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Chapter 5

Lathe

rkm2003

Turning Operations

Machine Tool LATHE

Job (workpiece) rotary motion

Tool linear motions

Mother of Machine Tools

Cylindrical and flat surfaces

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Turning/Drilling/Grooving/

Threading/Knurling/Facing...

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The Lathe

H e a d sto c k

S p in d le

G u id e w a y s

T o o l p o st

S p in d le

sp e e d

se le c to r

Feed change

g e a rb o x

C ro ss slid e

D e a d c e n te r

T a ilsto c k q u ill

T a ilsto c k

H a n d le

C o m p o u n d re st

a n d slid e (sw iv e ls)

B ed

C a rria g e

A p ro n

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F e e d ro d

L e a d sc re w

The Lathe

Head Stock

Tail Stock

Bed

Feed/Lead Screw

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Carriage

Types of Lathes

Engine Lathe

Speed Lathe

Bench Lathe

Tool Room Lathe

Special Purpose Lathe

Gap Bed Lathe

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Size of Lathe

Workpiece Length

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Swing

Size of Lathe ..

Example: 300 - 1500 Lathe

Maximum Diameter of Workpiece

that can be machined

= SWING (= 300 mm)

Maximum Length of Workpiece

that can be held between

Centers (=1500 mm)

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Workholding Devices

Equipment used to hold

Workpiece fixtures

Tool - jigs

machining

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Workholding Devices ..

Chucks

Three jaw

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Four Jaw

Workholding Devices ..

Centers

Headstock center

(Live Centre)

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Tailstock center

(Dead Centre)

Workpiece

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Workpiece

Workholding Devices ..

Faceplates

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Workholding Devices ..

Dogs

Tail

Tail

Workholding Devices ..

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Mandrels

Workpiece (job) with a hole

Workpiece

Mandrel

Workholding Devices ..

Rests

Steady Rest

Follower Rest

Jaws

Work

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Hinge

Work

Carriage

Lathe bed guideways

Jaws

Operating/Cutting

Conditions

1.

2.

3.

Cutting Speed v

Feed f

Depth of Cut d

Tool post

Workpiece

N (rev/min)

Chip

Tool

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S

peripheral

speed (m/min)

Operating Conditions

Tool post

Workpiece

Chip

N (rev/min)

S

Tool

peripheral

D

speed

relative tool travel in 1 rotation = D

peripheral speed = S = D N

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Operating Conditions..

Cutting Speed

D Diameter (mm)

N Revolutions per Minute (rpm)

v=

DN

1000

m/min

Workpiece past the Cutting Tool

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=Cutting Speed

Operating Conditions..

Feed

f the distance the tool

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workpiece (mm/rev)

D1

D2

f

Feed

Operating Conditions..

Depth of Cut

perpendicular distance between

machined surface and uncut

surface of the Workpiece

d = (D1 D2)/2 (mm)

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D1

D2

d Depth

of Cut

3 Operating Conditions

Cutting speed

W orkpiece

Depth of cut (d )

M achined

surface

Chuck Feed (f )

Tool

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Chip

Depth of cut

Operating Conditions..

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Selection of ..

Workpiece Material

Tool Material

Tool signature

Surface Finish

Accuracy

Capability of Machine Tool

Operations on Lathe ..

MRR

Volume of material removed in one

revolution MRR = D d f mm3

Job makes N revolutions/min

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MRR = D d f N (mm3/min)

In terms of v MRR is given by

MRR = 1000 v d f (mm3/min)

Operations on Lathe ..

rkm2003

MRR

dimensional consistency by

substituting the units

MRR: D d f N

(mm)(mm)(mm/rev)(rev/min)

= mm3/min

Operations on Lathe ..

Operations on Lathe

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Turning

Facing

knurling

Grooving

Parting

Chamfering

Taper turning

Drilling

Threading

Operations on Lathe ..

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Turning

Cylindrical job

Operations on Lathe ..

Turning ..

Cylindrical job

Cutting

speed

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Workpiece

Depth of cut (d)

Machined

surface

Chuck

Feed

Tool

Chip

Depth of cut

Operations on Lathe ..

Turning ..

Excess Material is removed

to reduce Diameter

Cutting Tool: Turning Tool

a depth of cut of 1 mm will

reduce diameter by 2 mm

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Operations on Lathe ..

Facing

Flat Surface/Reduce length

Chuck

Workpiece

d

Machined

Face

Cutting

speed

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Depth of

cut

Tool

Feed

Operations on Lathe ..

Facing ..

machine end of job

Flat surface

or to Reduce Length of Job

Turning Tool

Feed: in direction perpendicular to

workpiece axis

Length of Tool Travel = radius of

workpiece

Depth of Cut: in direction parallel to

workpiece axis

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Operations on Lathe ..

Facing ..

Operations on Lathe ..

Eccentric Turning

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4-jaw

chuck

Axis of job

Ax

Cutting

speed

Eccentric peg

(to be turned)

Operations on Lathe ..

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Knurling

Produce rough textured surface

For Decorative and/or

Functional Purpose

Knurling Tool

A Forming Process

MRR~0

Operations on Lathe ..

Knurling

Knurled surface

Cutting

speed

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Feed

Knurling tool

Tool post

Movement

for depth

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Operations on Lathe ..

Knurling ..

Operations on Lathe ..

Grooving

Produces a Groove on

workpiece

Shape of tool

shape of

groove

Carried out using Grooving

Tool

A form tool

Also called Form Turning

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Operations on Lathe ..

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Grooving ..

Shape produced

by form tool

Form tool

Feed or

depth of cut

Groove

Grooving

tool

Operations on Lathe ..

Parting

Cutting workpiece into Two

Similar to grooving

Parting Tool

Hogging tool rides over at

slow feed

Coolant use

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Operations on Lathe ..

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Parting ..

Parting tool

Feed

Operations on Lathe ..

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Chamfering

Chamfer

Feed

Chamfering tool

Operations on Lathe ..

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Chamfering

Beveling sharp machined edges

Similar to form turning

Chamfering tool 45

To

Make Assembly Easier

Improve Aesthetics

Operations on Lathe ..

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Taper Turning

D

D

1

2

Taper: tan =

2L

90

D1

D2

Operations on Lathe ..

Taper Turning..

Conicity

D1 D2

K=

L

Methods

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Form Tool

Swiveling Compound Rest

Taper Turning Attachment

Simultaneous Longitudinal and

Cross Feeds

Operations on Lathe ..

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..

By Form Tool

Taper Turning

Workpiece Taper

Form

Straight

tool

cutting edge

Direction

of feed

Operations on Lathe ..

Taper Turning ,,

By Compound Rest

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Dog

Tail stock

Face plate

Tool post &

Tool holder

Cross slide

Direction of feed

Compound rest

Slide

Compound rest

Hand crank

Operations on Lathe ..

Drilling

Drill cutting tool held in TS

feed from TS

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Quill

clamp moving

Drill

quill

Tail stock

Feed

Tail stock clamp

Operations on Lathe ..

Process Sequence

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material 45 long x 30 dia.?

15

40

Steps:

Operations

Sequence

20 dia Tools

Process

Operations on Lathe ..

Process Sequence ..

Possible Sequences

TURNING - FACING - KNURLING

TURNING - KNURLING - FACING X

FACING - TURNING - KNURLING

FACING - KNURLING - TURNING X

KNURLING - FACING - TURNING X

KNURLING - TURNING FACING X

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Operations on Lathe ..

Machining Time

Turning Time

Job length Lj mm

Feed f mm/rev

Job speed N rpm

f N mm/min

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t =

Lj

f N

min

Operations on Lathe ..

Manufacturing Time

Manufacturing Time

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=

+

+

+

Machining Time

Setup Time

Moving Time

Waiting Time

Example

A mild steel rod having 50 mm

diameter and 500 mm length is

to be turned on a lathe.

Determine the machining time

to reduce the rod to 45 mm in

one pass when cutting speed is

30 m/min and a feed of 0.7

mm/rev is used.

rkm2003

Example

Given data: D = 50 mm, Lj = 500 mm

v = 30 m/min, f = 0.7 mm/rev

Substituting the values of v and D in

v=

DN

1000

m/min

speed as: N = 191 rpm

rkm2003

Example

Can a machine has speed of

191 rpm?

Machining time:

t =

Lj

f N

min

t = 500 / (0.7191)

= 3.74 minutes

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Example

Determine the angle at which the

compound rest would be swiveled

for cutting a taper on a workpiece

having a length of 150 mm and

outside diameter 80 mm. The

smallest diameter on the tapered

end of the rod should be 50 mm

and the required length of the

tapered portion is 80 mm.

rkm2003

Example

Given data: D1 = 80 mm, D2 = 50

mm, Lj = 80 mm (with usual

notations)

tan = (80-50) / 280

or

= 10.620

The compound rest should be

swiveled at 10.62o

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Example

A 150 mm long 12 mm diameter

stainless steel rod is to be reduced

in diameter to 10 mm by turning on

a lathe in one pass. The spindle

rotates at 500 rpm, and the tool is

traveling at an axial speed of 200

mm/min. Calculate the cutting

speed, material removal rate and

the time required for machining the

rkm2003steel rod.

Example

Given data: Lj = 150 mm, D1 = 12

mm, D2 = 10 mm, N = 500 rpm

Using Equation (1)

v = 12500 / 1000

= 18.85 m/min.

depth of cut = d = (12 10)/2 = 1

mm

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Example

feed rate = 200 mm/min, we get

the feed f in mm/rev by dividing

feed rate by spindle rpm. That is

f = 200/500 = 0.4 mm/rev

From Equation (4),

MRR = 3.142120.41500 =

7538.4

mm3/min

from Equation (8),

rkm2003 t = 150/(0.4500) = 0.75 min.

Example

Calculate the time required to

machine a workpiece 170 mm long,

60 mm diameter to 165 mm long

50 mm diameter. The workpiece

rotates at 440 rpm, feed is

0.3 mm/rev and maximum depth of

cut is 2 mm. Assume total

approach and overtravel distance

as 5 mm for turning operation.

rkm2003

Example

Given data: Lj = 170 mm, D1 =

60 mm, D2 = 50 mm, N = 440

rpm, f = 0.3 mm/rev, d= 2 mm,

time when there is more than one

operation?

rkm2003

Example

Time for Turning:

Total length of tool travel = job length + length

of approach and overtravel

L = 170 + 5 = 175 mm

Required depth to be cut = (60 50)/2 = 5

mm

Since maximum depth of cut is 2 mm, 5 mm

cannot be cut in one pass. Therefore, we

calculate number of cuts or passes required.

Number of cuts required = 5/2 = 2.5 or 3

(since cuts cannot be a fraction)

Machining time for one cut = L / (fN)

turning time = [L / (fN)] Number of

Total

rkm2003

Example

Time for facing:

Now, the diameter of the job is

reduced to 50 mm. Recall that in

case of facing operations, length of

tool travel is equal to half the

diameter of the job. That is, l = 25

mm. Substituting in equation 8, we

get

t = 25/(0.3440)

= 0.18 min.

rkm2003

Example

Total time:

Total time for machining = Time

for Turning + Time for Facing

= 3.97 + 0.18

= 4.15 min.

The reader should find out the total

machining time if first facing is

done.

rkm2003

Example

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length and 10 mm diameter, a

component having length 100 mm

and diameter 8 mm is to be

produced using a cutting speed of

31.41 m/min and a feed rate of 0.7

mm/revolution. How many times

we have to resharpen or regrind, if

1000 work-pieces are to be

produced. In the taylors expression

use constants as n = 1.2 and C =

Example

Given D =10 mm , N = 1000 rpm,

v = 31.41 m/minute

From Taylors tool life expression,

we have

vT n = C

Substituting the values we get,

(31.40)(T)1.2 = 180

or T = 4.28 min

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Example

Machining time/piece = L / (fN)

= 100 / (0.71000)

= 0.142 minute.

Machining time for 1000 work-pieces

= 1000 0.142 = 142.86 min

Number of resharpenings = 142.86/

4.28

= 33.37 or 33 resharpenings

rkm2003

Example

6:

cylinder bar of length 3 m and diameter

0.2 m at a feed rate of 0.5

mm/revolution with an HSS tool, one of

the two available cutting speeds is to be

selected. These two cutting speeds are

100 m/min and 57 m/min. The tool life

corresponding to the speed of 100

m/min is known to be 16 minutes with

n=0.5. The cost of machining time,

setup time and unproductive time

together is Rs.1/sec. The cost of one

rkm2003tool re-sharpening is Rs.20.

Example

Given T1 = 16 minute, v1 = 100

m/minute, v2 = 57 m/minute, D =

200mm, l = 300 mm, f = 0.5 mm/rev

Consider Speed of 100 m/minute

N1 = (1000 v) / ( D) =

(1000100) / (200) = 159.2 rpm

t1 = l / (fN) = 3000 / (0.5 159.2) =

37.7 minute

Tool life corresponding to speed of 100

m/minute is 16 minute.

Number of resharpening required = 37.7 /

16 = 2.35

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Example

Total cost =

Machining cost + Cost of

resharpening Number of

resharpening

= 37.7601+ 202

= Rs.2302

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Example

Consider Speed of 57 m/minute

Using Taylors expression T2 = T1

(v1 / v2)2 with usual notations

= 16 (100/57)2 =

49 minute

Repeating the same procedure we

get t2 = 66 minute, number of

reshparpening=1 and total cost =

Rs. 3980.

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Example

Write the process sequence to

be used for manufacturing the

component

from raw material of 175 mm length

and 60 mm diameter

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Example

20

Threading

50

40 Dia

50

40

50

20 Dia

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Example

To write the process sequence, first list

the operations to be performed. The

raw material is having size of 175 mm

length and 60 mm diameter. The

component shown in Figure 5.23 is

having major diameter of 50 mm, step

diameter of 40 mm, groove of 20 mm

and threading for a length of 50 mm.

The total length of job is 160 mm.

Hence, the list of operations to be

rkm2003carried out on the job are turning,

Example

A possible sequence for producing

the component would be:

Turning (reducing completely to 50

mm)

Facing (to reduce the length to 160

mm)

Step turning (reducing from 50 mm

to 40 mm)

Thread cutting.

Grooving

rkm2003

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