You are on page 1of 11

The Model and Method





Following are the required data for performing battery sizing calculations:
1. Battery Discharge Characteristics (Rt or Kt curves)
2. Derating Factors (Age, Temperature, Design Margin)
3. Load Profile (Continuous, Non-Continuous, Random, and Momentary Loads, Start
and Stop Time, Load in Amps)
4. Maximum Allowable System Voltage
5. Minimum Allowable System Voltage
6. Cell Recharge Voltage
7. Charging Time
8. Ni-Cad Constant
9. Lead-Acid Constant
2.1. Cell selection
Three basic factors govern the size (number of cells and rated capacity) of the battery: the
maximum system voltage, the minimum system voltage, and the duty cycle. It has been
common practice to use 12, 24, 60, or 120 cells for system voltages of 24, 48, 125, or 250
2.2. No. of cell
The battery voltage is not allowed to exceed a given maximum system voltage; the
number of cells will be limited by the cell voltage required for satisfactory charging. That
No. of cells =

Max. allowable battery voltage

Cell voltage required for charging

Assume 2.33 Volts per cell (VPC) required for charging and that the maximum allowable
system voltage is 140 V.
No. of cells = 140 V/2.33 VPC = 60.09; i.e. 60 cells
2.3. End of discharge cell voltage

Min. allowable battery voltage

No. of cells
This will be used for cell size later
End - of - discharge cell voltage =

2.4. Calculation of cell size

The cell selected for a specific duty cycle must have enough capacity to carry the
combined loads during the duty cycle.
The method of calculating the cell capacity on a given duty cycle is based on equation
(1), where capacity rating factor Ct is based on the discharge characteristics of a
particular plate type and size in End of discharge cell voltage.

Ap A( P 1)

P =1


Fs =


The maximum capacity ( max Fs) determining the cell size is calculated from the
following general expression:
S =N

Uncorrected cell size = Max Fs + Random section size

S =1

Cell size (number of positive plates) = Uncorrected cell size * Kd*Kt*Ka

S = Section of the duty cycle being analyzed. Section S contains the first S periods of
the duty cycle (for example section S5 contains periods 1 through 5).
N = Number of periods in the duty cycle.
P = Period being analyzed.
Ap = Amperes required for period P.
T = Time in minutes from the beginning of period P through the end of section S.
Ct = Capacity rating factor for a given cell type, at the T minute discharge rate, at 25 C
( 77 F ), to a definite end-of-discharge voltage.

Kt = Temperature correction factor;

Kd = Design margin factor;
Ka = Aging factor.
2.5 Program Calculation Methods
User can select following 3 methods for cell sizing calculation
Rt: Calculates the cell size in terms of the number of positive plates.
Kt: Calculates the cell size in ampere-hours.
KW: Used for calculating batteries for UPS service.
2.5.1 Rt method:
Ct = Rt

Where Rt , is the number of amperes that each positive plate can supply for T minutes, at
25 C ( 77 F ), to a definite end-of-discharge voltage.
2.5.2 Kt method:
Ct =


Where Kt , is the ratio of rated ampere-hour capacity (at a standard time rate, at 25 C
(77 F) and to a standard end-of-discharge voltage) of a cell, to the amperes that can be
supplied by that cell for T minutes at 25 C ( 77 F) and to a given end-of discharge
2.5.3 KW method
Batteries for UPS systems are normally sized using the KW method. Battery
manufacturers can supply the KW rates for their cells at various end voltages, at 25 C
(77 F), for specific SG. To size batteries using the KW method, factors like temperature
correction, design margin, and aging should be considered. The expression for UPS cell
is as follows:

Fw =

L Kt Kd Ka

Fw = Cell rating in KW/cell;
L = Load in KW;
2.6 Total number of plates

When used with the factor Rt (amperes per positive plate), the general equation expresses
the cell size as the number of positive plates. Most manufacturers identify their cells by
the total number of plates in the cell.
Total number of plates = 1 + 2 (number of positive plates)

2.7 Load classification

The individual dc loads supplied by the battery during the duty cycle may be classified as
following 3 different kinds:
1. Continuous Loads
Loads that are energized throughout the duty cycle, as for instance:
- Lighting;
- Continuously operating motors;
- Inverters;
- Indicating lights;
- Continuously energized coils;
- Annunciator loads.
2. Non-continuous Loads
Loads that are not energized for the entire duration of the duty cycle, as for instance:
- Emergency motors;
- Critical ventilation system motors;
- Communication system power supplies;
- Fire protection systems.
For these Non-continuous Loads which last 1 min or less are classified as Momentary
Load. You need special methods to deal with them; see 2.7.1. The examples of these
- Switchgear operations;
- Motor-driven valve operations;
- Isolating switch operations;
- Field flashing of generators;
- Motor starting current;
- Inrush current.
3. Random
Loads that can occur at any point in the duty cycle, and cannot be confined to
any particular portion of the cycle
2.7.1. Method to deal with momentary type loads
A: If motors start at the same time or randomly within the same minute, the loads are
added, and a cumulative time period of one minute is used in the calculation.

B: If motors start at different times (e.g.: 0-5 sec., 5-15 sec., and 15-35 sec.) the largest
load inrush is considered as impact load for a one minute period. See the following


2.8 Method to convert other type loads to constant current loads

In the battery sizing program, all loads are supposed to be constant current, so the
constant power loads or constant resistant loads need to be convert to constant current
In IEEE Std 485-1997, IEEE recommended practice for sizing lead-acid batteries for
stationary applications," the following methods are used:
For constant power load:
I max =
E min batt Vdp
Where: E min batt is the minimum battery voltage, Vdp is the battery voltage drop during
the that period.
For constant resistance load:

I max =


Where: EOC is the battery open circuit voltage (typically 0.85+ nominal specific gravity)
2.9 Method to calculate cell voltage/time profile
The method of calculation is a iteration process and consists of the following:
a) Keeping a cumulative total of Ampere-hours removed from the cell during each
discharge segment/period.
b) Identifying the discharge current at that time, and
c) Using this information, along with the battery manufactures typical discharge
characteristics, to determine the cell terminal voltage at various points in the duty

2.10 Format of the result outputs

2.10.1 Curves
The Following curves are used in the battery sizing program:
Battery discharge curve (Rt and Kt ), the data are from the battery library.
Loads profile, the data are from the input load data.
Cell voltage/time profile, the data are from calculation results
Here are the examples of these curves:

Battery discharge curve

Rt and Kt curve

Load profile

Cell voltage/time profile

2.10.2 calculation results

IEEE Worksheet Format, this table is recommended in IEEE STD 485 for battery sizing
calculation by hand:

3. Method to calculate battery charger rating


i =1
CAR = (CI j DM j ) +
j =1

CAR = Charger Ampere Rating

CI j = Continuous Load j

DM j = Design Margin for Load j

BC = Battery Constant
= 1.4 ( NiCad ) or 1.1 ( Lead-Acid )
CH = Desired Charging Time in Hours
I i = Noncontinuous Load i

Di = Duration of Load i in Minutes

DM i = Design Margin for Load i
DM = 1.0 for Nominal Calculations
m = Number of continuous loads
n = Number of noncontinuous loads

( I i Di DM i )