA SSU. sheet 21–38. p. In the spring of 1943 these military units and units of the Ukrainian police joined into the “Ukrainian Insurgent Army” (UPA). a member of Central Headquarters of the OUN(B). By now. p. 204. p. file 372. “The local OUN units were left to their own devices. 30–49. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. M. SSA SSU. file 19. See also: Organizatsiya ukrainskih natsionalistov i Ukrainska povstanska armiya: Istorichni narysy (Органiзацiя украïнських нацiоналiстiв i Украïнська повстаньска армiя: Iсторичнi нариси). 314. 2005. sheet 104–119 overleaf. Kyiv. Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah… (Roman Shukhevich in the documents…). – recollected Mikhail Stepanyak. no. part 1. book 1. 223 Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. at that time OUN armed units emerged spontaneously. book 1. 222 Borotba proty povstanskogo pukhu… (Боротьба проти повстанського руху…). p. who tried to escape from the Nazis. there were very few anti-Jewish slogans in published propaganda materials of the OUN(B). list 1. 197.) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I”(Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї»). While the OUN(B) encouraged avoiding fights with the Germans. sheet 16–16 overleaf. file С-9079. 24. which meant that an armed struggle was inevitable and the time for it was approaching fast. 1942–1945). Vtrati naselennya na Volyni u 1941-1947 (Втрати населення на Волинi у 1941– 1947 рр. – Very little was done for military units. in the autumn of 1942 OUN(B) leaders realized that Germany was about to lose the war.226 But they were still used in oral propa221 See for example: OUN v 1942 rotsi (The OUN in 1942). 1. S.224 Polish residents of Volyn were another enemy for the UPA units.

sheet 1. a soldier of the UPA. a Jewish lady. V. told about the unit lead by an OUN member Yuzef Gumenyuk: “It happened in that very settlement in the beginning of 1943. list 1. p. list 1. Holokaust po banderowsku…. stock 62. In the same month. .”228 Contemporary Polish researchers published the data confirming the information of the Soviet guerillas. hidden by the Poles. That time he gave us shelter – made a bunker under the floor. file 1. 230 Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. CSA POU. now the time has come for us to take revenge on Poles. and then one day he said that somebody was watching us. p. Ukrainian nationalists killed more than ten Polish people. part 2. 221. stock Р-1021.227 We can find the same slogans in the reports. E. file 1347. file 1020. s. book 1. On 29th July a gang of armed Ukrainians attacked Stavechki village in Vlodzimirsky area and killed several Polish families. stock 13.229 The above information is confirmed by the statements of the OUN and UPA members.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 81 ganda. 143. Jews and Poles. For more details see: OUN i UPA v 1943 rotsi (The OUN and UPA in 1943). – recollected one of the witnesses. we asked director Voznyak to host us. Jews and communists”. DAVO. V. whom the Poles tried to hide. 229 Prus. p. and a Jewish family. With axes they killed the Kulkinski couple. in the village of Kotlyarovka during 10-15 May of 1943. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. and the family of Vladislav Vitskevich together with a young Jewish man. For instance. submitted by Soviet guerillas to the Ukrainian Headquarters of Guerilla Movement (UHGM): “During meetings peasants are encouraged to eliminate communists. on 15th July 1943 in Velitsk village of Kovel area Ukrainian nationalists killed more than ten people of Polish nationality. 227 Polischuk. 62. The OUN(B) people encouraged the killings of both local Polish population and Jews. as well as one Jew who hid in that village. 228 Borotba proty UPA… (Боротьба проти УПА…).”230 Regina Krochmal. 1942–1945). Girka Pravda (Bitter truth). “Our unit had the task to kill and rob all Poles and Jews in Dederkal region. sheet 221–229. sheet 18. – told Fyodor Voznyuk. in Eliashovka village of Zdolbunovski area. We stayed like that for several weeks. SSA SSU. 894. arrested by the Soviet authorities. “Jew dominance”. “The priest said: “Brother and sisters. 172–173. – I participated in the massacre of Poles and Jews in Dederkal region. p.

82

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4

One evening I went out to cook, and saw that the house was surrounded by the gang with Yuzef Gumenyuk leading them. They
threw a grenade into the bunker. Some people were killed right
away, others injured. Only two ladies were not injured. I stayed in
the box room and saw that Gumenyuk tied up director Voznyak
with barbed wire and hung him on the door. The he cut Voznyak’s
fingers, and when director screamed, cut his tongue off too, and
left him like that. After that Gumenyuk and his gang, there were
20-25 people, raped the girls, who stayed alive, and then killed
them to – hit with an iron stick, so their brains spattered on the
walls and ceiling. In the same year Gumenyuk and his gang set fire
in Koroschatin village, only several houses remained in the center
of the village. That time they forced all women and children, who
were alive, gather in one building, then spread there feathers from
mattresses and set fire on the people – all burnt alive.”231
The “family units”, consisting of the escapees from Ghetto, were treated by UPA officers as Soviet and therefore eliminated. Several hundreds
of Jews, who escaped from the Tuchinsky Ghetto, managed to survive
through winter, “but the conditions of life during several months in the
woods, with fake guerilla troops located or passing nearby, and robbers
and the OUN-UPA units roaming around, turned out to be disastrous,
and almost all escapees died.”232
“All [Ukrainian] young people, without any exception, had to join the
UPA. They were brought to the woods and trained for several months, –
recollected Jan Cisek, officer of Berezhansky area of Polish Armia Krajowa. – Those trainees in the woods were searching for the places where
Jews were hiding, and killed all Jews they found.”233
We should remember that most of the UPA members were former soldiers of Ukrainian police – same who had been used by the occupants in
massacres of Jews. They used their experience of ethnic cleansings during
the Volyn massacre. As for Jews, the former policemen have always considered the ones to be eliminated.
231

Polyaki i ukraintsi… (Polish and Ukrainian people…), part 2, p. 886–888; The Institute of National
Memory of Poland, 0192/336, vol. 29, sheet 21–21 overleaf.
Berenstein, L. E., Elisavetsky. S. Y. Evreyi – geroyi Soprotivleniya v podpolnoy i partizanskoy borbe
protiv nazistkih okkupantov na Ukraine, 1941–1945 (Jews – heroes of opposition in underground and
guerilla struggle against the Nazi occupation in Ukraine, 1941–1945). Tel-Aviv, 1998, p. 44.
233
Quoted from Prus, E. Holokaust po banderowsku…, s. 167.
232

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4

83

But the main struggle with Jews and other “undesired elements” was
done not by UPA units, but by the OUN Security Service, subordinate
to the UPA. Alexey Kirillyuk proved the above in his statements. Alexey
used to be an aid-de-camp of a Security Service officer in “the north-west
Ukrainian region” Alexander Prisyazhnyuk (cover name “Makar”).
“Up to May 1943 I had been travelling together with “Makar”
around the villages of the Roven region. I was to do different jobs
for him and guard him.
Usually when we stayed in a village “Makar” sent me to gather
the local OUN core group and OUN SS guerillas. They provided
him with the detailed information about the climate in the local society, supplies to the UPA, the quantity and names of Soviet
prisoners of war, who had fled from German camps and stayed in
the village…
After “Makar” left, a military unit arrived to the village and as
ordered by “Makar” killed those local people, who had expressed
their discontent over the UPA; Soviet prisoners of war, who had
fled from German camp, were killed as well.
In May 1943 “Makar” sent for me and said that he was very
pleased with my work, hence he considered me experienced
enough to take the responsibility of the Chief Officer of OUN SS
military unit in the Roven region. He said my official title would
be “Chief of the police executive department”.
I asked for details of my future responsibilities and “Makar”
told me the following:
“For the OUN to be able to struggle for the Independent
Ukraine we must eliminate all enemies of the OUN. And for that
we need to have eyes and ears everywhere. That is the task of the
Security service – in every settlement it has guerillas and a military unit of 10-12 people, who eliminate our enemies.
OUN leaders set the following tasks before the Security service:
1. To eliminate all “enemies” of the OUN and the UPA, who
are in particular Poles, Czechs, Jews, communists, officers and
soldiers of the Red Army, police officers and people of the local
population, who express loyalty to the Soviet authorities.
2. To arrest and shoot all prisoners of war, who are officers and
soldiers of the Red Army and had fled from German camps.

84

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4

3. To exterminate, together with families, all deviating from
the service in the UPA, burn down their houses and take away
their belongings.
4. To watch the population of the region, monitor timely food
supplies for the UPA, apply physical punishment to those who
sabotage the supplies. Physical punishment means shooting and
execution.
5. To reveal and punish the people expecting the arrival of the
Red Army troops.
6. To exterminate all people, as indicated and ordered by OUN
leaders, without going into detail about their faults.
7. To hand over the “most dangerous” enemies to “Makar”
without interrogating them personally, “most dangerous enemies”
being communists and NKVD people.
The foundation stone of our work is loyalty to the OUN. When
you see your victim suffering, have no qualms. Remember, the
more enemies we destroy, the closer is our victory.”
After “Makar” finished I realized that he gives me a job I’m interested in, and it was convenient too, as I could stay at home and
avoid the Service in the UPA, where I didn’t want to go because
of my poor health.
On the same day “Makar” took me to Zaritsk village of the
Roven region, where introduced the members of the military unit
to me.”234
As we see, Jews were on list of “enemies” to be eliminated by OUN SS
people. Kutkovets I. T., another OUN member, described the tasks of the
OUN SS in a similar way in his statement:
“In 1943 upon the order of the OUN regional headquarters SS
was working on the following tasks:
– physical elimination of the prisoners of war, soldiers of
the Red Army;
– elimination of the Polish people and burning down their
houses;
234

Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy, 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people
between two totalitarian systems, 1942–1945), part 1, p. 448–450; SSA SSU, stock 13, file 372, vol. 20,
sheet 56–63.

Those. we have no doubt about that. file С-9079. p. 237 Ibid. a member of the Central headquarters responsible for propaganda. p. book 1. were now given the rights of fully legitimate Ukrainian citizens! 235 Dokumenty izoblichayut (Documents accuse). sheet 30–49. were duly accomplished. “The new programme showed our anti-imperialist. in order to act together. the Bandera programme of solving the “Jewish issue” was drastically changed. vol. He concluded that the USSR was moving fast on the way to victory. as well as military action of the UPA. who refused to join the UPA. In the August of 1943 the Third Emergency Conference of the OUN(B) was conducted in a remote village of the Ternopol region. Vasily Okhrimovich (secret name “Garmash”).Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 85 – physical elimination of deserters from the UPA and beating people. who are not members of the USSR. anti-fascist and anti-racist position. first of all of Polish and Jewish people.”235 The tasks. p. SSA SSU. 236 . These changes were introduced: a new OUN(B) programme was approved. who had recently been persecuted. 324. Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah… (Roman Shukhevich in the documents…). – recollected Mikhail Stepnyak. The victory of the Soviet troops in the Kursk Bulge battle was the final sign to convince the OUN(B) leaders of Germans’ soon defeat.. presented his report on the international situation. – It ensured equal political rights and the rights in the national affairs for all people of the Ukrainian state. In connection to the above “Garmash” proposed implementation of the following policy: – to direct the activity of the Organization towards arranging a revolt in the USSR. and a common front line too. – to get in touch with the nations of Europe.”237 Thus. for that a union with the other USSR peoples is required. The previous programmes were far from that. – physical elimination of the hiding Jewish people. residing in Ukraine. 1. 97.236 But to create the “front line of the enslaved nations” and obtain support from Great Britain the OUN(B) had to officially stop brutal persecution of the minorities. a member of the OUN(B) Central headquarters. – to obtain support from Great Britain. as they were purely fascist. 321–322. At the same time there were some contradictions between Great Britain and the US on the one side and the USSR – on the other side. stock 65. set before the OUN SS people.

the head of a big Soviet guerilla unit in the Volyn region: “The nationalists accuse Russian people of illit238 Vyatrovich. who could always be called supporters of “Moscow Bolsheviks”. 225. list 1. s. p. file 253.”239 This note evidently opened many opportunities to persecute Jews. The difference between words and actions of the Ukrainian nationalists is clearly shown in the report to the UHGM. 73. issued on 1 November 1943. p. Altman. working for us. Despite the changes in the OUN(B) programme. When the head of a Soviet guerilla unit tried to start negotiations with the UPA representatives. Otnosheniye nekotorih krugov Ukrainskogo Natsionalnogo dvizheniya k evreyam v period vtoroy mirovoy voiny (The attitude of certain groups of the Ukrainian national movement towards Jews during WWII) // Vestnik Evreyskogo universiteta v Moskve (The Newsletter of the Jewish University in Moscow) 1995. despite the propaganda of equal rights for all nationalities. but only those who “worked for the benefit of Ukraine”. book 1. including Jews. 110. set up by the Germans. A. This must be told to doctors of Jewish nationality and other professionals. Wais. stock 62. it is not surprising that the UPA troops continued ethnic cleansing. A similar thesis can be found in the “Temporary instruction”. includes the following instructions: “Circulate the information that we admit all nationalities. Ukraińska partzyantka…. 239 . 297 (with the reference to: SARF. 2. p.86 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 However. sent by Fyodorov. issued in the beginning of 1944. list 1. file 126. So their attitude to Jews did not change. (Victims of hatred…). no. Motyka. the Ukrainian nationalists admitted the right to exist only for certain Jews. G. CSA POU. This document contained an appeal to conduct “no campaigns against the Jews” since “the Jewish issue is no longer a problem (there are very few of Jews left).” At the same time there is a very important note: “This does not refer to those Jews who are against us. 240 Borotba proty UPA… (Боротьба проти УПА…). sheet 20–22. the attitude of the Ukrainian nationalists towards Jews remained mostly negative. A. Those people had a little while before participated in many anti-Jewish campaigns. stock 9478. who work for the benefit of Ukraine. 103. sheet 233–235). even after the resolution of the Third Emergency Conference of the OUN(B).”240 Thus. p. The Directive of the General Headquarters of the UPA.”238 We can see clearly that the instruction admitted not all Jews. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (Ставлення ОУН до євреїв). the latter said: “First you get rid of all Jews in your unit and then we shall do the negotiating. They will be considered Ukrainian citizens and have full rights. I. We should remember that the UPA consisted mainly of the former officers and soldiers of the police troops. V. Zhertvy nenavisty.

SSA SSU. on 2nd April 1944 “9 poles and 2 Jewish women who worked for the Jews”242 were killed in a village in Peremyshlensky district. People are burnt down.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 87 eracy and savagery in their publications. after the village had been liberated by the Red Army. cut into four pieces. part 2. CSA POU. 34. e. when Jewish people fell victims to their cruelty: – Malaya Panikovitsa (Brody district). tortured them. irrespective of their nationality. list 22. In the autumn of 1943 Bandera people attacked the village and murdered Polish people. 243 FSB CA. He participated in the murder of my family members…”243 This statement was given by Yanitsky S. cut and shot about 100 people – Soviet activists. found in the village. 241 Borotba proty UPA… (Боротьба проти УПА…). murdered by Bandera people on 18th March 1944. a 17-year-old daughter and my son. Jews and Poles. sheet 231–234. In the woods near Mogilnitsy village of the Budzanovsky district. a member of Bandera group. That night Bandera people killed. p. Disguised as Soviet guerillas and wearing masks. pits were unearthed with 94 bodies of the village residents. 1942–1945). arranged a massacre of Poles in Mogilnitsy village. At the same time in the numerous leaflets they call all nations of the East and West to establish their independent national States. 242 . stock 1. cut down with axes and killed. Around 15 nationalists broke into my house. and others too. vol. 244 Ibid. My family was killed that night – my wife. 1032. among them I recognized KRITCHKOVSKY Josef Antonovich. Bandera people. book 1. broke their heads. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. p. For example. Оп 11. chopped up children with axes. Witnesses said: “On the night 17th/18th March [1944] The Ukrainian nationalists. I. and then burned everything down in order to conceal their crimes. 130. cut them up with knives. The Jews. if they are sympathetic to the Soviet regime or assist guerilla movements. sheet 48–55. Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. And alongside with that they brutally persecute and kill Polish and Jewish people. file 7. Tarnopol military province. conducted by the UPA in the autumn of 1943 and winter of 1944. stock 13. file 75.”241 This information is confirmed by UPA documents. i. were quartered.244 Polish historians give the following examples of anti-Polish campaigns. sheet 263. stock 100. they broke into houses of Polish families. file 376.

survived. They tortured priest Andzej Krasitsky and tried to get the names of people. – Baranovka (Brezhany district). In November 1943 three Polish people were killed. – Shumyany. gathered in front of the house of the parish priest. On the night of 2ndrd October 1943 Bandera gang murdered 11 people including three Jewish children. In November 1943 a Bandera gang murdered priest Antony Verbovski. The Jews (five people). In 1944 UPA soldiers attacked this village for the second time. – Kudlubiska (Olesko area). The Jews. Bandera people attacked the village in August 1943. the Polish people of the village left the place in the beginning of 1944 and moved to Sokal district. – Ruda Brodzka (Brody district). was caught in some unknown place and killed. In other words. set fire on it and shot the people who tried . Both were accused of hiding Jews. In December 1943 Bandera people attacked the parish. and in December of the same year – 7 more were killed. – Bydlo (Rogatin district). They shouted and demanded to surrender Jews to them. In autumn 1943 Bandera people killed 11 Polish people. hidden in a secret place. In the autumn of 1943 Bandera people killed two Poles after they found out that Jews were hiding in their houses. and their houses burnt down. hiding in stables and barns. declaring that they had been hiding “enemies of Christianity and murderers of Christ”. – Malkov (Sokal district). Together with Poles a Jewish family of four people was killed. – Yazlovets (Buchach district). In winter 1943/44 Bandera people attacked the village. who were hiding Jews. hiding in the woods. and ordered to hand them over to the Bandera people. The six found Jews were also murdered with knives. – Svitazhuv (Peremyshlyany district). had no chance to get out. they tried to force him break the seal of confession. who used to give food to a Jewish family. – Plebanovka (Trembovla district). In December 1943 Bandera people shot a Polish man. Eleven Jewish families were burnt. The priest remained silent. killed six Poles and burnt down seventy houses. who demanded to surrender Jews. and a teacher named Vrobl.88 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 – Dryshkov. Fearing the attack of Bandera gangs.

According to the latest order from the 245 Prus. M. – Zhabintse (Kopytchintse district). reported to the UHGM: “The nationalists in Dombrovitse mobilized all tailors to stitch warm clothes for the winter. gang of Poles in Visina and a Russian gang in Podyasy district…”246 Thus. despite the directive of the 3rd Third Emergency Conference of the OUN(B). file 372. helped not only soldiers but also the civilians. fighting for the same ideals as the whole Ukrainian Nation. vol. they informed about a gang of Jews in Svirets. book 2. in April 1944 “UPA officers” gave the Germans information “on the activity of gangs in the district of Zlochew-Borbrika-Podyasy. and even when they had a chance to join the Red Army. 182–183. Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya… (Украïньска Повстаньска Армiя…). On 30 October 1943. One of OUN(B) leaders. The number of Jewish people killed during those attacks remains unknown. Bandera gang attached the village twice – in September and December of 1943. SSA SSU. Jewish doctors were considered equal citizens of Ukraine and leaders of the Ukrainian army. Holokaust po banderowsku…. who worked for the benefit of the UPA.245 The above reportings are by no means a final account. p. We also know that UPA members provided the information on Jewish groups to German occupation forces. By the autumn of 1943 there was a small number of Jews serving in the UPA. the leader of the guerilla unit “Begma” located in Volyn area. For more details see: Spravka SBU pro diyalnist OUN_UPA on 30 lypnya 1993 roku (Справка СБУ про дiяльнiсть ОУН-УПА от 30 липня 1993 року) // Bez prava na reabilitatsiyu (Без права на реабилитацию). Many of them died as soldiers. 219. 2005. Kiyv. They stayed with the army in very tough circumstances.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 89 to escape. they always attacked the houses where Jews stayed. UPA soldiers continued elimination of Jews in autumn 1943 and winter 1944. 36. 247 Lebed. According to German documents. s. recollected in his memoirs: “Most of the UPA doctors were Jewish people. saved by the UPA from the Hitler’s forces. Among the people shot from machine guns there were Jews too. 69. E. stock 13. arranged field hospitals and hospitals in settlements. 246 . The only exception was made for the “useful” Jews. book 1. sheet 120–124.”247 His words are confirmed by Russian documents. Nikolay Lebed. I should emphasize that all of them were honestly doing their hard duty. p. went around the areas.

p. Volyn was an underdeveloped agricultural area.90 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 Headquarters. While the Jews were openly used in the UPA. Toronto. and only 1. the involved Jews were not included in the UPA and not listed. but for Polish people. There was not a single Jew among them. vol. In the Central State Archives of Supreme Bodies of Power and Government of Ukraine there are 1445 personal information cards. 1943–1944: Документи i матерiали). stock 62. CSA POU. 250 This is proved by the UPA documents. the nationalists accept everybody who wants to join them. It should be noted that the number of Jews in the UPA is much exaggerated by both OUN memoirists and modern historians-revisionists. This was proved by Ivan Patrilyak in his recent analysis of the new information source – personal information cards of soldiers of the military district “Bogun”. book 1. 1943 1944: Dokumenty i materialy (Волинь i Полiсся: УПА та запiлля. controlled by the UPA.73 % represented other nationalities: Russians. “Yevedentsiyni kartki” UPA yak statistichne dzherelo («Еведенцiйнi картки» УПА як статистичне джерело) // Ukrainskyi vyzvolnyi ruh (Украïнський визвольний Рух) Lvov.249 The reasons for the Ukrainian nationalists to accept Jews were purely practical and never concealed from anyone by the UPA leaders. Volyn. 2006. There are many Jews among the nationalists. p. 249 For more details see: Vyatrovich. especially Jewish doctors. Podillya: UPA da zapillya. 397. apparently. this 248 Borotba proty UPA… (Боротьба проти УПА…). For more details see: Volyn i Polissya: UPA ta zapillya. Byelorussians etc. 2006. 107. The number of soldiers in “Bogun” district in the end of 1943 was 8 to 10 thousand people.251 According to this data.252 So. p.. Kyiv. p. 251 Patrilyak. K. with most of the population being farmers. Полiсся. Подiлля: УПА да запiлля. Toronto. list 1. they were also secretly exterminated. Polissya. sheet 108. 75–76. People had been killed by the OUN Security Service. pp. 117–118. Uzbeks. 6. V. This sampling allows restoring a “collective portrait” of a UPA soldier.250 This very shortage of specialists forced the UPA leaders to use Jews. file 1350. p. group UPA-North. Kyiv. 1999. and there was a lack of handcraft workers and doctors. UPA members in their memoirs mention small Jewish family camps.”248 Moreover. 111 252 Ibid. 41.27 % of the soldiers were Ukrainian. I. 98. a Jewish UPA soldier was rather an exception. . 1944–1945: Dokumenty i materialy (Bолинь. 1944–1945: Документи i матерiали). which is 17-20% of the total number of soldiers. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (Ставлення ОУН до євреїв). Up to the beginning of the war about one third of the population in the area remained illiterate.

The SS was to exterminate all family members (including infants. stock 1. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. . 255 Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. captured by guerillas: “All non-professional Jews must be secretly eliminated.”254 As we see. 52). the head of “Turiv” unit of the UPA group “Sever”. non-professional Jews were eliminated straight away. they were killed as well. and tell everybody that they left and joined the Bolsheviks. SSA SSU. part 1. file С-9079. stock 57.”255 The information. The leaders of the OUN and the UPA issued a whole number of directives on the secret extermination of “unreliable elements”. is confirmed in the text of the OUN order of 13th March 1944. p. file 451.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 91 unit had been eliminating Jews up to the day when the Resolutions of the 3rd Great OUN(B) Conference were issued and afterwards too. 1. list 4. women and old people) of those individuals. 442–444.”253 Similar information was found in the order from an OUN SS leader. Zhiburta. I know of one more secret order of the OUN central HQ. who were suspected of anti-OUN ideas. sheet 168–169. The order also stated that the killings must be disguised as sending the UPA people to special “Russian units”. vol. also the information must be spread that they left and joined the Bolsheviks. The order was to exterminate all Soviet prisoners of war on the territory of the Western Ukraine. sheet 94–95. file 75. book 1. 219. Professionals lived a bit longer. 1942–1945). given to us orally by “Klim Savur” of the SS. p. list 1. Bystrukhin. Yuri Stelmaschuk. (With the reference to CSA POU. G. An officer of the OUN(B) Security Service. described in detail the real policy and attitudes of the nationalists: “Earlier the SS issued an order to secretly eliminate all non-professional Jews and conceal the killings from both Jews and our people. considering them supporters of Bolsheviks. file 277. 254 Vedeneyev. The UPA received a secret order from the OUN central HQ to exterminate all UPA members of Russian nationality. stock 65. found by the Soviet State Security body: 253 Borotba proty UPA… (Боротьба проти УПА…). D. captured by Soviet guerilla troops. sheet 10. CSA POU. list 22. sheet 2. 126. given to the SS. said in his statement: “There was a secret order of the OUN central HQ. given by Stelmaschuk. Mech i trizub (Меч і тризуб). p. stock 62. but as soon as the Red Army troops approached..

Mech i trizub (Меч і тризуб). Bandera people tied stones to the bodies. p.”259 It’s hard to believe that when the nationalists exterminated their countrymen. . A. if they are not secret agents or reconnaissance men. and persons of non-Ukrainian origin. 3. list 1. 91. All people from the east. who had settled in villages. some of the people still being alive. One of miraculously survived escapees 256 Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. A. V. Jerusalem. “The killings were brutal. residents (confidants) of all nationalities. 1999. SSA SSU. issued on 28th April 1945 by V. those people could disclose the information about the system and methods of Bandera units. 257 Motyka. 167. will join the Bolsheviks when the latter arrive.. Thousands of prisoners were killed – soldiers and officers of the Red Army. sheet 341. 288. So the regional leaders ordered to kill every one of them.258 The above orders were duly executed. Pay attention – the eastern people serving in the OUN. the leader of the UPA unit “Zapad” (west). p. and threw them into Goryn River. Sidor (“Shelest”). secret agents or Poles. Some of them were released from the camps in 1941. 258 Vedeneyev.” A similar instruction we can find in the order. 1942–1945). file 22. sheet 6). a historian. on the 3rd of March 1944.”257 Several days before that. at the same time they would spare much hated Jews. must not be eliminated. The first victims of the Ukrainian nationalists were former prisoners of war. 1941–1945.92 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 “We order to start merciless extermination of all enemy elements. s. 1941–1945 (Captivity: Soviet prisoners of war in Germany. Bystrukhin. file 57. p. 204. vol. D. The directive of the administrative office of the regional OUN(B) HQ in the West of Ukraine explicitly instructed to clear the UPA of “individuals of non-Ukrainian origin”. secret agents. among them Ukrainian nationals from the eastern areas. stock 71. and give out all information about us. or all prisoners of war from the east. stock 3833. some had fled from the prisons or camps – in any case. only for the suspicion that they might cooperate with the Soviet authorities in the future.”256 The OUN SS in Volyn issued a similar order on 11th March 1944: “exterminate all communists and Jews immediately. Kentiy. 259 Shneer. Moscow. – wrote Aron Sheer. the administrative office of the OUN(B) in the East of Ukraine issued an instruction to clear the UPA “of unreliable members. G. G. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. 330. Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya v 1944-1945 (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army in 1941-1945). Ukraińska partzyantka…. 2005. In particular people from the east must be eliminated. Kyiv. p. – In Goschansky area of the Roven region they tortured and killed about 100 prisoners of war. Plen: Sovetskiye voyennoplenniye v Germaniyi. 294–295 (With the reference to CSA SBPGU. list 9. be they Ukrainians.

Bandera group members offered help to many doctors and technical people to escape from the Kurovitse camp. Redlich and V. he held up his hands and went out of his hiding place. He stayed with them for a long time. tell us that Jewish family camps. believed the Ukrainian nationalists’ assurance that they would not hurt him.261 Gzegocz Motyka. 297. 261 Motyka. G. an honest and simple man. controlled by the UPA. 1999. and started cooperating with them. One dentist joined doctors Staropolsky and Kalfus. Bandera units. some “free” Jews got in touch with the Ukrainian underground forces. Doctor Staropolsky and doctor Kalfus agreed and joined Bandera group. most of them in Volyn area. the resolution of the 3rd Emergency Conference of the OUN(B) on equal rights of all nations living in Ukraine had very little impact on the process of extermination of Jews by the OUN SS and the UPA. 111–112. Semashko. . E. 295–297. That dentist managed to escape on the day of the big Russian attack – on the 22nd of June 1944 he went to the fields and when a unit of Russian soldiers approached. As we can see. it may not be treated as pure propaganda. before the Red Army troops arrived. s. a Polish historian. 1941–1944. Staropolsky. Ukraińska partzyantka….262 Keeping in mind that by the time the UPA started its activity there were just a few Jewish people in the area. helped the injured and the sick. because the latter knew too much. s. because they benefitted from Jewish professionals.. this figure is substantial. both are researchers. calculated that the UPA eliminated between one thousand and two thousand of local Jews. recorded by S.”260 The memoirs.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 93 from the Ghetto gave a straightforward description of what happened to the Jews serving in the UPA: “After the Kurovitse camp was destroyed and people fled to the woods. Die Strasse nach Lemberg: Zwangsarbeit und Widerstnd in Ostgalizein. s. Despite the above. Frankfurt/Main. the nationalists had killed doctors Staropolsky and Kalfus. 262 Ibid. Later he told that before the Russians came. who had escaped from the Ghetto. The 260 Yones. together with the inhabitants. This initiative was supported by Bandera people. had also been destroyed.

p. . and followed only those patterns because anything different was beyond their ideological. In 1944 Dmitry Dontsov. political and organizational potential. V. because Hitler with his whole Reich broke their legs there. national or political. anti-Semitism. the leading ideologist of the Ukrainian nationalists. Naturally. the “Jewish issue” does not exist in Ukraine now… What was appropriate… for rebel gang leaders. So do not drive away from the main road to the sideways of antiSemitism and xenophobia. Our own people will crucify or expel those who follow that path. not all OUN leaders were ready to give up their anti-Semite attitude. The struggle against Jews is for the good of the Ukrainian nation and follows its traditions. it was necessary to note in the OUN programme that “mentality and policy of the Jews around the globe are harmful for the Ukrainian nation and the Ukrainian State. One should be politically illiterate to fail to understand that in spite of all our traditions in relation to the “Jewish issue” we must move away from anti-Semitism today. who could use nothing else but anti-Semitism and xenophobia.”263 According to Dontsov. a young member of the Chief Council of OUN(B). Ibid.94 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 resolution of the Conference laid foundation to the official changing of the Ukrainian nationalists’ programme in terms of the “Jewish issue”. expressed relentless criticism of the new OUN(B) programme. – I speak not only about the Cossaks’ traditions. 83. Moreover. religious attitude and tendency for private interests. known for their xenophobia against invaders from the north. and that too not because they sympathize with Jews. but also about the traditions of the recent rebel movement of 1917-1922. for the very same reason why we must be dissociated from any hint of Hitlerism. – he said. raised his objections to Dontsov’s opinion. Those ways are not acceptable for us – we are the generation with a task much greater than primitive xenophobia. and spoke about futility of old methods for solving the “Jewish issue”: «After the German experience it is difficult (if not pointless at all) to go the same way again. “The programme contains no connection with the Ukrainian historical tradition. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (Ставлення ОУН до євреїв).”264 Osip Pozichyanyuk. in particular – of the new attitude to the “Jewish issue”. social. 263 264 Vyatrovich.

266 . in 1947 during the preparations of the UPA propaganda raids in Czechoslovakia Vasily Galasa. This is confirmed by the order. V. At the same time there was no “Jewish issue” in Ukraine – the Nazi. Reydy UPA terenami Chekhoslovachyny (Рейди УПА теренами Чехословаччини). Instead. Ukraińska partzyantka…. emphasized in his instructions to Vladimir Goshk’s brigades that killings of Jews were unacceptable. They will treat any similar policy as the continuation of what they had once experienced. a much bigger tragedy than Jews. we should acknowledge the rights of national minorities and emphasize the benefits to those who cooperate and sacrifice in the struggle for the Ukrainian State. 84–85. issued by the General Headquarters of the UPA on 1st November 1943. and those who implement it – as Hitler agents. you must strongly criticize Hitler’s brutality. 267 Vyatrovich. unless required. as well as anti-Semitic propaganda. stock 3833. including Czech and Slovak Jews. G. and the “Temporary instruction” of 1944. Do not speak about Jews. s. The OUN programme must contain no anti-Semitism or any other phobia. For example.”265 The reasoning of Pozichyanyuk was quite cynical but irrefutable. the global bearers of anti-Semitism. CSA SBPGU. V. Unlike the directive for propaganda groups. sheet 5 overleaf. this document contained no inconsistencies: “Jews and other non-Ukrainians in our territory are considered national minorities. with some help from the OUN. managed to “solve” it.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 95 Our people have suffered from Hitler gangs.”266 They went further than issuing the resolution. AntiJewish provisions in the OUN(B) programme would make it impossible to get any support from the west and very much possible – to lose the support of the population of the Western Ukraine. The OUN and UPA leaders were persevering with its implementation and any anti-Jewish campaigns were strictly prohibited.”267 265 Vyatrovich. file 3. – If this subject comes up in a conversation. and explain that in Ukraine we are struggling for everybody’s equal rights and freedom.. 297. who strongly disapproved of the nationalists. – wrote Galasa. So why not give up anti-Jewish statements? Pozichyanyuk’s attitude was officially accepted by the OUN leaders. Motyka. the OUN leaders responsible for propaganda in Zakerzonie. “Under no circumstances is it allowed to kill or hurt a Jew. issued by the HQ of the military district “Boog” on 5th September 1944. p. list 2. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (Ставлення ОУН до євреїв).

who ended up in the West. The OUN(B) new motto was “Viva Independent Ukraine.96 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 At the same time the OUN(B) attempted to “cleanse” their image.) Toronto. prepared a booklet titled “To our brothers – Czech and Slovak people”. without Jews. – In our political publications. 172. “We have never issued or distributed. Germans – to Berlin and Jews – to the gallows!” The antiJewish position was officially approved during the Second OUN(B) conference in April 1942. . Such accusations are pure fantasy and malarkey. p. However. Lvov. despite the intentions of its leaders. Summary In the autumn of 1941 the German authorities refused to cooperate with the OUN(B) and launched extensive repressions against its members. In this booklet he gave a brief description of history and ideology of “the liberation of Ukraine”. So. p. not history.”268 Certainly. In 1947 Yaroslav Starukh. underground newspapers and proclamations either now or issued during the German occupation you will not find a single word against Jews. the OUN(B) was opposed to the occupants. such statements first shifted from the OUN propaganda materials to memoirs of OUN members. But here we deal with historiography. 55. They found shelter and protection there. and wrote about the attitude of the OUN and UPA towards Jews. V. Reydy UPA terenami Chekhoslovachyny (Рейди УПА теренами Чехословаччини). especially there were many doctors. During the German occupation a lot of Jewish people served in the UPA troops. Vyatrovich. 1988. 1946–1947. damaged by the preceding anti-Jewish policy. 1946-1947 (Англомовнi видання украïньского пiдпiлля. However. this change had no impact on the anti-Jewish policy and activities of Bandera people. – wrote Starukh. in Ukraine or Slovakia. Anglomovni vydannya ukrainskogo pidpillya. 268 Toronto. it was far from the truth. at the same time the resolution of the conference stated it “inappropriate” to participate in anti-Jewish campaigns. p. 24. any anti-Jewish leaflets. then to works of “Diaspora” historians and finally – to the research works of contemporary historian-revisionists. Poles and Germans! Poles go away to San. and helped with their knowledge to struggle against the terror of the German occupants. the OUN(B) leader in Zakerzonie. 2001.

The reasons for that were purely practical: anti-Jewish provisions in the OUN(B) programme would make it impossible to get any support from the west and very much possible – to lose the support of the population of the Western Ukraine. and together with them many Jews were killed. who had escaped from Ghetto to the woods. That was the time when the First Military Conference of the OUN(B) was arranged in October 1942. At the same time. At the same time the plan included killing prisoners of war. In August 1943 the Third Emergency Conference of the OUN(B) accepted the thesis of equal rights for people of all nationalities. which started vast ethnic cleansing in the Volyn area. Those Jews. The OUN Security Service also contributed to the persecution of Jews. It was a purely propaganda movement. who strongly disapproved of the nationalists. as well as former Soviet prisoners of war and Ukrainians from the west. In fact they stopped persecuting only those Jews who served in the UPA (doctors and other professionals). were exterminated as before. The main victims were Polish people. including Jews. In the spring of 1943 the OUN(B) military units and units of the Ukrainian police formed the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. The decisions remained on paper. it was finally solved during the Nazi occupation. The UPA kept accepting Jews into. who tried to hide from the Nazi.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 97 By the autumn of 1942 OUN(B) people started uniting spontaneously into armed groups to struggle against the German occupation. In connection to the above decision the OUN(B) anti-Jewish programme was mitigated: they planned to deport the Jewish people from the Ukrainian territory. the thesis was widely used by the OUN(B) and was certainly far from the real state of affairs. At the same time the UPA destroyed Jewish family camps and killed all inhabitants. The OUN leadership gave up anti-Jewish positions only in 1944. At the same time Soviet guerilla troops entered the Western Ukraine and the German troops got stuck near Stalingrad. Just before the Red Army entered the Western Ukraine the OUN SS killed the Jews who served as professionals in the UPA. where the decision was taken to obtain support from the USA and Great Britain. This looked very much like the pre-war Nazi plans. the “Jewish issue” in Ukraine ceased to exist. . political leaders and Jewish members of the army. the rest were secretly eliminated by the OUN SS. residing in Ukraine. as well as Polish people. according to the order of the OUN(B) leadership. but only “useful specialists” were left alive.

and was relatively successful in that.98 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyChapter 4 Later on the OUN(B) attempted to “clear” their image. . The statements that the OUN had never arranged any anti-Jewish campaigns first shifted from the OUN propaganda materials to memoirs of OUN members. then to works of “Diaspora” historians and finally – to the research works of contemporary historian-revisionists. damaged by the preceding anti-Jewish policy. who ended up in the west.

CONCLUSION .

Kovba. M. Kurilo gave a brief but quite informative summary of the publications. Altman. Motyka – he described the extermination of Jewish people serving in UPA. Himka did a thorough research of the political and ideological directives of the OUN on the “Jewish issue”. F. I. According to the documents. Zh. though the public interest to this problem is quite high. Carynnik and I. B. and they made it possible to give an objective and thorough description of the OUN and UPA attitude towards the Jewish people. Himka and T. who touched upon this issue. M. and revealed the clear anti-Semitic trend. Today the researches have divided into two opposite groups. Berkhoff. There were very heated discussions on the participation of the “Nachtigall” squadron and the “Bukovinsky Kuren” in the killings of Jewish people. Both parties accuse each other of political intentions and usage of “propaganda tools”. Ischenko et al). Gon provided the description of pre-war relationship between Ukrainian and Jewish people. Such researches as Hans Heer. Vyatrovich.100 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyConclusion CONCLUSION The attitude of the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists and the Ukrainian Insurgent Army to Jewish people is one of the most controversial problems in the OUN and UPA historiography. Carynnik. Kruglov studied the key anti-Jewish campaigns. are trying to impose the false view on the public – that the OUN and UPA had nothing in common with extermination of Jewish people. The issue of Jewish people serving in UPA has not become a subject for serious scientific study. serious scientific studies of the subject first appeared only in the latter half of the 90s. Despite the fact that the OUN and UPA attitude towards Jewish people was often touched upon by research workers. and the other group denies this. currently enjoying serious support from the government. K. The scientists studied key aspects of this problem. A. The . conducted in the beginning of July 1941. founded in 1929. Ukrainian historians-revisionists (V. and the OUN’s contribution. and at times these accusations are justified. the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists. One of the few historians. Ball and A. M. related to the “Jewish issue” in the official and semi-official OUN publications in the end of twenties and beginning o thirties. Despite all the above mentioned facts. was G. One group believes that the OUN and UPA took an active part in extermination of Jews. Levitas. A great number of documents on the OUN and UPA history were introduced as sources of scientific information. initially had no clear view on the “Jewish issue”. I.

the official OUN journal. knowing that. Nikolay Stsiborsky. However. as well as the opportunity to take an active part in all areas of social. For quite a long time OUN ideologists and propagandists only repeated anti-Semitic statements of “Moscow-Jewish” reign in the Soviet Ukraine and “Jewish predominance” in the economy. but stated that in the course of establishing Independent Ukraine the struggle against Jews will be “inevitable” and Jews. The author gave no direct answer to the questions of how the “Jewish issue” should be solved. Zionism and Ukraine”. and later on were published as a separate book titled “Ruralization of Jews in general economic conditions”. In response to Milyanich’s article. The issue of the attitude and policy towards national minorities was not given due consideration during the Congress. which took place in the beginning on 1929. contain no anti-Semitic statements. economic and cultural life in the new Ukrainian State. Already in the following issue of “Building up the nation” they started publishing the series of articles related to the “Jewish issue”. published his article “Ukrainian nationalism and Jews”. hostile to Ukrainians and having tight connections with “occupational” Soviet authorities. The materials published in OUN official press enforced those anti-Semitic trends. one of the chief ideologists of the organization. The first proof of that was Milyanich’s article “Jews. “Building of the nation”. described Jews as a national group. Some time later anti-Semitism became one of the OUN ideological foundation principles. which said that the Jewish people should have the same rights as all other nationalities. where for the first time in OUN official publication the requirement to solve the “Jewish issue” was announced. the Professor of Ukrainian Liberal University in Prague.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyConclusion 101 influence of anti-Jewish stereotypes was very strong among Ukrainian nationalists. The articles of Mitsyuk in “Building up the nation” gave “scientific” grounds for the appeal to struggle against Jews. the working materials of the first Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists. Mitsyuk’s articles had been published during three years almost in every issue of the journal. The second publication was an exception to the general rule. However. . and were of course very appreciated by the OUN activists. interfere in the process of formation of the new State. there were people among the OUN leaders who considered it possible to give up the old anti-Semitic stereotypes. written by Alexander Mitsyuk. Practical consequences of anti-Jewish propaganda of Ukrainian nationalists emerged very soon: in the middle of 30s OUN members conducted wide scale campaigns of boycotting shops run by Jewish people.

Jews and Russians. According to this document. including. The conclusion was as expected: Jews were to be fought against as enemies. This change of attitude is clearly seen when comparing the documents related to OUN arrangements of anti-Soviet revolts in the Western Ukraine. It is worth mentioning that the OUN(B) . the police forces. Jewish people. who were still free. This approach contributed to a deeper radicalization of the OUN attitude towards Jewish people. Nevertheless. shops and storehouses. residing on the Polish territory occupied by the Nazi. For instance.102 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyConclusion set fire to their houses. The plan included instructions for “shooting of the enemy” in the beginning of war. Ukrainian nationalists. by all appearance. Martinets in his article analyzed the “Jewish issue” from the angle of racial theory. prepared in May 1941 by OUN(B) members. However. Escalation of hatred towards Jews further promoted the “requirement” to solve the “Jewish issue” in the OUN ideology. received a number of benefits. After retreat of the Soviet Army. Polish activists and Jews. after Germany attacks the Soviet Union. Martinets’ suggestion sounded very similar to anti-Jewish policy conducted in the Nazi Germany. they were allowed to receive houses and factories. were to have limited rights. After the war Polish and Russian people were to be assimilated. not allowed to hold any administrative posts. In 1938 a prominent OUN member V. Polish activists. and Jews – sent out of the country or isolated. Jewish people were to be exterminated both individually and as a national group. one of the OUN leaders Victor Kurmanovich prepared the “Integrated general plan of OUN rebel headquarters”. the Ukrainian nationalists were to start eliminating representatives of the Soviet authorities. taken away from Jews. but the sudden termination of combat operation prevented the implementation of this plan. This addition was taken into account and further developed in the directive “The OUN struggle and activity during the war”. In the beginning of the war against Poland the Nazi leadership was planning to use troops consisting of Ukrainian nationalists to exterminate Jews and Polish intelligentsia. Poles. In the spring of 1940. isolated and sent away from Ukraine altogether. it did not specify who the enemies are. were to arrest the remaining representatives of the Soviet authorities. set up by the Ukrainian nationalists. Local OUN leaders decided that together with representatives of the Soviet system they should exterminate “hostile national minorities”. soldiers of the Red Army taken as prisoners of war and Jews.

It is also known. in the course of their action the nationalists cooperated with units of Einsatzgrupp “B” and soldiers of SS division “Viking”. that Melnik supporters planned to limit Jews’ rights in the future Ukrainian State. irrespective of their age or sex. By the summer of 1941. OUN(B) views on the ways with the “Jewish issue” were identical to those of the Nazi. and the publication “Krakow News”. German attack of the Soviet Union let both OUN factions start implementation of their plans on “eliminating the undesired elements”. Ukrainian Army and the OUN”. The direct consequences of the above were anti-Jewish campaigns in the summer of 1941. However illogical it may seem. Killing of Jewish people by the Ukrainian nationalist were violent and merciless. However. including the Jewish people. Jews and Poles. The OUN(M) position with respect to the “Jewish issue” was much less clear that that of Bandera faction. Jewish people were not the main enemy for Bandera people. Jews were killed by the OUN soldiers and the “Ukrainian police” both in rural areas and big cities. their soldiers also had orders to exterminate Jews during the war. not merely Jewish men fell victims to the Ukrainian nationalists’ violence. who were on the “black lists”. contained appeals for vengeance and punishment of Jews. In full accordance with the order of the OUN(B) regional leadership on collective responsibility. Propaganda of both OUN factions called to exterminate enemies – communists. the OUN(B) regional leadership issued an order on “collective responsibility (familial and national) for all faults against the Ukrainian State. The largest campaigns on extermination of Jews took place in Lvov and Zlochew. In addition to pre-war instructions and orders. It is easy to see that the OUN anti-Semitic attitude developed exactly as in Nazi Germany: from common anti-Semitism to struggle against Jewish trade and finally – extermination of Jewish people. At the same time Jewish and Polish people in Lvov. There .Alexander DyukovMinor enemyConclusion 103 in its official instructions prescribed more severe measures against Jews than against Poles. were also eliminated by some soldiers of the Ukrainian “Nachtigall” squadron. this fact shows the great significance of the anti-Semitic component in the OUN ideology. supervised by Melnik supporters of the Ukrainian Central Committee. thus making any Polish or Jewish person a legal victim for persecution. but also women and children. Their arch enemies remained Moscow and Poles. At the same time.

At the same time Soviet guerilla troops entered the Western Ukraine and the German troops got stuck near Stalingrad. The decisions remained on paper. the OUN(B) leaders continued supporting the occupants. The OUN(B) new motto was “Viva Independent Ukraine. In the autumn of 1941 the German authorities refused to cooperate with the OUN(B) and launched extensive repressions against its members. carried out by the OUN people. Germans – to Berlin and Jews – to the gallows!” The antiJewish position was officially approved during the Second OUN(B) conference in April 1942. in particular vis-à-vis the “Jewish issue”. Despite the failure to proclaim the “Independent Ukraine” in the summer of 1941. Poles and Germans! Poles go away to San. which started vast ethnic cleansing in the Volyn area. despite the intentions of its leaders. actively participated in the Nazi’s antiJewish campaigns. So. This looked very much like the pre-war Nazi plans. and together with them many Jews were . The main victims were Polish people. this change had no impact on the anti-Jewish policy and activities of Bandera people. In the spring of 1943 the OUN(B) military units and units of the Ukrainian police formed the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. without Jews. At the same time the plan included killing prisoners of war. the OUN(B) was opposed to the occupants. Both OUN factions conducted anti-Jewish and antiPolish propaganda. political leaders and Jewish members of the army. By the autumn of 1942 OUN(B) people started uniting spontaneously into armed groups to struggle against the German occupation. controlled by the nationalists. However. where the decision was taken to obtain support from the USA and Great Britain. In connection to the above decision the OUN(B) anti-Jewish programme was mitigated: they planned to deport the Jewish people from the Ukrainian territory.104 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyConclusion were incidents when German soldiers stopped the OUN’s massacres and violence against Jewish people. were limited in rights and forced to wear arm bands with the image of the “Star of Judah” and were victims of blackmail and robberies. The Ukrainian nationalists tried to introduce similar measures against the Poles. but this resulted in counteraction by the occupying authorities. The “Ukrainian police”. at the same time the resolution of the conference stated it “inappropriate” to participate in anti-Jewish campaigns. who managed to stay alive. Those Jews. That was the time when the First Military Conference of the OUN(B) was arranged in October 1942.

who had escaped from Ghetto to the woods. . The UPA kept accepting Jews into. as well as Polish people. but only “useful specialists” were left alive. characteristic for the first years of the war was replaced in the end of summer 1943 by the official acceptance of their rights. who strongly disapproved of the nationalists. and was relatively successful in that. Those Jews. and secret extermination of the Jews by the OUN Security Service. damaged by the preceding anti-Jewish policy. the external circumstances of the time forced the Ukrainian nationalists introduce some changes in their anti-Jewish policy. At the same time the UPA destroyed Jewish family camps and killed all inhabitants. the “Jewish issue” in Ukraine ceased to exist. The brutal persecution. including Jews. as well as former Soviet prisoners of war and Ukrainians from the west. As we see.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyConclusion 105 killed. according to the order of the OUN(B) leadership. In fact they stopped persecuting only those Jews who served in the UPA (doctors and other professionals). were exterminated as before. Just before the Red Army entered the Western Ukraine the OUN SS killed the Jews who served as professionals in the UPA. such statements do not reflect the real state of affairs. In August 1943 the Third Emergency Conference of the OUN(B) accepted the thesis of equal rights for people of all nationalities. At the same time. it was finally solved during the Nazi occupation. The OUN Security Service also contributed to the persecution of Jews. It was a purely propaganda movement. in one way or the other. the rest were secretly eliminated by the OUN SS. However. The OUN leadership gave up anti-Jewish positions only in 1944. who tried to hide from the Nazi. The reasons for that were purely practical: anti-Jewish provisions in the OUN(B) programme would make it impossible to get any support from the west and very much possible – to lose the support of the population of the Western Ukraine. equal with the other nationalities. The statements that the OUN had never arranged any anti-Jewish campaigns first shifted from the OUN propaganda materials to memoirs of OUN members. then to works of “Diaspora” historians and finally – to the research works of contemporary historian-revisionists. who ended up in the West. the thesis was widely used by the OUN(B) and was certainly far from the real state of affairs. in fact these were only “cosmetic repairs” – the extermination went on. residing in Ukraine. However. Later on the OUN(B) attempted to “clear” their image.

There is only one figure in historiography: according to Aaron Weiss. 106. the OUN people killed about 28 thousand of Jews in the Western Ukraine. an Israeli researcher. and there were much more victims among the latter. the attempts to proclaim soldiers of the OUN and UPA the national heroes of the contemporary Ukraine are the cause of grave concern. .269 It remains unknown whether this number reflects the reality. p. Therefore. killed by the OUN and UPA units. Just as the pertinacious efforts of the authorities to re-write the World War II history. А. 269 Weiss. The attitude of some…. the OUN and UPA soldiers killed Polish people and those Ukrainians. The massacre of “outsiders” and “betrayers” was the basic characteristic of the radical Ukrainian nationalism.106 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyConclusion It is impossible to tell the exact number of Jewish people. In conclusion we should note the characteristic feature of the holocaust “in OUN style”: Jewish people were neither main nor only victims of the Ukrainian nationalists. who supported the Soviet authorities. Together with Jews.

related to the “Jewish issue” Appendix II New archive documents on the OUN connection with the Nazi secret Service Appendix III New archive documents on the crimes of the OUN and UPA .APPENDIX Appendix I List of the basic OUN documents.

CSA SBPGU. 5–15. Order of the regional OUN(B) office on the Ukrainian military forces [issued after 22nd June 1941]. CSA SBPGU. Part 1. Kyiv. CSA POU. Part 1. Stetsko to the leader of the OUN(B) S. Published: The OUN in 1941: Documents. Bandera on the situation in Krakowets-Yavorov area. Акт 30 червня 1941: Збiрник документiв i матерiалiв. P. Report of Y. Published: The OUN in 1941: Documents. Directive “The OUN struggle and activity during the war”. 35–50. Kyiv. CSA SBPGU. Part 1. Published: ОУН в свiтли постанов Великих Зборiв.108 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix Appendix I List of the basic OUN documents. May 1941. Kyiv. Kyiv. P. 2001. File 7. File 41. Sheet 1 overleaf – 9 overleaf. Draft Governing Law (Constitution) of the Ukrainian State. Lvov. 195–198. 1955. Kyiv. List 1.. Sheet 10. Украïнське державотворення. Kyiv. Sheet 15–89. Stock 3833. List 2. 2001. 77–78. 65–176. List. OUN(B) address to the Ukrainian to rural dwellers. Sheet 8–9. м. File 1. Documents: Kyiv. List 1. Б. . Stock 3833. Акт 30 червня 1941: Збiрник документiв i матерiалiв. 2006. Published: Украïнське державотворення. Stock 1. CSA SBPGU. 2006. List 1. Lvov. 2006. related to the “Jewish issue” The resolution of the OUN(B)’s II Great Congress. April 1941. Published: The OUN in 1941: Documents. Stock 3833. 24 – 47. P. Part 1. Конференцiй та iнших документiв з боротьби 1929–1955 р. Sheet 121–121 overleaf. P. Part 1. 2006. The OUN in 1941. File 12. 2006. 25th June 1941. P. Published: The OUN in 1941: Documents. P. P. 23. 201–220. File 931. P. Stock 3833. [issued after 31st June 1941]. developed by the OUN(M) [issued after 22nd June 1941]. 247–248.

2001. P. CSA SBPGU. P. Акт 30 червня 1941: Збiрник документiв i матерiалiв. CSA POU.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 109 Address of the OUN(B) regional leadership to Ukrainian people. File 46. Sheet 24. P. Sheet 87. 2001. CSA SBPGU. Part 1. 261. Акт 30 червня 1941: Збiрник документiв i матерiалiв. Part 2. 150–151. CSA SBPGU. 1st July 1941. Kyiv. Stetsko – autobiography. Stock 3833. File 9. 389. CSA SBPGU. Lvov. File 74. List 1. Published: Украïнське державотворення. P. P. Sheet 50–51. 2006. Published: Украïнське державотворення. The OUN in 1941: Documents. Lvov. Kyiv. File 370. P. List 4. Carynnyk M. Kyiv. 158–163. File 42. 2006. Stock 3833. OUN(M) address to the Ukrainian youth. CSA SBPGU. OUN(B) regional leadership regulations on organizational activity of the local Ukrainian nationalist offices. Sheet 1–6. P. Kyiv. 576. Part 2. 337–350. August 1941. Stock 3833. 2001. 1. P. Sheet 12. Lvov. 2. Sheet 35. File 18. July 1941. Акт 30 червня 1941: Збiрник документiв i матерiалiв. 1999. 3–4. 28th July 1941. Part 1. Stock 3833. July 1941. 2006. 181–191. Published: The OUN in 1941: Documents. List 1. Sheet 18. List 3. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and its Attitude toward Germans and Jews: Yaroslav Stets’ko’s 1941 Zhyttiepis // Harvard Ukrainian Studies. File 63. File 23.. C. 18–19 July 1941. P. Published: Berkhoff K. Published: Украïнське державотворення. List. Sheet 1–12. Stock 57. CSA SBPGU. Kyiv. Kyiv. Part 2. Published: The OUN in 1941: Documents. 5th July 1941. no. List 1. Stock 3833. 129. Message of the OUN(B) Main propaganda center to the OUN Security Service. 464–466 . 2006. List 1. The OUN in 1941: Documents. Kyiv. Y. Sheet 51. Short-hand notes of the OUN conference in Lvov. List. OUN(M) address to the Ukrainian people. Stock 3833. File 7.

Warsaw. P. Украïнський нацiональний рух 40– 50 рокiв ХХ столiття. File 46. October 1942. Presented: SA SSU. vol. Lvov. vol. Warsaw. Kyiv. Published: ОУН в свiтли постанов Великих Зборiв. OUN Security Service order on secret elimination of Jews. 2006. Sheet 94–95. P. МДБ-КДБ. Stock 3833. Published: Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. Toronto. File 7. 126. CSA SBPGU. P. Directives of the UPA HQ for propaganda services. Kyiv. 30th June 1942. Resolution of the 1st OUN(B) Military Conferenc. April 1942. 2005. List. Published: The OUN in 1942: Documents. Конференцiй та iнших документiв з боротьби 1929–1955 р. List 1. 20. The resolution of the Third Emergency Conference of the OUN(B). Sheet 36–37. Kyiv. 2003. Presented: SA SSU. CSA SBPGU. 99–104. List. File 372. P. 2006. File 63. abbreviated: Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. 77–85. 448–450. обкомiв партiï. Stock 1. August 1943. Klimov. Sheet 16–16 overleaf. 1943–1959. Stock 63. Published: The OUN in 1942: Documents. 2005. OUN Security Service tasks. autumn 1943. List 1. 22. Part 1. File 372. . Publihed.110 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix Directive № 6 of OUN(B) regional leader I. CSA POU. Part 1. P. 1955. Published: The OUN in 1941: Documents. Extract: Kirichuk Y. Stock 3833. 1942–1945. 204–212. Kyiv. P. Sheet 56–63. 1st November 1943. Part 2. 2006. 1. 145. Sheet 21–38. P. 1942–1945. Resolution of the II OUN(B) Conference. 5. File 75. Address of the OUN(B) on the day of one year anniversary of the Independent Ukrainian State proclamation. vol. Sheet 1–5. P. Kyiv. Stock 13. Published: Боротьба проти УПА i нацiоналiстичного пiдпiлля: Iнформацiйнi документи ЦК КП(б)У. 452–454. НКВС-МВС. August 1941. 2002. 112. Presented: CSA POU. 1. Kyiv. May 1943. Stock 13.

File 22. SA SSU. Sheet 5 overleaf. 330. Stock 3833. Kyiv. Warsaw. 2. Stock 71. List 9. 2005. P. vol. File 3. The Order of the UPA HQ. Sheet 341 Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. List.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 111 Regulatory provisions of the OUN(B) leadership. Part 1. 1942–1945. 5th September 1944. . 13th March 1944. 3. CSA SBPGU.

In 1933 I joined the military service. a commissioned officer. Alfons Paulus. Before the Abwehr division in Krakow was set up. AUTOGRAPHIC STATEMENT of the prisoner of war Feldwebel of the German Army PAULUS Alfons on Abwehr division activity in Krakow.112 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix Appendix II New archive documents on the OUN connection with the Nazi secret Service 1. for the term of 12 years. With the assistance of Mr TANZER. After general duties in 21st and 42nd infantry schools I was shifted in 1936 to the Administration of the enlistment area Marktredwitz. a member of Abwehr division in Sudeten region. Trier area. he used to be in charge of an Abwehr sub-group in Breslau . The head of Abwehr division in Krakow at that time was Lt Colonel WIESER. and in November 1933 – to the Administration of the enlistment area Krummauna Moldaw. was born on 15th June 1913 in Neukirchen. the administration “Abwehr – II” of the General Headquarters of Germany Armed forces arranged my transfer to “Brandenburg” special regiment. In May 1941 I was transferred to Abwehr division in Krakow. rebellions. Date 24-29 September 1945 I. terror). subgroup II (subversive actions. where I served as clerk and accountant until January 1940. 24–29 September 1945. where I served as a clerk in the HQ from January 1940 till the end of April 1941. The statement of Feldwebel Alfons Paulus on the activity of Abwehr division in Krakow.

WIESER is about 48 years old. connected with the Russians. the head of sub-group II.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 113 town. Abwehr division in Krakow subordinated Abwehr divisions in Warsaw. I was enrolled in sub-group II. 2) Arranging and conducting subversive operations and sabotage at the rear of the Russian troops. In sub-group II he was head of the group of agents. height 185 cm. 6) to arrange security service in the oil regions in Borislau and Stryi. later he was shifted to Krakow to take charge of sub-group II of the Krakow Abwehr division. the state of roads and military installations. Of late WIESER was the head of Abwehr division of XVII military district in Vienna. 2) to exploit Melnik and Bandera people. I reported to Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN. He was a bank specialist by profession. arrange rebels among the Ukrainian population. 7) to infiltrate the Russian territory. in 1937 he joined the Army as a Junior Officer in the Abwehr division in Breslau. and then the head of Abwehr division in Breslau. In August 1941 he was appointed the head of Abwehr unit-202. thin. 4) to classify the statements of Russian captives about the climate in the Soviet Union. attached to the southern force group. 3) to conduct degenerative propaganda in the rear of the Russian front. His family resides in Breslau. who fought against Poles. he was appointed head of the sub-group II in Abwehr division 202-B. At that time our division had the listed tasks: 1) Reconnaissance in the Russian districts of the Western Ukraine. . The area of its activity was the Generalgouvernement and the Western Ukraine. struggle with the Polish rebel movement. chestnut-haired. 5) to arrange security service in military plants and factories of the Generalgouvernement. Upon arrival to Abwehr division. Lublin and later in Lvov. 8) to exploit the Ukrainian church for the benefit of Germany. The tasks of that group were: 1) to make preparations for the tasks implemented by people from the Western Ukraine. 3) Inspection of military plants and factories in the Generalgouvernement. and after it was closed down. using the statements of the prisoners of war and using the Ukrainian national movement to the benefit of Germany.

I was told that Bandera group worked for Abwehr. EIKERN was appointed head of Abwehr regiment Kurfurst in Brandenburg. and for that they cooperated with German troops. . then released and sent to OKW for further cooperation. to provide for the families of the people who are in military training camps etc. the latter was to exploit Bandera people for its tasks. and then took over Stolze and became the leader of “Ost” unit of Abwehr II administration in the HQ of the German military forces in Berlin. where I handed him over to a Colonel in “Ost” unit of Abwehr II.114 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix After division 202-B was attached to the HQ of the southern force group. The financial connections with Melnik and Bandera people were going through me. I saw him once. Their goal was to establish Independent Western Ukraine. the group provided their people for certain Abwehr tasks in the Russian territory (the Western Ukraine) and for security service in the military plants of the Generalgouvernement. and accompanied him during his transfer to Berlin. in a meeting in Krakow. in August 1941. BANDERA himself was in Berlin in the General HQ. Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN told me later that BANDERA had been arrested by SD. My first encounter with Bandera group occurred during my first month of service in Krakow. EIKERN appointed me as head of the financial unit of sub-group II and I was in change of Abwehr treasury. The communication went through Abwehr administrative office II and Abwehr division in Krakow. The Bandera group was named so after its leader. While working there I got to know the following about Abwehr activity: the main task in Krakow was to exploit Melnik and Bandera people in our struggle against Russia. Some FABER was sent to me to collect the monthly allowance for Bandera group. The money was used for the needs of the group. as ordered by the general HQ. Lublin and Lvov. I had to discharge sub-groups in Krakow. After ERNST zu EIKERN was shifted to Abwehr division 202-B. To find out more details I turned to Lt Colonel EIKERN and asked who those people were and what connection they had with Abwehr. Together with BANDERA I had brought to Berlin his Deputy Stetsko too. I went to inspect military training camps several times.

thin. Dukla. Before the war broke out. After the camp in Krinica was closed down. for example if he needed to send one of his people to hospital etc. who was later replaced by Captain WOLF and Lieutenant EGGERS. The biggest training camp was located in a Dukla estate. BANDERA was about 30 years old. with oval face and dark skin. uproot trees and do other jobs. The head of the camp was sonderFuhrer BREUER. where he taught at the local school of commerce. FABER had a security pass to enter Abwehr office. height 172 cm. Barvinsk and Kamenec. me and one more Gefreite. FABER was about 34 years old. and for conspiracy from the Polish people the inhabitants of those camps were often taken to lay roads.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 115 FABER was the connection between Bandera people and Abwehr division. The camps were disguised as labour duty camps. otherwise – in a safe house in Serena. Oberleutnant ARENDT was subsequently transferred to Brandenburg regiment. Faber was the cover name. BREUER used to work in Abwehr division sub-group II in Breslau. FABER gathered Ukrainians and sent them to training camps in Krinica. fair haired. There were 120-150 Ukrainians in the training camp in Krinica. sturdy. who spoke Ukrainian or Polish. height 175 cm. 10000 Zloty 3000 Pengo. Those were mostly people from former Polish Upper Schlesia. Lt Colonel EIKERN sent him to Abwehr division 202-B. The head of the camp was Feldwebel FALBERG. the apartment rented by Dr ENDERS (the cover name Lt Colonel EIKERN used when communicating with Bandera people). Farm 7. fluent in German. blonde. the same pass that he also used to get German ration cards. FABER used to visit me on other occasions. and then BREUER became the head of Abwehr division in the southern district of the Eastern front. During the working hours we met in Abwehr office. with his subordinates Gefreite ARENDT. 4000 Crones. Brandenburg training regiment was training the coaches for training camps. the real name is unknown to me. There were 200 . Unteroffizier UNTERSHUTZ. His subordinates were Unteroffizier Gergard FOK and Gefreite MASLOVSKY. He used to stay with FABER in Krakow. a resident of Breslau. nose a bit curved. The head of all training camps was Oberleutnant ARENDT. The monthly amount was equal to 5000 Ruble.

which was also sent to OKW. . Durr and FLEISCHER. Bandera people were sent to camps in Dukla. They were sent back to their homes and professional vocations after completion. A special training was arranged for Ukrainians from the west of the country. headed by Oberleutnanten GORTZNER and OBERLANDER. The camp in Kamenec was for 100-150 people and Unteroffizieren JAROSH were in charge of it. The spots to cross the border line were in Slovakia and Hungary. In the end of the meeting Dr KOCH made a speech in Ukrainian. STETSKO was appointed the president of the new state. Thus two more units were formed: “Nachtigall” and “Miner” (Bergman). which were attached to Abwehr. hence were called back from the front and discharged. a native of Galicia.116 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix to 300 trainees in the camp. If they received radio equipment. When German troops entered Lvov. Kamenec and Barvinsk. After completion they were given special assignments like border infiltration etc. and Lt Colonel EIKERN and professor KOCH received an admonition. Both BANDERA and STETSKO were present there. Bandera group took the opportunity and proclaimed the Independent Western Ukraine. Both units suffered bad losses during the battle at Vinnitsa. who spoke Ukrainian fluently. residents of the Abwehr division. the territory occupied by Russians. they had to complete another special training course on radio equipment in Abwehr sub-group 1. N. All this happened without the Generalgouvernement administration knowing. The smallest camp was in Barvinsk. The training lasted four weeks and took place in Alentzei (Brandenburg). and from there I convoyed them to Berlin. When the war against Russia broke out. Unmarried men were sent to security service of military installations of the Generalgouvernement. Eger. were responsible for acquiring the information and conducting operations on border in filtration. Later came the order from the Generalgouvernement administration to arrest STETSKO and BANDERA. Abwehr was represented by Lt Colonel EIKERN and his colleague. Professor Dr KOCH. its head being Unteroffizier KIRCHNER. Bandera people from the training camps were sent to Neuhammer (Sagan) and there were attached to Brandenburg regiment. BANDERA and STETSKO were delivered to Abwehr office in Krakow. It had 100–150 trainees. and announced STEPAN BANDERA its leader. Melnik people were sent to the camp in Krinica. The people in the camps underwent infantry training.

long narrow face. There were three more people dealing with the tasks where Bandera people were involved. I got this information from Captain LAZAREK. about 33 years old. he. He was responsible for transfers of people over the border and maintaining connection with them. They conducted negotiations with Bandera group representatives in the safe house or in Abwehr office. supervised by Oberfeldwebel Herman. None of them returned from that assignment. cover name “Jager” (yager). SALLABA was responsible for transfers of people – they were Bandera people. a member of sub-group II in Krakow. They were in touch with Lt Colonel EIKERN. SALLABA was born in Egendorf. They discussed the places and methods for Bandera people to accomplish the tasks from Abwehr. included in the groups to be sent to Russian territories. who used to work as a typist for Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN in . sent to the territories occupied by Russians. he was working as a resident. During the war against Russia he moved to serve in the Brandenburg training regiment. and additional 100 Zloty for every highly valuable report. By the time I arrived to Krakow. SALLABA. Fraulein MEZER. blonde. 2. In urgent cases he was called up to office by phone. SALLABA lived in the suburbs in the area of Komonoz and used the nom de guerre of being an engineer. grey eyes. Later on Abwehr sent him to serve in the Crimea. cover name “DIER”. his wife resided there. to Tiflis. often visited SALLABA and was on duty at the border to receive the information of transfers completion. At such meetings FABER handed them over the lists of people. Once a month he visited Abwehr office to submit reports and collect money.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 117 Lt Colonel EIKERN and his deputy Captain LAZAREK were put in charge of exploiting the remaining Bandera people. He received 600 Zloty per month. height 172 cm. He worked as a resident when I came to Krakow. he was a Junior Officer of sub-group II in Krakow. From there. The residents were: 1. NOGLINSKY. The transfer of agents was conducted on a regular basis from May 1941 till July 1942. The agents were mostly transferred via Slovakia or Hungary. several people from Brandenburg regiment and Caucasian agents were sent on an assignment to the rear of the enemy front. As said above. Their role was to maintain connection with certain groups of Bandera people and select spots to conduct transfer of people. thin.

near Breslau. mirrors. The building belonged to the firm “Frank A. second floor. He was single. her address is available in “Rooh-A. Fraulein MEZER was in change of agents’ personal files. the phone was registered in his name as well. G. The lower floor was occupied by the . He had the same responsibilities as SALLABA. After sub-group II in Krakow was discharged. people called him “Booby”. shaving brushes. Having finished his activity in Krakow. pocket knives etc).” (the firm where NOGLINKSY worked). FLEISCHER joined Brandenburg regiment. His sister lived in the suburbs of Katovice. and sometimes extra payment for some reports. G. therefore she had detailed information about them. 7. The meetings with those agents took place in Abwehr office or the safe house.” Several other agents were employed by that firm. who lived in Breslau with her parents). NOGLINSKY advised me to go and meet his sister.118 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix Abwehr division in Breslau. unit “Ost” in Berlin. height 172 cm. NOGLINSKY resided in Katovice and worked in a firm called “Rooh-A. 32 years old. told me that NOGLINSKY had worked as an Abwehr agent before the campaign in Poland. He worked as an agent for SALLABA. During my service in Abwehr division in Krakow. who had some contacts among the shop keepers in Katovice and could assist me. I went to Katovice once to buy some items for agents (razors. He also received 600 zloty per month. Later on NOGLINSKY joined Brandenburg training regiment. Abwehr was located in the administrative building at Vokzalnaya street. blonde wavy hair. received assignments from him and earned 300 zloty per month. among them was the director of the branch of this firm in Krakow (Adolf Hitler-platz). stubby figure. she worked as a typist in Abwehr II. FLEISCHER was born in Rybnik area (upper Silesia) and according to Fraulein MEZER he had worked as an Abwehr agent in Breslau before the campaign in Poland. The safe house was located at Sereno Fena street bld. G. Her address is known to Fraulein ZAZHETSKAYA.” engaged in coffee business. to the direction of Krakow. the secretary of Lt Colonel WIESER in Krakow. 3. FLEISCHER (cover name unknown) – was a member of Brandenburg training regiment before joining Abwehr division in Krakow. The apartment was rented by Dr Enders. In Katovice NOGLINKSY lived with his sister. Fraulein MEZER lived with her parents in Sibillenort. round face.

After sub-group II was discharged. After that unit 205 was ordered to gather all border crossers. the safe house was passed over to sub-group III. I went there one or two times. The place was looked after by a Ukrainian lady from Melnik group. and verify the statements on the spot. Agents on temporary assignment in Krakow stayed in this apartment as well. 12 km to the west of Drogichin. However. Major DEDEKIND ordered unit 205 to transfer several agents to “Taras Bulba” group across Pripyat river (about 30 km to the south of Drogichin) together with those who escaped from the group. Lieutenant LAUER. near the Aid to Ukrainians Committee. this was not implemented. the leader of sub-group III. from him I got to know that “Taras Bulba” group belonged to the Bandera movement. located in Fianovici. conducted the election of new leaders. Major von KOVAL. used this apartment in his work as well. There were about 120 border crossers with HASELMAN. brought Lt HASELMAN the uniform I received from the army depot in Brest-Litovsk. and she earned 100 Zloty for the housekeeping job. had no ammunition or food and had asked Germans for help. lost many members. between Pripyat river and the channel. Lieutenant HASELMAN was in charge of this task (a junior officer of unit 205). During the attack of the Red Army the group stayed on the free territory. a junior officer of Abwehr unit 205. He gathered all border crossers from that group in one village near Fianovici. she lived at Grune Gasse.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 119 manager of the building with his family. According to the statements of those people their group suffered persecution from NKVD. and taught them how to use German weapons. I used to stay in the safe house and wear civilian clothes. They arranged secret depots with food and ammunition in the woods to the south of Drogichin. After leaving Krakow I have not heard anything else about Bandera group. In the summer of 1944 Major DEDEKIND of the second army informed Abwehr unit 205 that in the area of corps XX disposition some members of “Taras Bulba” group would cross the front line. because there came a report that in 1-2 days the rest of “Taras Bulba” group will be joining the German side. the payment was sent directly to the bank account of the firm. a Polish national. named Anna. The apartment was rented for 180 zloty. myself and 8 other agents went to corps XX to transfer the people. HASELMAN organised new groups of those people. At that time I served in Abwehr unit 205. in the .

who fled to Poland after Russians came. I went to Prague together with a person from Melnik group. said he had been sent to the rear of Russians and that Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN had detailed information about him. Colonel Melnik was the leader of that group. because I wanted to visit my wife. After the campaign against Russia started. when I worked in Abwehr there. There existed another Ukrainian nationalist movement in Krakow. I learnt this from HASELAMAN. I have never seen him. Its members were mainly emigrants. who were thereafter sent to troop units.120 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix swampy and woody areas. they had connections with emigrants in Prague. a person came to Abwehr office and asked for support and medical assistance. BARGEL used to make drafts of propaganda leaflets. and received tasks from him. He claimed to be a member of Melnik group. His deputy. their HQ was located in Krakow at Grune Gasse 12. to the west from the depots of ammunition and food. but managed to escape on the way and joined German troops. As they said to Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN. Vienna and Berlin. He told that he had been captured by Russians. and sent to the Eastern Front. He was a doctor and lived in Krakow in the outer ring. Two days later I met the doctor and his people at the same spot. Once I went to Prague to fetch some member of this group from Prague to Krakow. after Lt Colonel EIKERN had left Abwehr division (in November 1941). to the east from Malorita village. and he used to select propaganda material for them. He and his deputy Dr Sulyatitsky worked closely with Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN. It was the Melnik group and Abwehr exploited them too. Melnik group used to provide interpreters to Abwehr office. Most of its members were intelligentsia from the Western Ukraine. Melnik lived in Berlin and had connections with OKW. Lt Colonel Sushko. Their people were trained in Krinica camp. who conducted this operation. was the head of Aid to Ukrainians Committee in Krakow. . Lt Colonel Sushko confirmed that all he said was true. We parted near Wilson station in Prague. For conspiracy the group used the name Aid to Ukrainians Committee. and with the help of sub-group II sent them to Berlin for approval and publishing. not far from SS cinema. Once. Melnik group always worked for Germans and later on Bandera people strongly opposed it. Sonderfuhrer BARGEL of sub-group II told me that Melnik people were exploited in Russian territories mainly for propaganda. who had come to Prague on my request.

and he attended those meetings as an interpreter. who drove Sushko to that place. or Abwehr unit 202. near the administration building. exploited Ukrainian Orthodox Church. In Krakow the main connection between Abwehr office and Aid to Ukrainians Committee was a Ukrainian named KOBZAR. the other – of provision department. I was informed about it by the person. and from that time on was travelling between Krakow and Lvov. In June 1941 Abwehr unit 205-B was set up. he gave up his house at the disposal of unit 202. . who later took part in assignments together with other Ukrainians. to get his assignment from Lt Colonel EIKERN. Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN told me once that Ukrainian Orthodox Church supported the nationalists and their political activity. also with the help of sub-group II. Melnik group was in touch with the administration of the Generalgouvernement through Colonel BIZANTZ and government advisor Dr FEL. They met with Melnik group representatives in Abwehr office or in the safe house in Sereno Fene street. Abwehr office helped Melnik group to get two cars. to have a talk with Professor Dr KOCH and government advisor Dr FEL. The office of the branch was located in Lvov. though the building did not belong to German military authorities. This was approved by the Church. The metropolitan resided in a monastery in Lvov. Dr Koch told me then that EIKERN and the metropolitan meet every day to discuss various matters. Apart from Bandera and Melnik groups Abwehr division. and Melnik group transferred KOVALSKY and some other people to that unit on permanent basis. located at that time near Vinnitsa town. After Lvov was occupied Sushko set up his own branch of Aid to Ukrainians Committee there. Sushko. I went to the monastery for a short time. Dr Sulyatitsky and Kobzar received permanent ID’s or passports. The training camps of the Generalgouvernement trained priests of Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Upon arrival to Lvov together with unit 202-B (sub-group II) Lt Colonel ERNST zu EIKERN got in touch with Metropolitan of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. They were heads of departments in the administration: one of residence department. and with those passports they could cross the former demarcation line. In November 1942 Colonel SUSHKO went to Abwehr. the members of the unit used supplies of the monastery.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 121 After German troops crossed the demarcation line. The Metropolitan – Duke SHEPTITSKY – was proGerman. as EIKERN told me.

OBERLANDER was 32 years old. When the war against Russia broke out he gathered Ukrainians at the training ground in Neuhammer. Later on he was the leader of an Abwehr unit in the East. as he was the leader of the team and the head of “OST” department. By the time I arrived to Krakow Senior Lieutenant OBERLANDER already worked in the sub-group. height 178 cm. ordered all subordinate units to set up connections with the Church and support it in all possible ways. He was responsible for matters related to Bandera and Melnik groups. .122 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix Usually the metropolitan had lunch together with EIKERN and his closest colleagues. fast and fidget. his family lived there too. Alfons PAULUS. Later EIKERN. He was an associated professor in a University in Prague. File 8. blonde. FSB CA. strong built. and together with Oberleutnant NITZER he conducted trainings for future rebel groups “Nachtigall” and “Bergman”. List 11. Stock 100. Sheet 117–137.

However. the head of department 4. Question: Did Melnik agree to become the head of the “Bureau for Ukrainian Affairs”? Answer: Yes he did. The same Schröder told me that by establishing a “Bureau for Ukrainian Affairs” in Berlin Gestapo aimed to consolidate the Ukrainian nationalist movement and with Melnik’s help gain control over it. an officer of Abwehr unit-202. Schröder told that Germany would need the Ukrainian nationalists – to send them to the East for certain assignments. in 1940. after the negotiation between Melnik and Schröder. supervised by the Reichssicherheitshauptamt. department for Ukrainian community affairs.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 123 2. I left to work for Abwehr. and there got to know that Melnik was working for German Intelligence service alongside his cooperation with Gestapo. In November 1940 I joined Abwehr. when I worked in department 4 (Gestapo) of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt – the HQ of State Security Service of Germany. which let me get the information about the members and activity of the “Bureau for Ukrainian Affairs”. e. in his office in Gestapo. Question: How did you get this information? Answer: I worked in the first Intelligence service department in “Abwe- . Question: What was the relationship between Melnik and Bandera within the “Bureau for Ukrainian Affairs”? Answer: I recollect that during the discussion Schröder offered Melnik to agree with Bandera about his participation in the “Bureau for Ukrainian Affairs” activity. He was a resident of “Abwehrstelle-Berlin”. 19 September 1946 …In 1940. I often saw Melnik in Gestapo. i. to take instructions and orders. one of the leaders of Ukrainian nationalists – Melnik – used to visit Schröder. Statement of Siegfried Muller. and Schröder also told me that he suggested that Melnik should establish a “Bureau for Ukrainian Affairs” in Berlin under control of German Intelligence service. I know that since I worked as an information officer for Intelligence service against the USSR in “Abwehrstelle-Berlin”. and such a bureau was established in Berlin with the help of Melnik’s supporters.

Question: What instructions did you get in 1-C department? Answer: Captain Lamerau. Question: Who gave you the orders to get in touch with the Ukrainian nationalists? Answer: In October 1944 I was sent from Abwehr unit-202 to the infantry training school in Libawa. and Captain Stolze told me that in Octo- . when I was transferred from Abwehr unit-304 to Abwehr unit-202. so during my short vacation in Berlin I met a friend of mine. and from the residents of Novi Zol (Czechoslovakia). In Abwehr unit-202 I was supposed to maintain connection between the German reconnaissance forces and Ukrainian nationalists. Question: And later? Answer: In 1944. officer of the German Army HQ. Melnik’s cover name in “Abwehrstelle-Berlin” is not known to me. with whom Melnik had personal connection and to whom he submitted reconnaissance information about the Soviet Union. I again encountered with Ukrainian nationalists’ subversive activity against the USSR. not in Abwehr unit-304. I didn’t want go there. located at that time in Krakow. All information about the USSR Melnik received from his people – Ukrainian nationalists in the Western Ukraine. to serve in Abwehr unit-304. Pulyui’s cover name for Melnik was “Doctor Kuchert”. Among Pulyui’s papers I saw Melnik’s personal commitment to cooperate with “Abwehrstelle-Berlin” with his photograph attached. the deputy head of 1-C department of the central HQ on Intelligence affairs. Upon my request captain Lamerau cancelled my assignment in Libawa and arranged one in Abwehr unit-202 instead. I shared the office with Captain Pulyui. but those were Bandera people. From “Abwehrstelle-Berlin” I was sent to the eastern front to German reconnaissance forces. Question: Did you come across any activity of the Ukrainian nationalists there? Answer: No. In 1-C department of the German Army HQ I received detailed information about situation at the central front of the German Army and the negotiations between our Intelligence forces and the Ukrainian Nationalists regarding a joint struggle against the Red Army.124 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix hrstelle-Berlin” as an Information Officer for Intelligence service against the USSR.

he told me that in October 1994 he had met representatives of the UPA southern HQ.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 125 ber 1944 the leader of Abwehr unit-202 Captain Kirn established connections with the UPA southern HQ and was conducting negotiations with the Ukrainian nationalists on involving the UPA units into subversive operations in the rear of the Red Army. and utilize the opportunity to recruit the Ukrainian nationalists for subversive operations in the rear of the Red Army. He didn’t mention the staff of the HQ. but told in detail about the negotiations. Upon arrival I was to help Captain Kirn with his job. Question: What do you know about the negotiations between Captain Kirn and the UPA southern HQ? Answer: The UPA leaders and the Captain reached agreement in principle on joint operations in the rear front of the Red Army. the Ukrainian nationalists set forth some conditions too: . – The German army must provide the troops of the Ukrainian nationalists with uniform. the UPA southern HQ was located in the mountain woods not far from Lvov. who were at that time in German camps. and believed that the activity of the well-organized and thoughtfully directed UPA units could break the plans of the Soviet authorities during their armed operations. but the UPA leaders set forth the following conditions: – The German authorities had to release Stepan Bandera from house arrest and release all Ukrainian nationalists. When I met Captain Kirn. Question: When did you join Abwehr unit-202? Answer: I arrived on 1st December 1944 and immediately started work in Abwehr unit-202. weapons. under the supervision of Abwehr unit-202. means of communication. medicines and money. – Germany must guarantee the formation of the Independent Ukrainian State. Lamerau and Stolze put high hopes on cooperation with the Ukrainian nationalists in their subversive activity against the USSR. As for the practical issues of arranging subversive operations in the rear front of the Red Army. Together they crossed the front line (in the area of Abwehr unit-202) and conducted negotiations with the UPA southern HQ. Question: Where was the UPA southern HQ located at that time? Answer: According to Captain Kirn.

Question: Who was the liaison person from the Ukrainian nationalists? Answer: In the end of 1944 Professor Danyliv was appointed the representative of the south UPA HQ in Abwehr unit-202. occupied by the Germans. the UPA HQ must provide all available information about the Red Army to Abwehr unit-202. Question: What was the subversive work against the Soviet Union. which he did. – Subversion groups of the Ukrainian nationalists would be subordinate to Abwehr unit-202 in affairs related to operations. of middle height. and from the side of the German authorities he set forth some conditions as well. select the venue and objects for subversive operations. for the rest they remain under control on the UPA HQ. – Abwehr unit-202 has the right to make up groups of the above individuals. e. spoke German. French and English fluently. compiling subversive units of them. His cover name was “Eagle”. They were as follows: – The UPA south HQ must make as many subversives available to Abwehr unit-202 as deemed necessary by the latter. He had an officer rank in the UPA – Colonel. he was about 43 years old. He used to work as professor of philosophy in Lvov University. and by order of 4-D Gestapo department he received a summer house . i. in the area from Warsaw up to the Romanian border. I was offered the positions of the liaison officer in Abwehr unit-202. Kirn was authorized to accept the conditions of the Ukrainian nationalists. – Besides. The UPA south HQ accepted the above conditions and the decision was taken to exchange representatives to maintain connection between Abwehr unit-202 and the UPA south HQ. done by Danyliv in cooperation with the Germans? Answer: He assisted Abwehr unit-202 in recruiting and training Ukrainian nationalists. In December 1944 the German authorities released Stepan Bandera. as well the information on general activity of the Ukrainian nationalists in the rear of the Red Army as well as in the area of southern troops of the German Army. and conduct trainings for individuals. and moving these forces to the rear of the Red Army for conducting subversive operations.126 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix – German reconnaissance forces must set up subversion schools for the Ukrainian nationalists on the territory. strong-built with dark hair. selected by the UPA. trainings on wireless communications and military service.

uniform. Hence we gave Lopatinsky and his group a 3 watt radio set that could function . Captain Kirn and Professor Danyliv made speeches during the dinner. located at Gartenstrasse 1 (near Krakow stadium). On occasion of Bandera’s arrival to Abwehr unit202 captain Kirn arranged a reception in the villa of our unit. the subversive activity of the Ukrainian nationalists in the rear of the Red Army was authorized by Stepan Bandera and was conducted under control of the German Intelligence service. in my presence. They carried one million rubles. He personally gave instructions to Danyliv. call sign “Vera”. Therefore. Question: Was the radio connection set up between Abwehr unit-202 and the UPA HQ? Answer: The radio connection between Abwehr unit-202 and the UPA HQ existed since October 1944. Since then Bandera remained under personal supervision and worked by direction of Obersturmbannfuhrer Wolf. I met Bandera there. Question: Have you had any personal meetings with Bandera. who had been newly appointed the head of 4-D department. The group consisted of three Ukrainian nationalists – Lopatinsky. but it was supported by a 40 watt radio set. who were sent to the UPA HQ for communications support. “Demed” and one radio operator whose name I can not recollect. and several days later we had a business meeting. as well as the trained agents. On 27th December 1944 I prepared a subversive group to be moved to the rear of the Red Army with a special assignment. explosives and a radio set to be delivered to the UPA HQ. so there existed the risk of listening through and deciphering from long distances.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 127 near Berlin. Stepan Bandera gave instructions to those agents personally. In the same month Bandera arrived to Krakow and joined Abwehr unit-202. I was introduced to the group as the liaison officer of Abwehr unit-202. The whole group of Lopatinsky was moved to the rear lines of the Red Army in a German aircraft from the Krakow airport to Lvov area. Bandera. so that they could recognize me when I reach the UPA HQ. We considered the 40 watt radio set quite powerful. medicines. related to reconnaissance activity? Answer: Yes I have. and with them he sent an order to the UPA HQ to intensify subversive activity in the rear of the Red Army and maintain permanent radio connection with Abwehr unit-202.

Lopatinsky group did not arrive to the UPA HQ. had direct connection with the rebel unit of the UPA in Carpathian Mountains. Question: Which groups of Ukrainian nationalists were sent to the rear of the Red Army with subversive assignments? Answer: During the months before the capitulation of Germany there were 45 subversives in my school “Moltke”. I went underground on 21st April 1945 and stayed in Prague. The third group had a name “Paul-1” and consisted of 9 members. all natives of the Kovel town area. after the transfer of the last group. 25 of them were sent to the school by the UPA HQ. I do not know anything about the further activity of Kirn’s group.128 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix safely for a long time. they came from the territories occupied by the Red Army. and the others were recruited from prison camps. consisting of 8 people. included in Abwehr unit-202. The people were recruited by Professor Danyliv’s agents and Abwehr unit-202 officers. however. I had not reported to Abwehr unit-202 since then. Besides. all were Ukrainian nationalists. Abwehr team-206. The second group was called “Paul-3” and also had 8 members. on a short-term programme. I sent to the area of Sarny town on 7th April 1945. Their assignment was to restore connection with the HQ of the UPA Volyn unit and conduct subversive operations at the railway near Sarny town. trained them in subversive schools. and we considered them eliminated during landing by the military security service of the Red Army. This group was to conduct subversive operations to disturb the communication lines of the Red Army in the area of Vladimir-Volynsky town. all born in the rural area of Vladimir-Volynsky town. The first group. So we recruited people from those rebel units. transported from the Prague airport. where I was the head was involved in training subversives out of Ukrainian nationalists up to Apil 1945. that Ukrainian nationalists had attempted to get . conducted by Abwehr unit-202 together with Ukrainian nationalists? Answer: Out of the five subversion schools under control of Abwehr unit-202 one school. As I know. In connection with the approaching capitulation of Germany. and then sent them to subversive jobs in the rear of the Red Army. They were sent to the above area on 7th April 1945. Question: What was the subversive activity. called “Paul-2”. I do know. They were sent to Kovel area on 13th April 1945 from the Prague airport.

Danyliv and Burlay had directives from the UPA HQ to cross the front line and reach the British-American troops. File 338. inform them of their wish to adjust their own subversive activity on the territory of Ukraine to the plans of the BritishAmerican troops. Sheet 268–279. Stock 57.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 129 connected with the HQ of British-American troops. Part of the group was to escort Burlay to the Americans. He left the summer residence of Department 4-D and fled to Weimar town. CSA SBPGU. List 4. Burlay offered me to join his groups and join the Americans. Early in April 1945 the RSHA ordered Bandera to gather all Ukrainian nationalists near Berlin and protect the city from the attacks of the Red Army. which were included in Volkssturm. Knowing that I can speak English and French. Danyliv intended to escape to the allies together with Bandera. . Bandera arranged units of the Ukrainian nationalists. and then fled. Burlay told me later that Bandera agreed with Danyliv to join the Americans together.

Answer: During the previous interrogation I only listed the facts of joint subversive activity of the German intelligence service and the UPA HQ in the rear of the Red Army during 1944 and 1945. Question: What was the subversive activity in the rear of the Red Army. . carried out by Abwehr unit-202 together with Ukrainian nationalists? Answer: One of the five subversive schools of Abwehr unit-202. had been training Ukrainian nationalists into subversive agents till April 1945. consisting of 8 people. 19th September 1946. Question: During the previous interrogations you stated that rebel troops of the Ukrainian nationalists coordinated their subversive activity in the rear of the Red Army with the orders from Abwehr unit-202. MULLER Siegfried. former Lieutenant of the German Army. called “Paul-2”.130 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 3. I sent to the area of Sarny town on 7th April 1945. I also know about the collaboration between the Ukrainian nationalists and German intelligence service before the WWII broke out. Extract from the transcript of interrogation of Siegfried Muller. The first group. Officer of Abwehr unit-202. Give details on the practical connection of the troops with the intelligence service. born in 1916 in Stuttgart. and the others were recruited from prison camps. 25 of them were sent to the school by the UPA HQ. Their assignment was to get in touch with the UPA Volyn unit and conduct subversive operations at the railway lines near Sarny town. they came from the territories occupied by the Red Army. However. Germancitizen. the one under my supervision. before arrest – an officer of Abwehr unit-202. all were Ukrainian nationalists.highereducation. Question: What groups were sent to the rear of the Red Army with subversive assignments? Answer: During the months before the capitulation of Germany there were 45 subversives in my school “Moltke”.memberofFascist Party since 1953.

radio operator LENA. Question: Why were those people shifted to DANILOV and BURLAY? Answer: The plan was to send part of the group to the area of Stryi town. I don’t know her last name. . radio operator KRAN. Stock 100. radio operator MAYEVSKY.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 131 The other subversive agents of my school “Moltke” were transferred to Danilov and Burlay. had studied in school of “Sonderstab REGENAU”. Interrogated by Deputy Head of criminal investigations unit for major cases MSS USSR Lt Colonel (signature) FSB CA. arrived to the UPA in 1942 from Kiev. who at that time was busy liquidating Abwehr unit-202. File 8. I was included as a member of that group as well. According to the order from “Wehrwolf ” he was to go underground and conduct guerilla operations against the Red Army. for subversive operations. List 11. 30 years old. The head of the group was to be Captain KIRN. subversive SOVVA. That group included: a radio operator YAROMENKO. Sheet 147–148. 26 years old. agronomist. arrived from the UPA HQ.

132 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 4. Some time later I met Konovalets. According to the above orders from Keitel and Yodel. Early in 1938 I received the order from Admiral Canaris to switch the available agents of Ukrainian nationalists to operations against the Soviet Union. I got in touch with the Ukrainian nationalists serving in the German intelligence. which was. approved by us. Shortly after that Konovalets was killed. near Vienna. Similar operations were conducted via Belorussians and Lithuanians. and engaged them in implementing the tasks. a Colonel of Petlyura Army and a white émigré. and conveyed the order from Canaris. as well as small rebellions in some places. as he believed it correct to continue work against Poles. The Ukrainian nationalist movement was thereafter headed by Andrey Melnik. in the flat of Kurmanovich. a General of Petlyura Army. in addition. German agents Melnik (cover name Consul-1) and Bandera to arrange acts of provocation in Ukraine immediately after the German attack against the USSR. In order to recruit people for subversive operations against Poles we hired Evgen Konovalets. a leader of the Ukrainian nationalist movement. as well as other members of nationalist fascist factions. Statement of Erwin Stolze. I personally gave the order to leaders of the Ukrainian nationalists. the ex-Head of Abwehr department in Berlin. In particular. Question: Under what circumstances was Melnik recruited as a German intelligence agent? . 29th May 1945 …We exploited Ukrainian nationalists for subversive operations in Poland. As part of the subversive activity against the USSR. Konovalets eagerly agreed to send part of the OUN underground to fight against the Soviet Union. in order to sabotage the rear of the Soviet troops and to convince the world community of the corruption and moral decay in the Soviet rear. Abwehr used its own agents to stir up national hatred among the Nations in the Soviet Union. He monitored terrorist attacks and subversive operations in Poland and Western Ukraine. who just as the former leader was involved in collaboration with the German intelligence service. in Baden town.

He said that such a department will promote subversive activity against the USSR. Lahausen met Melnik. which was maintained by officer Knusman. At the same time Abwehr took up all the costs of subversive activity. as we knew enough about Melnik’s activity. For this reason another leader of the Ukrainian nationalists. I was also present at that meeting. as an Abwehr representative. After the war with Poland was over. During later meetings Melnik asked for approval to arrange an intelligence department at the OUN. and such a department was established in Berlin. Since I was supposed to work with Melnik. for the conspiracy sake he recommended to hire a person called Yary (cover name Consul2). him being a German agent. a Ukrainian nationalist. and Abwehr took certain measures to boost subversive activity. What subversive operations had German intelligence arranged through Ukrainian Nationalists? Answer: After the recruitment meeting in a safe house (the corner of Berlinstrasse and Friedriechstrasse). living in the USSR. as the activity of Melnik and other agents seemed insufficient. When Konovalets was alive. improve connection with the OUN underground and myself. get in touch with Melnik through Yary. an agent of Canaris. so Canaris ordered Colonel Lahausen the head of Abwehr unit-II. Thus. Germany engaged in thorough preparation to the war against the Soviet Union. I should mention that the recruiting process was very smooth. hired him and the latter got a cover name “Consul”. a colonel of Petlyura army. who used to be a contact between us and Konovalets. Melnik and other nationalists knew Yary as an active nationalist and a person closely connected with Konovalets. Stepan . while he stayed in Poland. He wanted to set up and maintain connection between the Ukrainian nationalists residing in Poland.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 133 Answer: While Konovalets worked as our agent. as was requested by Melnik. as well as conduct spying and subversive actions in USSR and prepare the rebel. By that time Melnik had moved from Poland to Germany. and he was actually an agent of Konovalets in his activity against Poles. Melnik told about his plan of subversive activity. in the end of 1938 or beginning 1939. a cavalry captain of Petlyura Army. His suggestion was approved. its head being Roman Sushko. Question: Please continue. and Konovalets in his turn was a contact to the nationalist underground. and the nationalists.

when they needed all their forces. In August 1941 Canaris ordered me to stop connection with Bandera. Some days later I met Melnik. between Melnik and Bandera. devoted gangster. were no good for the German intelligence service at the time of preparation for the war against the USSR. The conflict between Melnik and Bandera reached its peak. After the German attack against the Soviet Union Bandera set the nationalist movement in motion in the areas occupied by the Germans. but I was his connection. Bandera.134 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix Bandera. tried to prove that Bandera’s haste activity did more harm than good to the Ukrainian nationalist underground in the Soviet Ukraine. Those conflicts. So as ordered by Canaris in the summer of 1940 some measures were taken to harmonize Melnik and Bandera. and had a similar conversation with him. Melnik tried to convince me that he was given the leadership by Konovalets and asked for help to preserve his leadership for the unity of the organization. In summer 1940 I met Bandera. Despite the promises of both parties I personally believed that Melnik and Bandera would not be able to re-unite because they were very different. In the beginning of 1940 we got to know about some conflicts among the leadership of the Ukrainian nationalist underground. Soon after we broke the connection with Bandera. and won most active nationalists to his side. and that this conflict might end up in splitup of the nationalist movement. he was arrested for the attempt to establish a Ukrainian government in Lvov. in order to unite all Ukrainian nationalists in the struggle against the Soviet authorities. who accused Melnik of inaction. let alone the split-up. Melnik accused Bandera of self-advancement. and keep Melnik as head of the nationalists. and tried to prove that he. For the sake of the common goal he agreed to come to terms with Melnik. . and in fact pushed Melnik out of leadership. Melnik was a quiet clerk. while Bandera was a career oriented. was the chosen leader of the Ukrainian nationalists. was hired. I don’t remember who exactly recruited Bandera. He also promised to do the needful to come to terms with Bandera. in particular. where Polish authorities kept him for participation in terrorist attack against members of the Polish government. The Germans released him from prison. especially in the western areas.

Abwehr groups and Abwehrstelle. Canaris ordered me to get from Skoropadsky the information about his connections and influence in the Soviet Ukraine. Police recruited Ukrainian nationalists and sent them as agents beyond the front line for subversive actions. the Hetman of Ukraine. The same happened with Melnik too.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 135 The excuse to break connection with him was that in 1940 he received a big sum of money from Abwehr to maintain the underground and conduct subversive actions. Question: To what extent did you use the Ukrainian nationalists in the struggle against guerilla movement. following the order of Canaris. terrorist attacks and spying. During the retreat of the German troops from Ukraine Canaris gave directions to establish a nationalist underground (gangs) to continue spying and the struggle against the Soviet authorities in Ukraine. Ukrainian nationalists were used to fight against the Ukrainian guerillas. The leadership team of the nationalist movement was complied of official members – officers and agents. since he offered cooperation himself. as well as ammunition and weapons. as it was the direct responsibility of Abwehr units. Directives were issued to set up arms depots. as well as for conducting subversive actions. underground of the Communist party in the occupied territories of Ukraine. I don’t know the details of this work. were parachuted to the spots. who was at that time an emigrant in Germany. I got in touch with Skoropadsky. food storages etc. Some agents. and what was Abwehr’s role in it? Answer: Abwehr maintained cooperation with the Ukrainian nationalist throughout the war against the USSR. Question: What other counter-revolutionary unit did German intelligence use for subversive operations against the Soviet Union? Answer: In 1937. and after that decide how to use the connections and Skoropadsky himself for the purposes of our intelligence service. We retrieved the money from the bank and gave it to Bandera again. but he tried to pocket it and made a wire transfer to some Swiss bank. but Canaris knew that Skoropadsky’s in- . Skoropadsky shared the information about his connections. Agents were sent across the front line to contact the gangs. Later on Skoropadsky asked for a huge amount of money in order to arrange the activity in Ukraine. His son Skoropadsky Daniel helped me. established in the areas of occupied territories. and probably he understood our intentions.

and the meeting was arranged by Koch. and that he could use those connections for the benefit of Germany. File Н-20944. 1. an officer of Abwehr unit-II in Lvov. After it was reported to Canaris he personally went to meet Sheptitsky. FSB CA. and declined his services. Skoropadsky was persistent in his attempts to set up cooperation with Abwehr. reported to me that they had recruited Metropolitan Sheptitsky. During the occupation of Ukraine Professor Koch. Sheet 14–30 . Vol. UK and other countries. and I remember one incident when he told Canaris about his close connections with the US.136 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix fluence and connection were insufficient and refused to finance him and cooperate with him. Canaris considered that Skoropadsky sought personal favours from the connection with Abwehr and could not actually do much.

of whom there were about 600 people. Ukrainian SSR. upon return from Vladimir-Volynsk town. 4th August 1943 TOP SECRET TO THE DEPUTY OF PEOPLE’S COMMISSAR OF THE STATE SECURITY OF THE USSR Comrade KOBULOV From the area of Rovno town. . Special report of 4th NKGB division of the USSR on extermination of Polish population by Ukrainian nationalists. and only after it was over the German leaders appealed to Polish people to join the gendarmerie for the struggle against Bandera people. The German garrison. reported that on 18th June he witnessed a massacre of Polish people in Vladimir-Volynsk by Ukrainian nationalists belonging to Bandera group. Received on 3rd August 1943 “An agent of “KUTS” unit. the Bandera faction killed 11 priests and around 2000 common Poles in the streets. During holy masses in churches. did not take any measures against the massacre of Poles. police and Cossacks.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 137 Appendix III New archive documents on the crimes of the OUN and UPA 1.

Stock 100. PASHA.138 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix Many Polish people joined the German service out of fear of repressions. 7. 11. List. FSB CA. . File .” HEAD OF 2ND DEPARTMENT OF 3 UNIT OF 4 ADMINISTRATIVE OFFICE OF NKGB OF THE USSR (signature) RD TH 4th August 1943. Sheet 102.

out of 6 soldiers.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 139 2. On 10th August 1944 in Ozyutichevsky forest. FIRST-RATE PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECURITY SERVCE Comrade Merkulov Moscow SPECIAL REPORT On increased terrorist activity in Volyn area There has been a major increase of terrorist activity in Volyn area. From the special report of NKGB USSR on increased terrorist activity in Volyn area. and most importantly – to interfere in the recruiting of the local population to the Red Army. who convoyed the recruits. As a result of the attack. 15th August 1944 TOP SECRET TO THE DEPUTY OF PEOPLE’S COMMISSAR OF THE STATE SECURITY OF THE USSR TO PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECURITY SERVICE OF THE USSR. the latter coming from the area of Zapadny Bug river. between villages Taratanovo and Shpikolosy. arranged by the Soviet authorities. On 27th July 1944 a gang attacked a group of recruits on their way to military enlistment office in Gorokhovsky area. another one – badly injured and the other four – taken away to the woods by the bandits. 1 was killed. a gang attacked a file of recruits on their way from Torchin to Yanov town. The terrorist actions of the OUN underground and the UPA gangs are aimed to disrupt the events. as well as those who had crossed the Pripyat river on their way from Pin area of Belorussian SSR. The gang opened . both from the previously existing and the newly established UPA gangs.

on his way to a meeting in Shatsk. as well as his wife and four children aged from 5 to 14. In Golovno settlement bandits put up the following order of the UPA: “Those who join the Red Army will be punished by death. the chairman of the village Soviet. was murdered. and former chairman of the revision committee. On the night 3rd/4th August 1944 in Polapy village of the same area a member of the village Soviet was killed. On 4th August 1944 in Rogoviye Smolyary Miron VALYUK was killed. the chairmain of Odligalychy village Soviet of Turiysk districts. On 1st August 1944 in Byk village of Golovnyansky district Maria KUZMICH. Almost in all districts of Volyn area there have been records of increased terrorist action against the leaders of village authorities. activists and people supporting the Soviet authorities. PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECUTIRY SERVICE OF THE USSR. Ivan BIKUN. . during the attack Shelest’s wife was killed. On 4th August 1944 bandits murdered Savely DEMCHUK. On the night of 6th/7th August 1944 a gang attacked the family of SHELEST. machine-guns and small arms. On 4th August in Balyagina village of Golovnyancky district bandits killed the chairman and secretary of the village Soviet.140 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix fire from mortars. as well as the families of people who joined the Red Army. whose brother joined the Red Army. On 7th August 1944 in Rusnov village of Vladimir-Volynsky district the mother-in-law of the chairman of the village Soviet was killed. On 5th August 1944 bandits took away the chairman of Kukuriki village Soviet in Golovnyansky district. ” On 4th August 1944 the chairman of village Soviet of Grabov village was stopped by a gang. The bandits warned him that if anyone from the village joined the Red Army. the chairman of Podgaitsy village Soviet in Vladimir-Volynsky district. Klim SAVOOR. On the night 3rd/4th August 1944 in Golyadin village of Shatsky district bandits murdered Petr KHMIZOVETS. the secretary of the village Soviet. Betrayers and secretaries of village Soviets will be shot for delivering the notification. their families and the chairman’s family would be eliminated.

11. Sheet 24–28.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 141 THIRD-RATE PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECURITY SERVCE (SAVCHENKO) «15» August 1944 Kyiv. File 8. . To comrade Merkulov To comrade Kobulov FSB CA. List. Stock 100.

17th August 1944 TO PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECUTIRY SERVICE OF THE USSR. Dog’s death to dogs. wounded ISCHENKO. On 2nd August 1944 in Dubrovo village of Vishnevetsky district the chairman of the village Soviet LITVIN and his son were murdered by a gang. For cooperation with NKVD and turning in two revolutionaries to NKVD. Borschovsky and Grimailovsky districts. the assistant police agent of NKGB in Lanovetsky district. Podgaetsky. From the special report of NKGB USSR on gangster and terrorist activity of the OUN and UPA in Ternopol area. bandits hiding in an ambush shot SHETNEV. and one soldier. The activity of the Bandera gangs is highest in Berezhnyansky. On the night 30th/31st July 1944 in Verbovka village of Lanovetsky district bandits killed deputy chairman of the village Soviet – KULIK. On 5th August 1944 in Yankosvky village of Lanovetsky district. and shot behind the village. opened fire and scattered the people. Their bodies were left on a junction and to one body the bandits attached a note: “For the betrayal of Ukrainian people. A gang attacked the village. On 12th August 1944 in Razgadov village of Zbrovsky district a meeting was arranged to collect the money for a tank convoy. N. the police agent in the same district. Special report on gangster and terrorist activity of the OUN and the UPA in Ternopol area Just as in other areas of western Ukraine. Buchachsky. . the chairman of the Communist Party unit. FIRST-RATE PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECURITY SERVCE Comrade Merkulov V.142 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 3. a village activist KUCHER and the director of Storage of the Areal Consumption Union – Proschuk. took away DIMIDENKO. He worked as an authorized People’s Commissar of the Food supply committee in Zbrovsky district. recently there has been an increase of gangster and terrorist activity by the UPA in Ternopol area.

THIRD-RATE PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECURITY SERVCE (SAVCHENKO) «17» August 1944 Kyiv. . and her 12 year old son. List 11.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 143 Now is the turn of other betrayers. We. will find black soil for his grave. who seeks a colony in Ukrainian land. File 8. PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE STATE SECUTIRY SERVICE OF THE USSR. FSB CA. Sheet 33–35. state that the one. Stock 100. the ex-chairman of the village Soviet.” On the night of 3rd/4th August in Ugrinov village of Podgaetsky district bandits killed the wife of SAVICH. Ukrainian revolutionaries.

KOZLOVSKY joined the Ukrainian police as a volunteer. In July 1941 he arrested three Jewish families: GELIS. the UPA will leave to the Carpathian Mountains for some time. arrested active Ukrainian nationalists of Mogilnitsy village of Budzanovsky district Ternopol area: KOZLOCHKOVSKY Leonid Grigorievich. and everybody had to hide the cattle. then return and with . teenagers and children aged 6 months to 12 years old. KOZLOVSKY told that when the Red Army arrives.: “In July 1941. where he shot the adults. after Germans entered Mogilnitsy village. food and belongings. G. MENDEL and VORUN. saying that soon Bolshevik robbers would come. 20 May 1944 TO THE HEAD OF SECRET SERVICE DIVISION “SMERSH” SECOND-RANK COMISSAR OF STATE SECURITY Comrade ABAKUMOV Moscow On 4th May this year unit “Smersh” of the first Guard Army. consisting of 18 people.144 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 4. They conducted nationalist propaganda for the establishing of Independent Ukraine. Before the Red Army entered the village he went around the place and suggested that people should hide their belongings and food. A. Special report of Secret Service Division “Smersh” of the first Ukrainian front. A witness RYZHIY S. All of them were taken to the woods. on the grounds of documents and witness statements. born in 1910 TERLETSKY Petr Ivanovich. and then threw them into a pit. among them old people. was armed with a carabine and wore a band with a “Trident” symbol. during the interrogation on 3rd May stated the following regarding the anti-Soviet activity of KOZLOVSKY L. born in 1910 KORCHINSKY Josef Petrovich. born in 1983 KRICHKOVSKY Josef Antonovich. and took kids aged 6 months to 6 years by the feet and hit their heads against a tree. born in 1906 The investigation proved that the above persons were members of the OUN and participated in the struggle against the supporters of the Soviet authorities.

Soviet activists. . List. ” During the investigation. Jews and Poles. they broke into the houses of Poles and severely tortured them. secretary of the Komsomol organization SALIY Pavel. and then burned down everything in order to conceal their crimes. That night Bandera people tortured. he participated directly in killing my family. cut kids with axes. stated the following about KRICHKOVSKY: “On the night of 17th/18th March Ukrainian nationalists of Bandera group arranged a massacre of Poles in Mogilnitsi village. cut them with knives. The Red Army will be eliminated under the attack of the Germans. Disguised as Soviet guerillas and wearing masks. a 17-year-old daughter and my son.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 145 the help of local OUN members. It was proved that in 1941 they personally killed: NKVD members GOLOVETSKY and GORENYAK. Sheet 231–234. My family were killed that night too – my wife. 7. I. meaning us. murdered by the nationalists on the night of 17th/18th March 1944. will destroy the rear of the Red Army and kill NKVD members. he also participated in shootings of the Soviet citizens and served for quite a long time in Ukrainian police. there were discovered 94 bodies in pits in the forest near Mogilnitsi village of Budzanovsky district. HEAD OF SECRET SERVICE DIVISION “SMERSH” OF PEOPLES’ COMMISSARIAT OF DEFENCE OF THE FIRST UKRAINIAN FROM. MAJOR-GENERAL (OSETROV) «20» May 1944 FSB CA. File. among them I recognized KRICHKOVSKY Josef Anatolievich. broke heads. slaughtered and killed about 100 people. The investigation of the cases of the above people is conducted by “Smersh” unit of the first Guard Army. 11. Stock 100. chairman of kolkhoz – VYLINSKY Josef and two Jewish families. 15 nationalists broke into my house. A witness YANITSKY S. based on the statement of Yanitsky. The criminal activity of the arrested KRICHKOVSKY is similar to the crimes of KOZLOVSKY. the UPA and Galicia Army. Those were bodies of the tortured and killed inhabitants of the village. The arrested nationalists KORCHINSKY and TERLETSKY also took an active part in extermination of Soviet citizens.

evacuated from the immediate battle area. Bolsheviks exist today and tomorrow they are gone. Near the house where the killing took place the following note was found put up on a pole (translated from Ukrainian): “These are people. we are here and we shall stay. As of 20th June 1944. aged 50. They had been evacuated from the Stolinsky district of Pinskaya area. MIKHAREVICH and ABRAMCHUK worked in a subsidiary plot of the 79th railway restoration squadron of the 5th railway team. while we. punished by death by the UPA tribunal for their collaboration with our greatest enemy – Bolsheviks. Both KURGAN and . From the special report of Secret Service Division "Smersh" of the first Belorussian front in People’s Commissariat of Defense of the USSR TOP SECRET TO THE DEPUTY PEOPLE’S COMISSAR OF THE USSR DEFENCE MARSHALL OF THE SOVIET UNION Comrade ZHUKOV On the results of struggle against the Ukrainian nationalists in the rear of divisions and units of the first Belorussian front. we were here. asked them why the men were still at home and not serving in the Red Army. and suggested that all men should go out to the yard. ABRAMCHUK – 28 years old and four children aged 7 to 10 years old. will all be punished like that. The bandits. his sons Anantoly aged 22 and VAsily aged 18. Warning to all farmers: those who continue collaboration with Bolsheviks.146 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 5. pretending to be guerillas. KURGAN Savva Mikhailovich. Viva Ukraine and its heroes!” On the night of 28th May in Khritsik village of Dombrovitsky district a gang of about 15 people came up to the shed with the people. and their relative LUZKO Grigory went to the yard. On the night of 11th/12th May this year in Teodorvka village of Klesovsky district in Roven area bandits killed two families consisting of 6 people: MIKHAREVICH Nikita – 50 years old. Ukrainian farmers.

called her out of the house and took her away. Death to traitors” FSB CA. and each of them tried to show his loyalty to the Soviet authorities. On the same night the bandits came up to the house of PRISHO Khavronia Sevastianovna. 200 meters away from her house they killed her – cut her stomach open and hung by feet on a tree. List 11. and the father KURGAN Savely was hung on a corner of some barn. . and the rest were taken away. the bandits murdered KURGAN Anatoly and LUZKO. aged 20. since he was young. File 8. as if to be convoyed to the Army. They put a note on the body of PRISHKO: “This will happen to all traitors who betray the Ukrainian nation.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAppendix 147 LUZKO men offered excuses and said that they were not drafted into the Army because they worked on defense constructions for the Red Army. Having left Khritsik village. on the way to Zaleshani village. KURGAN Vasily was sent back to the shed. Sheet1–2. Stock 100.

148 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyAbbreviations ABBREVIATIONS SA RF – The State Archive of the Russian Federation SSA SSU – The State Sectoral Archive of the Security Service of Ukraine SSA FISU – The State Sectoral Archive of the Foreign Intelligence Service of Ukraine NASU – The National Academy of Science of Ukraine PCIA (here NKVD) – People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs OUN – The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists OUN(B) – The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Bandera faction) OUN(M) – The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (Melnik faction) RSMA – The Russian State Military Archive WFRA – The workers and farmers’ Red Army SS OUN – The Security Service of the Organisation of Ukrainian Nationalists SSU – The Security Service of Ukraine UPA –Ukrainskaya Povstantcheskaya Armiya (Ukrainian Insurgent Army) IUS – The Independent Ukrainian State UHGM – The Ukrainian Headquarters of Guerilla Movement FSB CA – The Central Archive of the Russian Security Service (FSB) CSHAL – The Central State Historical Archive of Ukraine in Lvov CSA SBPGU – Central State Archives of Supreme Bodies of Power and Government of Ukraine CSA POU – Central State Archives of Public Organizations of Ukraine .

List. 86. List. vol. Central State Archives of Supreme Bodies of Power and Government of Ukraine (CSA SBPGU) Stock 3833. 63. The Central Archive of the Russian Security Service (FSB) (FSB CA) Stock 100. 76. 135. 2. Stock 57. social organizations. File 1. File 370. 1. File 926. File 75. vol. File 7–8. Stock 1. Unpublished documents The State Archive of the Russian Federation (SA RF) Stock Р-7021. 7. assessment of the damage done to citizens. File К-110691. 55. File 2. Collection of documents on the history of the Ukrainian Commuist Party. National emergency board for revealing and investigation of the crimes of the German invaders and their accomplices. List. List. 1–3.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography 149 BIBLIOGRAPHY I. File 6. 4. Central State Archives of Public Organizations of Ukraine (CSA POU). 67. . Central committee of the Ukrainian Communist Party. File Н-20944. List 11. 32. List. 23. OUN regional HQ in the western Ukraine. national enterprises and national institutions of the USSR. 2. List. 57. 1–2. collective farms (kolkhozes).

2006. Edited by. Nova seria. Toronto. обкомiв партiï.. Editor. 1917–1953: Суспiльно-полiтичний та iсторикоправовий аналiз) Kyiv. Toronto. Potichny. Kyiv. 1917–1953: Suspilno-politichny ta istoriko-pravoviy analyz. 2007. Kentiy. А. V. 1946–1948) / Edited. I. MDB-KDB. 1944–1945 (Боротьба проти повстанського руху i нацiоналiчного пiдпiлля: протоколи допитiв заарештованих радянськими органами державноï безпеки керiвникiв ОУН i УПА.150 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography II. (The UPA chronicles. book 1 [Litopys UPA. 1943-1959 (Боротьба проти УПА i нацiоналiстичного пiдпiлля: Iнформацiйнi документи ЦК КП(б)У. Kentiy. vol. Sergiychuk. S. Ischuk. 9] Borotba proty UPA i natsionalistichnogo pidpillya: Informatsiyni dokumenty CK KP(b)U. Lozytsky. Kokin. NKVS-MVS. 1944–1945) / The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU. Toronto.. 4] Borotba z agenturoyu: Protokoly dopytiv Sluzhby Bezpeki OUN v Ternopilschyni. Repressivno-karalna sistema v Ukraine. (Репресивно-каральна система в Украïнi. 1943–1959) / The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU. Introductionедмова V. V. no. Na shyakhu do zbroynogo chinu (На шляху до збройного чину) // Ukrainian historical journal 1998. 4. obkomiv patriyi. V. introduction by P. 2002. vol.] Butko. new series. S. 1946–1948 (Боротьба з аґентурою: Протоколи допитiв Службы Безпеки ОУН в Тернопiльщинi. A. 1994. I. НКВС-МВС. Kyiv. introduction by O. Published documents Bilas. Dokumenti izoblichayut: Sbornik dokumentov i materialov o sotrudnichestve ukrainskih natsionalistov so spetssluzhbami fashistskoy Germaniy . new series). [Litopys Ukrainskoy Povstanskoy Armiyi (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chronicles). book 1–2. vol. МДБ-КДБ. 43–44. Pavlenko. 2 Borotba proty povstanskogo pukhu i natsionalichnogo pidpillya: protokoly dopytiv zaareshtovanikh radyanckimi organami derzhavnoy bezpeki kerivnykiv OUN i UPA. Lvov. vol. [The UPA chronicles.

. V. Sergiychuk. Patrilyak. Kyiv. Paris. Introduction by I. Dubik. M. 1993. Tkachuk. V. V. 2006. Dzyobak. O. 1942 –1946. Veselova. Veselova. vol. M. Moscow. Vol. Edited by O. Patrilyak. Edited by O. Patrilyak. Kulchitsky. 2008 OUN v 1941 rotsi: Dokumenty (The OUN in 1941: Documents) / The Institute of history of Ukraine of NSAU. Lvov. Introduction by V. Introduction by S. Tkachenko. I. Voytsekhovsky. Introduction by I. 2006. 1990. Kosik. A. (Iдея i чин: Орган проводу ОУН.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography 151 (Documents accuse: collection of documents on the collaboration of the Ukrainian nationalists with the secret services of Facist Germany) / Compiled by G. I. Nurnbergsky process: Sbornik materialov (Judgment at Nuremberg: Collection of records) / Compiled by Y. part 1–2. Gerasimov. 1942–1946).] Kosik V. Lvov. Veselova. Kyiv. Ukraina v Drugiy svitoviy viyni u dokumentah: Zbirnik nimetskih arkhivnyh materialiv (Ukraine in WWII in documents: collection of German archive documents). O. vol. 1–4. 2004. Protokoly zasidan’ viyskovoy ta ideologichnoi komisiy Kongressu ukrainskih natsionalistov in 1929 (Протоколи засiдань вiйськовоï та iдеологiчноï комiсiй Конгрессу украïнських нацiоналiстiв 1929 р) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украïнський визвольний рух). OUN I UPA v 1943 rotsi: Dokumenty (The OUN in 1943: Documents) / The Institute of history of Ukraine of NSAU. Toronto. Lisenko. Kyiv. 3. Lebedeva. vol. New York. OUN v 1942 rotsi: Dokumenty (The OUN in 1942: Documents) / The Institute of history of Ukraine of NSAU. Sergiychuk. 2005. [Litopys Ukrainskoy Povstanskoy Armiyi (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chronicles). Introduction by N. 1997 – 2000. V. V. A. V. M. Edited by O. Zorya. Lvov. 4. Lisenko. Dzyobak. Ideya i chin: Organ Provodu OUN. Ukraina i Nimechyna v Drugiy svitoviy viyni (Ukraine and Germany in WWII). Lvov. 24. Muravsky. A. Кyiv. Sergiychuk. 1995. Nikolayev.

S. 2006 Ukrainske derzhavotvorennya. Introduction by V. Ukrainskiy zdvig: Podillya. Kyiv. Introduction by V. Dzyuban. O. Pristayko. Kyiv. Lvov. Центр дослiджень визвольного руху. 2007. 2005. E. Warsaw. Tukholsky. N. 2001. В. 1942–1945) / The Institute of National Memory of Poland. 1939–1955 (Yкраïнський здвиг: Подiлля. S. . S. Стефаника. The Institute of political and ethno-national researches of NSAU. 2005. Kyiv. Part 1–2. 1 – 2. Introduction by V. Bilokon. K. Vol. Viyskovi plany OUN(B) u taemniy Instruktsiyi Revolutsiynogo provodu (traven 1941) (Вiйськовi плани ОУН(б) у таємнiй Iнструкцiï Революцiйного проводу (May 1941)) // Ukrainskyi istoychniy journal (Ukrainian historical journal) 2000. Srrdyuk. 1942–1945 (Polish and Ukrainian people between two totalitarian systems. 1939–1955) / Kyivsky natsionalniy universitet imeni Tarasa Zhevchenka (Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv) Kyiv. V. Акт 30 червня 1941: Збiрник документiв i матерiалiв) / The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU. Pshennykov. Muravsky. Sergiychuk. P. Kokin. Sergiychuk. Roman Shukhevich u dokumentah radyanskih organiv derzhavnoi bezpeki (1940–1950) (Roman Sukhevich in the documents of the Soviet State security bodies (1940–1950)) / The Institute of national source studies. Stepan Bandera u dokumentah radyanskih organiv derzhavnoi bezpeki (1939– 1959) (Stepan Bandera in the documents of the Soviet State security bodies (1939–1959)) / Edited by I. Kulakowski. Y. Sergiychuk. Khudzik. Serdyuk. no. Vol.) / Львiвська наукова бiблiотека iм. Lvov. Edited by B Gronek. Polyaki i ukraintsi mizh dvomya totalitarnymy systemamy. 2. V. Kouk. Kokin. Kyiv. M. I. Edited and Introduction by V. The Congress of Ukrainian nationalists in 1929: Documents and materials (Конгрес Украïнських нацiоналiстiв 1929 р. Serdyuk. Sergiychuk. Kokin. Akt chervnya 1941: Zbirnyk dokumentiv i matrialiv (Украïнське державотворення. V. Dashkevich. 1. S. S.152 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography Patrilyak. Edited by O. 2009. Edited by V. Mayevsky.

] Vedeneyev. Vovk. О. Chernenko. 1983 – 1991. Pavlenko.] . V. vol. 8. 1943–1944: Документи i матерiали) / Institute ukrainskoy arkheographiyi ta dzhereloznavstva NANU (The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU). new series). Toronto. (The UPA chronicles. 2006. Introduction by О. Подiлля: УПА да запiлля. I. О. P. S. Galasa. V. book 1–3. vol. 1. Introduction by V. Polissya. Bystrukhin. Vovk. 2. Gunchak. G. 1940–1950-ті роки). [Litopys UPA. Кyiv. Kouk. Полiсся. 1995. Kyiv. Edited by.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography 153 UPA v svitli nimetskyh dokumentiv (УПА в свiтлi нiмецьких документiв) / Edited and introduction by T. Kyiv. Nova seria. Introduction by О. new series). D. Podillya: UPA da zapillya. Edited by.. Vovk. 21. 2006. 1943 –1944: Dokumenty i materialy (Волинь i Полiсся: УПА та запiлля. Y.] Vydannya Golovnogo Komanduvannya UPA (Видання Головного Командування УПА) / Institute ukrainskoy arkheographiyi ta dzhereloznavstva NANU (The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU). Volyn i Polissya: UPA ta zapillya. 1944–1945: Документи i матерiали) / Institute ukrainskoy arkheographiyi ta dzhereloznavstva NANU (The Institute of Ukrainian Archeography and source studies of NSAU). vol. 1999. Vovk.] Volyn. new series). Nova seria. Potichniy. [Litopys Ukrainskoy Povstanskoy Armiyi (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chronicles). 6–7. Koval. Tornoto. 1940–1950-ti roki (Повстанська розвідка діє точно і відважно: Документальна спадщина підрозділів спеціального призначення ОУН та УПА. Vovk. [Litopys UPA. (The UPA chronicles. Nova seria. Kyiv. Tornoto. vol. Kokin. 1944–1945: Dokumenty i materialy (Bолинь. Povstanska rozvidka die tochno i vidvazhno: Dokumentalna spadschina pidrozdiliv spetsialnogo priznachennya OUN ta UPA. Tornoto. (The UPA chronicles. [Litopys UPA. Edited by О.

materiyaly i spogady (Medical care in the .] Kazanivskiy. Shlyakhom Legendy: Spomyny. 1993. Drogobych. Reminiscence Kalba. Lvov. 1–12. no. commanding officer and personality) // General Roman Shukhevich – “Taras Chuprynka”. M. The OUN periodicals Rozbudova natsii: Organ provodu Ukrainskih natsionalistiv (Розбудова нацiï: Орґан проводу украïнських нацiоналiстiв). 1931. 1928. 1933. 2007 Lebed. 1–12. 1929. V. no. IV. Kosik. 1–8. [Litopys Ukrainskoy Povstanskoy Armiyi (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chronicles). Lvov. 1932. no. рiст i дiï у визвольнiй боротьбi украïньского народу за Украïньску Самостiйну Соборну Державу). 2008 Kalba. no. no. 1–12. Prague. vol. UPA v zapitannyah ta vidpividyah Golovnogo Komandira (УПА в запитаннях та вiдповiдях Головного Командира). London. Kouk. 1–12. Surma: Organ Ukrainskoy Vyiskovoi Organizatsii (Сурма: Орґан Украïнськоï Вiйськовоï Органiзацiï. B. 2007. M. komandyr. rist i diyi u vizvolniy borotbi ukrainskogo narodu za Ukrainsku Samostiynu Soborny Derzhavu (Украïньска Повстаньска Армiя. 1975. no. “Nachtigal” v zapitannyah i vidpovidyah («Нахтiґаль» в запитаннях i вiдповiдях) / Introduction by V. Golovniy Komandyr UPA (General Roman Shukhevich – “Taras Chuprinka”. iyi geneza. (Шляхом Легенди: Спомини). Ludina (Roman Shukhevich – a провiдник. 1–12. 1934. M. Lvov. no. Medichna opika v UPA: Dokumenty. Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya. 45. Roman Shukhevich yak providnyk. 1930. Commander-in-Chief of the UPA) Toronto. 1–12. iï генеза.) 1928–1934.154 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography III.

Carynnyk. 1967. 1999. The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and its Attitude toward Germans and Jews: Yaroslav Stets’ko’s 1941 Zhyttiepis // Harvard Ukrainian Studies. Zabarko.. B. [Litopys Ukrainskoy Povstanskoy Armiyi (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chronicles). Frankfurt/Main. Kyiv. 2002. M. 1. L. E.. Yones. 1941–1945). S. Organizatsiya Ukrainskih natsionalistov. V. New York. book 1. 3–4. M. Y 30 chervnya 1941: Progoloshennya vidnovlennya derzhavnosty Ukrainy (30 July 1941: Проголошення вiдновлення державности Украïни). [Litopys Ukrainskoy Povstanskoy Armiyi (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army Chronicles). Zhertvy nenavisty: Holokost v SSSR. C. vol. UPA na Volyni v 1943 rotsi (The UPA in Volyn area in 1943) // Volyn i Polissya: Nimetska okupatsiya (Volyn and Polesye: German occupation). 1998. K. M. Zhittepis Yaroslava Stetska vid 1941 . E. Toronto. 1992. Lvov. materials and reminiscences). Die Strasse nach Lemberg: Zwangsarbeit und Widerstnd in Ostgalizein. A. Tel-Aviv. Berkhoff. [editor] Zhizn i smert v epokhu Holokosta: Svedetelstva i dokumenty. Berenstein. 1941-1945 (Victims of hatred: Holocaust in the USSR. iyi stavlennya do nimtsiv ta evreyiv. Elisavetsky. Moscow. Evreyi – geroyi Soprotivleniya v podpolnoy i partizanskoy borbe protiv nazistkih okkupantov na Ukraine. Toronto. Vol. 1999. Carynnyk. References Altman. book 1.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography 155 UPA: Documents. 2006. 1941–1944. 1941 – 1945 (Jews – heroes of opposition in underground and guerilla struggle against the Nazi occupation in Ukraine.. Berkhoff. 1989.] Stetsko. London. no.] Omelyusik. I. 23. Y. 1941-1945). K. Toronto. (Life and death in the days of Holocaust: Evidences and documents).

Leipzig: Universitätsverlag. 1941-1944) / Translated from English m. 10. Zolochiv movchit (Золочів мовчить) // Krytyka (Kyiv).ua]. 1941 // Shared History – Divided Memory. V. Lvov. M. Carynnyk. 2007. New-York: The New Press. Finder. September 18th. Derevenskiy. no. Prusin. 2. Petersburg: Akademic project. Posobniki holokosta: prestupleniya mestnoy politsiyi Belorussiyi i Ukrainy. Becker. 1939 and June 24th. Pitannya natsionalnyh menshyn v etnonatsionalniy kontseptsiyi OUN (Питання нацiональних меншин в етнонацiональнiй концепцiï ОУН) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украïнський визвольний рух). 10. [Quoted from the electronic version from the official web-site of the Security Service of Ukraine. 2000. vol. A. Jews and Others in Soviet-Occupied Poland. 2005. Boll. I. N. Zloczow. Carynnyk. Diyatlnist OUN na Bukovyni u 1940-1941 (Дiятльнiсть ОУН на Буковинi у 1940–1941 рр) // From archives VUCHK-GPU-NKVDKGB. M. Boll. 2–4.. July 1941: The Wehrmacht and the Beginning of the Holocaust in Galicia: From a Criticism of Photographs to a Revision of the Past // Crimes of War: Guilt and Denial in the Twentieth Century. no. Juli 1941: Die Wehrmacht und der Beginn des Holocaust in Galizien // Zeitschrift für Geschichtswissenschaft. sbu. 2002. I. 1939–1941.156 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography (The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists and its Attitude toward Germans and Jews: Yaroslav Stets’ko’s 1941 Zhyttiepis) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times) (Kyiv). DNK. 2002. St. Din. no. V. Fostiy.ua].kiev. В. 2004. Zloczow. no. M. 2004. 1941-1944 (Holocaust abetters: Crimes of the local police in Belorussia and Ukraine. 2003. 3. Collaboration in Estern Galicia: The Ukrainian Auxiliary Police and the Holocaust // East European Jewish Affairs. The Palace on the Ikva: Dubne. [Quoted from the electronic version from the web-site of the journal krytyka. no.gov. G. 1. 2008. . В.

M. 2007. no. Golokost na Zakhidny Volyni (Голокост на Захiднiй Волинi) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times) (Kyiv). Gon. . poshuki. Grachova.) // Galichnia.ua]. M. M. Evreyi v borbe za nezavisimuyu Ukrainu (Jews in the struggle for Independent Ukraine) // Korny (Roots) (Kyiv-Moscow). 25. no. S. Kyiv. 4. no. 3. Ukraintsi v antiyevreyskih aktsiyah u roky drugoi svitovoi vyiny (Ukrainians in anti-jewish campaigns during WWII) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I”(Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї»). Rivne. 2003. vol. [Quoted from the electronic version from the web-site http://oun-upa. Vony zhyly sered nas? (Did they live among us?) // Krytyka (Kyiv). Ukrainski pravoradicaly ta evreyi Zakhidnoi Ukrainy (druga polovina 1930 rokov) (The Right Ukrainian radicals and the Jews in the Western Ukraine (second half of the 1930s) // Problemy istoriyi Ukrainy: Facty. Vovk. 2005. Ukrainsko-evreyskiy konflikt 1941 roku v Galichyne: Sproba poshuku prychyny (Українсько-єврейський конфлікт 1941 року в Галичині: Спроба пошуку причини) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I”(Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї»). Gritsak.uaweb. 48. no. Gogun. [Quoted from the electronic version from the web-site of the journal krytyka. 5–6. M.org/lib/gogun/pub07. A. Gon. Gon. 2005. Y. suzhdennya. Lvov.kiev. M. no. M. S. 2002. Iz krivdoyu na samoti: Ukrainsko-evreyski vzaemini na zakhidnoukrainskih zemlyah u skladi Polshi (1935 – 1939) (Iз кривдою на самотi: Украïнсько-єврейськi взаємини на захiдноукраïнських землях у складi Польщi (1935–1939)). 2006. M. “Kommunistychniy” factor ukrainsko-evreyskih vzaeminu zakhidny Ukraini (1935–1939) («Комунiстичний» фактор украïнськоєврейських взаємин у Захiднiй Украïнi (1935–1939 рр. Issue 15. M.html] Gon.. 1996. 9. A. 191 p. 2005.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography 157 Girik.

V.) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украiнський визвольний рух). 2008.-P. 3. Dostovirnist svidchennya: relyatsia Ruzi Wagner pro lvivskiy pogrom vlitku 1941 (Trustworthiness of the witness statement: Ruzya Wagner’s report on the Lvov massacre in the summer of 1941) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times).ua]. Himka. Himka. Himka. J.-P.158 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography Grivul. T. 2. 30 Juni 1941: Mit dem Einmarsch der Wehrmachttruppen beginnt der Judenmord // Der Zeit. Ukrainian Collaboration in the Extermination of the Jews during the Second World War: Sorting Out the Long-Term and Conjunctural Factors // The Fate of the European Jews. J. Be wary of faulty Nachtigall lessons // Kyiv Post. 2001. Heer. 2005. and the Vinnytsia Exhumation. 1997. Ilge. Zmagannya zhertv (Змагання жертв) // Krytyka (Kyiv). Gunchak.-P. no. Himka. 1939-1945: Continuity or Contingency. Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya v 1944-1945 (The Ukrainian Insurgent Army in 1941-1945). 26. Kyiv. Kyiv. the NKVD Murders of 1941. Lvov. Т.kiev. 5. Typescript.03. Oxford: Oxford University Press. . 2008. 18. no. 1999. vol. 4. Blutige Ouvertüre: Lemberg. 27. Himka. vol. Lvov. 2004. H.03. New York.2008. Do pytannya konflictu v OUN 1940-1941 (Dо питання конфлiкту в ОУН 1940–1941 рр. Problemy istoriographiyi: istoriya ta iyi dzherela (Problems of historiography: history and its sources) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украiнський визвольний рух). A. True and False Lessons from the Nachtigall Episode // BRAMA.-P. [Quoted from the electronic version from the web-site of the journal krytyka. Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: Krakivs'ki visti. V. J. I. no. 2006. J.2008. Kentiy.

1. V. Kovalchuk. (Lvov. V. 1941-1944 (Дiяльнicть ОУН(б) i Запiлля УПА на Волинi й пiвденному Полiссi. no. 9. Zh. Diyalnist OUN(B) i zapillya UPA na Volyni i pivdennomu Polissi. 5. July 1941: Extermination starts) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times) (Kyiv). T. Y. Kovba. Toronto. no. list 1. Kurilo. no.Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography 159 Khonigsman. judaica.kiev. Kyiv. U poshukhah vlasnoi vidpovidalnosty (У пошуках власної відповідальности) // Krytyka (Critics). Lvov. 1. [Quoted from the electronic version from the web-site of the Judaica Institute (Kyiv). Sila ta slabkist ukrainskogo natsionalizmu v Kyieve pid chas nimetskoi okupatsiyi (1941-1943) (Сила та слабкiсть украïнського нацiоналiзму в Києвi пiд час нiмецької окупацiї (1941–1943) // Ukraina moderna (Contemporary Ukraine). Dokumenty katastrophy iz fondov Gosudarstvennogo arkhiva Ivanmo-Frankovskoy oblasty (stock P-98. 2008..). Lyudyanist u bezodni pekla: Povedinka mistsevogo naselennya Skhidnoi Galycyny v roky “ostatochnogo rozvyazanya evreiskogo pytannya” (Людянiсть у безоднi пекла: Поведiнка мiсцевого населення Схiдноï Галичини в роки «остаточного розв’язаня єврейського питання»). Kosik. file 13) // Digest-E. 2006. Kruglov. 2003. no. kiev. Himka. Yak OUN stavilasya do evreyiv? Rozdumy nad knizhkoyu Volodymyra Vyatrovicha (What was the OUN’s attitude towards Jews? . Kovba. 2003. [Quoted from the electronic version from the web-site of the journal krytyka. vol. 1998. file 13) (Documents of the disaster from the National Archives of IvanoFrank region (stock P-98.ua]. 2005. Zh. Kurilo.ua]. Lvov. Lvov. I. T. list 1. 2. Garvard patronue nenaukovi metody istorychnogo doslidzhennya (Гарвард патронує ненаукові методи історичного дослідження) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украiнський визвольний рух). 2007. Iyul 1941: Nachalo unichtozheniya. 1941–1944 рр. A.

no. Tragediya Galitskogo evreystva (The tragedy of Jews in Galicia). no. S. Lvov. 1942–1960: Dyiałalność Organizacji Ukraińskich Nacjonalistów i Ukraińskiej Powstańczej Armii. “Yevedentsiyni kartki” UPA yak statistichne dzherelo («Еведенцiйнi картки» УПА як статистичне джерело) // . The Soviet Occupation of Poland. no. 2. 2007. Patrilyak. 2008. V.160 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography Deliberations over the book of Vladimir Vyatrovich) // Ukraina moderna (Contemporary Ukraine). Nakhmanovich. G. 1997. 3. Maslovsky. no. Nakhmanovich. Vtrati naselennya na Volyni u 1941-1947 (Втрати населення на Волинi у 1941–1947 рр. Organizatsiya ukrainskyh natsionalistiv i Ukrainska povstanska armiya: Fakhoviy vysnovok robochoi grupi istorykov pri uryadovoy komisiyi vyvchennya diyatelnosti OUN i UPA (Oрганiзацiя украïнських нацiоналiстiв i Украïнська повстаньска армiя: Фаховий висновок робочоï групи iсторикiв при урядовiй комiciï з вивчення дiятельностi ОУН i УПА). I. Ukraińska partzyantka. Do pytannya pro sklad uchastnykiv karalnyh aktsiy v okupovanomu Kiyevi (1941-1943) (До питання про склад участникiв каральних акцiй в окупованому Києвi (1941–1943) // Druga svitova viyna i dolya narodiv Ukrainy (The second world war and the Ukrainian people’s lot) Kyiv.) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I” (Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї»). Michlic. Culture. Kyiv. J. 2007. V. Society. V. Makarchuk. 3. 2005. Bukovinskiy kurin I masovi roztrily evreyiv Kiyeva voseny 1941 (Bukovinsky kuren and mass execution of Jews in Kyiv in the autrumn of 1941) // Ukrainskyi istoychniy journal (Ukrainian historical journal). 2006. 2003. 1939–41. K. and the Stereotype of the Anti-Polish and Pro-Soviet Jew // Jewish Social Studies: History. 28. Motyka. Warszawa. 2007.

Bystrukhin. Polischuk. 2007. Kyiv. no. Trofimovich. 2006. Vedeneyev. Warsaw. 1. G. V. V. Poliszczuk. A. 28. Kyiv. W. Toronto. Dowody zbrodni OUN i UPA. Wrocław. 19391950: historical and politologycal analysis). Girka Pravda: Zlochinnost OUN-UPA (Spovid ukrainstya) (Bitter truth: The evil of the OUN and UPA (Confessions of a Ukrainian)). 2007. D. 1995. 2005.. Shneer. Mech i trizub: Rozvidka I kontrrozvidka puhu ukrainskih natsionalistov ta UPA (1920–1945) (Меч і тризуб: Розвідка і контррозвідка руху українських націоналістів та УПА (1920-1945)). Moscow. I. Plen: Sovetskiye voyennoplenniye v Germaniyi. Odisseya Vasiliya Kouka: Voenno-politichesky portrait poslednego komanduyuschego UPA (Vasily Kouk’s “Odyssey” – political and military portrait of the last Commander-in-Chief of the UPA). 2000. A. E. Toronto. vol. Ukrainskaya politsiya i Holokost v generalnom okuge Kiyev. .Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography 161 Ukrainskyi vyzvolnyi ruh (Украïнський визвольний Рух) Lvov. 2007. Holocaust po banderowsku. Ukrainska derzhava u planah OUN (1939–1950 roki): istorikopolitologichniy analiz. Rybak. Prusin. Kyiv. A. 19411943: Deistviya I motivatsiya (The Ukrainian police and Holocaust in the area of Kyiv. Vedeneyev. V. Prus. no. 1941–1945. V. Ostrog. 1941–1945 (Captivity: Soviet prisoners of war in Germany. D. Jerusalem. 2006. 1941–1943: Activity and motivation) // Golokost i suchasnist (Holocaust and modern times) (Kyiv). (The Ukrainian State in the OUN plans. 6. 2001. Rol Nimecchyny ta SSSR v ukrainsko-polskomu konflikti 1934-1945 (The role of Germany and the USSR in the UkrainianPolish conflict in 1939-1945) // Nezalezhny kulturologichniy chasopys “I”(Незалежний культурологічний часопис «Ї»). 2003.

Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv (1920–1950. V. 7.162 Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography Vyatrovich. Wais. V.2008. Vyatrovich. V. 23. V.) (The OUN attitude towards Jews (1920–1950)) // Ukrainskiy vizvolniy rukh (Украïнський визвольний рух). 2006. Stavlennya OUN do evreyiv : Formuvannya pozitsiyi na tli katastrophy (Ставлення ОУН до євреїв: Формування позиції на тлі катастрофи) / Tsentr doslizhden vyzvolnogo ruhu (Центр дослiджень визвольного руху). Otnosheniye nekotorih krugov Ukrainskogo Natsionalnogo dvizheniya k evreyam v period vtoroy mirovoy voiny (The attitude of certain groups of the Ukrainian national movement towards Jews during WWII) // Vestnik Evreyskogo universiteta v Moskve (The Newsletter of the Jewish University in Moscow) 1995. Ukrainsko-evreyskiye burgouazniye natzionalisty: Ob ukrainsko-evreyskom sotrudnichestve v borbe za nezavisimuyu Ukrainu (Ukrainian-Jewish bourgeois nationalists: on the collaboration of Ukrainians and Jews in the struggle for independent Ukraine) // Ukrainskaya Pravda (Kyiv). Toronto. Lvov. Vyatrovich. vol. no. Vyatrovich. Lvov. 2. A. . Reydy UPA terenami Chekhoslovachyny (Рейди УПА теренами Чехословаччини). 2006.01. 2001. Lvov.

Alexander DyukovMinor enemyBibliography

163

VI. The author’s publication on the subject
Dyukov, A. R. “Evreysky vopros” dlya OUN-UPA (The “Jewish issue” for the
OUN-UPA) // Weekly publication «2000» (Kyiv), 8-14.02.2008.
Dyukov, A. R. “Polsky vopros” v planah OUN(B): ot nasilstvennoy assimilyatsiyi k etnicheskim chistkam (The “Polish issue” in the OUN(B) plans:
from froced assimilation to ethnic cleansing) // Zabytiy genotsid.
“Volynskaya reznya” 1943-1944: documenty i issledovaniya (Forgotten genocide. “Massacre at Volyn” in 1943-1944: documents and investigation materials) Moscow, 2008.
Dyukov, A. R. Byli li Banderovtsy antisemitamy? (Were Bandera people antiSemites?) // Komsomolskaya pravda (Moscow), 15.02.2007.
Dyukov, A. R. Extermination policy in the occupied Soviet territory: trends
and research works // Velikaya Otechestvennaya Voyna 1941-1945:
opyt izucheniya i prepodavaniya (The Second World War, 19411945: studying and teaching. Moscow, 2005.
Dyukov, A. R. Ob uchastiyi OUN-UPA v Holokoste: “Moskva i zhidovstvo –
glavniye vragi Ukrainy” (The OUN-UPA participation in Holocaust:
“Moscow and Jews – chief enemies of Ukraine) // IA «REGNUM»,
14.10.2007.
Dyukov, A. R. OUN sotrudnichala s natsistami i unichtozhala evreyev (The
OUN collaborated with the Nazi and exterminated Jews) // Izvestiya
(Moscow), 11.02.2008.

Yuri SHEVTSOV
The UPA cult: amorality in Ukraine

is treated exactly in this way. The utter denunciation of Nazism became a global ideology and a foundation principle for the UNO. despite all confrontations. This rejection is more important than democratic values and freedom. but in no case it admits apologetics of Nazism and revision of the WWII results. as something mundane and ordinary. The cult of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army is being incorporated into the national ideology of Ukraine. What we witness now is the fast spreading of something that was unacceptable for many decades. In their struggle against the Russian influence and the remains of communism. And with every passing month the intensity of forcing it in Ukraine is growing. rehabilitate collaborationists. Few people believed that a new Chancellor in pluralistic Germany. During the WWII. a major change in terms of possible consequences. de-Nazification and acknowledging Nazism as an absolute evil. defeated with united efforts. which had been spread by the Nazi Germany during the WWII. who took power in 1933. For all its liberalism. Same relates to capture of the Winter Palace in St-Petersburg in October 1917 – the following collapse of the Russian Empire was hardly expected. The modern Europe allows a vast variety of beliefs and identities. currently taking place in Ukraine. Only the union of supporters of democracy. as seen in the eastern European communities. a new wave of explicit . For many decades after the WWII. were the cultural basis which brought East and West of the Old World together. Europe is far from amorality and lack of principles. Or take the events of August 1991: again the collapse of a powerful empire had scarcely been envisaged as a consequence of an attempt for a military revolution. brought to life by Europe itself. The contemporary European Union and former USSR are still unified by the rejection of racism ideology. would initiate a major World War just two years later. Europe faced a threat of death from the internal virus of the Nazi idea. the eastern European countries conduct revision of the WWII results.166 Alexander DyukovMinor enemy The UPA Cult: Amorality in Ukraine It often happens that crucial events go unnoticed by the contemporaries. just before our eyes. The ideological transformation. Christianity and Communism saved Europe from vanishing. It is only a matter of several months. planting a new ideology in one of the biggest European countries. and further on.

exploit it to their own benefit and primarily – use it against Russia. However. It is a cult of an extremely radical nationalism. apprehensive about a threat from the USSR and without a second thought about dangers that game implied. and now – against . based on it. we should emphasize. And the quality of consequences of the Ukrainian neoNazism will be quite different from that of the two Baltic States’ wave. its competency and its influence upon the development of nationalist movements in Europe. The “liberal nations” of those times planned to use radical nationalism against the USSR. it’s an advantage too – liberal and opportunistic forces in particular.The UPA Cult: Amorality in Ukraine (by Yuri Shevtsov) 167 neo-Nazism is gaining momentum. It has happened before. which denies universal moral and European values. then a “slight” segregation within the country. Radical nationalistic Poland aligned with Hitler in 1934 without a second thought about dangers of that game. The Ukrainian neo-Nazism. what is now happening in Ukraine follows the same scheme of events we had seen in Latvia and Estonia. relates to the second biggest (after Russia) in terms of population. The liberal world exaggerated the importance of its own intrigues. The UPA cult is not neo-Nazism yet. The UPA cult in Ukraine reiterates the errors of the liberal world of the 20’s and 30’s of the 20th century. justifies collaboration with Nazism during the WWII and military confrontation against anti-Hitler forces. France and Great Britain used both Nazism and radical eastern-European nationalism. Latvia and Estonia are relatively small countries and the significance of their local neo-Nazism for the whole Europe is not that big. We have seen a miniature version of this process in Latvia and Estonia. crystallize neo-Nazism as a minimum of eastern-European countries and create problems for the whole Europe. and now – memorials to collaborationists and national rehabilitation of collaborationism – revision of the WWII results on the national level. At the same time. if it grows and wins. eastern-European country. This transitional character of the UPA cult is its weak point – the growing radical nationalism can be defeated by joint international efforts without major collapses. but does not postulate racism yet. as well as many others. see a chance to make use of this new development. First there were nice words about antihumanism and national oppression from the USSR-Russia. And this. and was close to collapse under the pressure of joint attack of radical nationalism and Nazism. political culture. especially in the inter-war history. can create a critical mass.

in the first place against the USSR and Polish anti-Nazi forces. So it is only possible to justify the UPA if we take its loyalty to Ukrainian nation and Ukrainian people as the criteria for the assessment. a formation of a powerful nationalist cluster in the Eastern Europe was a strong possibility. This sounds nice for a nationalist. Similarly. One can not consider Shukhevich a national hero. The above cult is develops alongside the cult of Famine-Genocide and other ideological movements. One can not vindicate the armed forces that fought against Soviet guerillas and shot in the backs of soldiers of the advancing Red Army. we have solid reasons to doubt the capability of the liberal world for a resistance against the alliance of radical nationalism and Nazism. That cluster was seen to be capable of conducting its own large-scale policy. There was no importance attached to the growth of racism. The main problem with the UPA cult at the moment is that it’s being used for amoralization of the Ukrainian society. Now they are being justified through Famine-Genocide and similar tragic events. had been an ally of “democratic countries” of the anti-Hitler coalition. Following the anti-Nazism tradition. taking into account his loyal service to the Germans during 1939-1942. This reminds of the situation of 30’s in the Eastern Europe. putting radical nationalism in place of all the civilized ideology and values. and later on. like Polish Craiova Army. However. when Poland and Germany seemingly stood united. Understandable would it be. There is just a fine line between that and the ideology of racism itself. . which becomes too concentrated on itself. developed by Europe. which placed its stake on Nazism. Starting from 1934. If the UPA. struggling against everybody. and at the same time means that a whole national culture rejects absolute moral values. But this was not the case. initiated by the new Ukrainian authorities and directed against Russia. we would have had a slim chance to understand and justify the situation. about regrets of the tragic mistake of the Ukrainian nationalism. The UPA cult may result in a hazardous transformation within the Ukrainian nation and Ukrainian identity. for no particular reason. The threat is not seen now either. A similar event is taking place now.168 Alexander DyukovMinor enemy Russia. as it was considered nonthreatening. if they spoke about the historical memory of Famine-Genocide. what we see is glorification of those who first directly and then indirectly fought in favour of Nazis. we have the reasons to be seriously alarmed: the UPA cult in Ukraine is driven by a political force which is enjoying the support from the West.

And this would provide the critical mass to strengthen neo-Nazism and radical nationalism in the whole of Eastern Europe. With the UPA cult. And if Western Europe refuses to see it. At least for some time such an alliance might exist – after all. that this Ukraine does not form a strong alliance with Poland. it opposes its spiritual life and national ideology to the whole Europe. Now. and it would be accepted too.The UPA Cult: Amorality in Ukraine (by Yuri Shevtsov) 169 including Russia. then why not admit a moral justification of the service in an SS division? What are the possible consequences of that tendency development in Ukraine and Easter Europe? First of all. And the subject of the UPA is accepted by Poland for various reasons. The reason could be the same as given in Latvia and Estonia – they had to resist the USSR. which is growing more and more nationalistic. Poland had had a similar alliance with Hitler’s Germany up to 1939. However. The strength of the current Ukrainian radical nationalism is that it has resources of a huge country available. The Ukrainian radical nationalism with its thorough revision of WWII results through the UPA cult is a foothold for similar radical nationalistic and neo-nationalistic forces in all neighbouring countries of the Eastern Europe. There is no assurance that the current Ukraine with its radical nationalism. even if in alliance with Hitler. it in no case does it mean that those see the world with a clinical eye should fail to notice it either. taking into account the developments in Latvia and Estonia. conducting the revision of the WWII results and implementing amoralization of its national ideology. moreover this new trend is exploited by some western players in their strategic moves against Russia. its tradition is strong as well. it would be logical for us to expect Ukraine start defending the SS division “Galicina” and plain policemen in the nearest future. We see this nationalism reconciling with the Polish radical nationalism. which failed them more than once – excessive expectations from the western allies. radical Russophobia and opportunistic foreign policy. just like it happened in the 30’s with other countries. the eastern European countries will initiate a revision of the WWII results on the level of European Un- . if anything can be done for the sake of their own nation. down through many centuries of rich history. Ukraine opposes itself not only against Russia. and it has a strong anti-Nazi instinct. it learnt from the experience of the Eastern Europe during inter– and after-war times. This nationalism is flexible. both directed against Russia. Poland suffered great losses during the WWII. And those forces are plenty. Hence.

common sybaritism and the discomfort caused by the inflow of migrants of various cultures “created and obstacle” for nipping this virus in the bud.170 Alexander DyukovMinor enemy ion ideology. A respected man. under the veil of the struggle against already non-existent communism. Czech neo-Nazism. disapproving of the de-nazification policy as contradicting to the European freedom of speech and choice of identity? What will be left of Europe then? Perhaps somebody is preparing another anti-Jewish and anti-humanist transformation of Germany? Prague is very much exposed to the influence of the German culture. who remain true to anti-Nazi European principles? The current UPA cult is no more an issue of internal Ukrainian discussion of values and ways of Ukrainian national development. dying of the lack of alertness. As a result. an official development. unlike that of the others. What happens when all these cults of the UPA. Neo-Nazis went to the Jewish quarters of the “paradise city” in an explicit march. The EU failed to stop neo-Nazist transformations even in Latvia and Estonia. stay alert”. The tussle with “Gazprom”. by the way. our own historical memory has so far been preserved. has not been criticized so far by even a single European leader! This also holds good of the conflict between hundreds of neo-Nazis and anti-fascists in Prague. Nor does the European mass media utter a word to analyze the actual nightmare of the event in Prague. Waffen-SS in Latvia and Estonia. traditional Russophobia of Poland and lots of eastern-European nationalist radicals unite in a European coalition and attain the change of the European ideology? For instance. Yuri Shevtsov Director of the Center for the problems of European integration Of the European Humanitarian University (Minsk) . in Prague. we see the UPA cult. Shukhevich is already a national hero of Ukraine. And all of us have the right to ask: why this could happen and what will be consequence of it? We have the right to stay alert. Besides. fraught with massacre and violence. They were stopped by anti-fascists. not by police or special services. bequeathed: “People. And what security system should work in Europe for the Europeans themselves? Do they need to establish anti-fascist brigades in each city? And what about the EU neighbours.