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DC System Battery Sizing

DC System Battery Sizing

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BASED ON:

IEEE RECOMMENDED PRACTICE FOR BATTERY SIZING ANSI/IEEE STD. 485-1983

09/10/01

Following are the required data for performing battery sizing calculations:

1. Battery Discharge Characteristics (Rt or Kt curves)

2. Derating Factors (Age, Temperature, Design Margin)

3. Load Profile (Continuous, Non-Continuous, Random, and Momentary Loads, Start

and Stop Time, Load in Amps)

4. Maximum Allowable System Voltage

5. Minimum Allowable System Voltage

6. Cell Recharge Voltage

7. Charging Time

8. Ni-Cad Constant

9. Lead-Acid Constant

2. MODEL AND METHOD

2.1. Cell selection

Three basic factors govern the size (number of cells and rated capacity) of the battery: the

maximum system voltage, the minimum system voltage, and the duty cycle. It has been

common practice to use 12, 24, 60, or 120 cells for system voltages of 24, 48, 125, or 250

V.

2.2. No. of cell

The battery voltage is not allowed to exceed a given maximum system voltage; the

number of cells will be limited by the cell voltage required for satisfactory charging. That

is:

No. of cells =

Cell voltage required for charging

EXAMPLE:

Assume 2.33 Volts per cell (VPC) required for charging and that the maximum allowable

system voltage is 140 V.

No. of cells = 140 V/2.33 VPC = 60.09; i.e. 60 cells

2.3. End of discharge cell voltage

No. of cells

This will be used for cell size later

End - of - discharge cell voltage =

The cell selected for a specific duty cycle must have enough capacity to carry the

combined loads during the duty cycle.

The method of calculating the cell capacity on a given duty cycle is based on equation

(1), where capacity rating factor Ct is based on the discharge characteristics of a

particular plate type and size in End of discharge cell voltage.

P=S

Ap A( P 1)

P =1

CT

Fs =

(1)

The maximum capacity ( max Fs) determining the cell size is calculated from the

following general expression:

S =N

S =1

Where:

S = Section of the duty cycle being analyzed. Section S contains the first S periods of

the duty cycle (for example section S5 contains periods 1 through 5).

N = Number of periods in the duty cycle.

P = Period being analyzed.

Ap = Amperes required for period P.

T = Time in minutes from the beginning of period P through the end of section S.

Ct = Capacity rating factor for a given cell type, at the T minute discharge rate, at 25 C

( 77 F ), to a definite end-of-discharge voltage.

Kd = Design margin factor;

Ka = Aging factor.

2.5 Program Calculation Methods

User can select following 3 methods for cell sizing calculation

Rt: Calculates the cell size in terms of the number of positive plates.

Kt: Calculates the cell size in ampere-hours.

KW: Used for calculating batteries for UPS service.

2.5.1 Rt method:

Ct = Rt

Where Rt , is the number of amperes that each positive plate can supply for T minutes, at

25 C ( 77 F ), to a definite end-of-discharge voltage.

2.5.2 Kt method:

Ct =

1

Kt

Where Kt , is the ratio of rated ampere-hour capacity (at a standard time rate, at 25 C

(77 F) and to a standard end-of-discharge voltage) of a cell, to the amperes that can be

supplied by that cell for T minutes at 25 C ( 77 F) and to a given end-of discharge

voltage.

2.5.3 KW method

Batteries for UPS systems are normally sized using the KW method. Battery

manufacturers can supply the KW rates for their cells at various end voltages, at 25 C

(77 F), for specific SG. To size batteries using the KW method, factors like temperature

correction, design margin, and aging should be considered. The expression for UPS cell

is as follows:

Fw =

L Kt Kd Ka

No.ofcells

Where:

Fw = Cell rating in KW/cell;

L = Load in KW;

2.6 Total number of plates

When used with the factor Rt (amperes per positive plate), the general equation expresses

the cell size as the number of positive plates. Most manufacturers identify their cells by

the total number of plates in the cell.

Total number of plates = 1 + 2 (number of positive plates)

The individual dc loads supplied by the battery during the duty cycle may be classified as

following 3 different kinds:

1. Continuous Loads

Loads that are energized throughout the duty cycle, as for instance:

- Lighting;

- Continuously operating motors;

- Inverters;

- Indicating lights;

- Continuously energized coils;

- Annunciator loads.

2. Non-continuous Loads

Loads that are not energized for the entire duration of the duty cycle, as for instance:

- Emergency motors;

- Critical ventilation system motors;

- Communication system power supplies;

- Fire protection systems.

For these Non-continuous Loads which last 1 min or less are classified as Momentary

Load. You need special methods to deal with them; see 2.7.1. The examples of these

are:

- Switchgear operations;

- Motor-driven valve operations;

- Isolating switch operations;

- Field flashing of generators;

- Motor starting current;

- Inrush current.

3. Random

Loads that can occur at any point in the duty cycle, and cannot be confined to

any particular portion of the cycle

2.7.1. Method to deal with momentary type loads

A: If motors start at the same time or randomly within the same minute, the loads are

added, and a cumulative time period of one minute is used in the calculation.

B: If motors start at different times (e.g.: 0-5 sec., 5-15 sec., and 15-35 sec.) the largest

load inrush is considered as impact load for a one minute period. See the following

Figure:

In the battery sizing program, all loads are supposed to be constant current, so the

constant power loads or constant resistant loads need to be convert to constant current

loads:

In IEEE Std 485-1997, IEEE recommended practice for sizing lead-acid batteries for

stationary applications," the following methods are used:

For constant power load:

P

I max =

E min batt Vdp

Where: E min batt is the minimum battery voltage, Vdp is the battery voltage drop during

the that period.

For constant resistance load:

I max =

EOC

R

Where: EOC is the battery open circuit voltage (typically 0.85+ nominal specific gravity)

2.9 Method to calculate cell voltage/time profile

The method of calculation is a iteration process and consists of the following:

a) Keeping a cumulative total of Ampere-hours removed from the cell during each

discharge segment/period.

b) Identifying the discharge current at that time, and

c) Using this information, along with the battery manufactures typical discharge

characteristics, to determine the cell terminal voltage at various points in the duty

cycle.

2.10.1 Curves

The Following curves are used in the battery sizing program:

Battery discharge curve (Rt and Kt ), the data are from the battery library.

Loads profile, the data are from the input load data.

Cell voltage/time profile, the data are from calculation results

Here are the examples of these curves:

Rt and Kt curve

Load profile

2.10.2 calculation results

IEEE Worksheet Format, this table is recommended in IEEE STD 485 for battery sizing

calculation by hand:

n

BC

i =1

CAR = (CI j DM j ) +

CH

j =1

Where:

m

CI j = Continuous Load j

BC = Battery Constant

= 1.4 ( NiCad ) or 1.1 ( Lead-Acid )

CH = Desired Charging Time in Hours

I i = Noncontinuous Load i

DM i = Design Margin for Load i

DM = 1.0 for Nominal Calculations

m = Number of continuous loads

n = Number of noncontinuous loads

( I i Di DM i )

60

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