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ABBREVIATIONS

Area

bf

Effective width of flange

Overall depth of beam or slab or diameter of column;


dimension of a rectangular column in the direction under
consideration

Df

Thickness of flange

DL

Dead load

Effective depth of beam or slab

Depth of compression reinforcement from the highly


compressed face

EC

Modulus of elasticity of concrete

EL

Earthquake load

Es

Modulus of elasticity of steel

fck

characteristic cube compressive strength of concrete

fy

Characteristic strength of steel

Ief

Effective moment of inertia

Stiffness of member

Constant or coefficient or factor

Ld

Development length

LL

Live load or imposed load

Lw

Horizontal distance between centers of lateral restraint

Length of a column or beam between adequate lateral


restraints or the unsupported length of a column

lef

Effective span of beam or slab or effective length of

lex

Effective length about x-x axis

ley

Effective length about y-y axis

ln

Clear span, face-to-face of supports

lx

Length of shorter side of slab

ly

Length of longer side of slab

column

ll

Span in the direction in which moments are determined,


centre to centre of supports

l2

Span transverse to I,, centre to centre of supports

l2

l2 for the shorter of the continuous spans

Bending moment

Modular ratio

Axial load on a compression member

q0

Calculated maximum bearing pressure of soil

Radius

Spacing of stirrups or standard deviation

Torsional moment

Shear force

Total load

Depth of neutral axis

Modulus of section

Lever arm

Partial safety factor for load

Partial safety factor for material

Percentage reduction in moment

Creep strain of concrete

cbc

Permissible stress in concrete in bending compression

cc

Permissible stress in concrete in direct compression

sc

Permissible stress in steel in compression

st

Permissible stress in steel in tension

sv

Permissible tensile stress in shear reinforcement

Shear stress in concrete

c,max

Maximum shear stress in concrete with shear

reinforcement
v

Nominal shear stress

Diameter of bar

INTRODUCTION
Public Hospitals are to be established as per government requirement and
community expectations. According to the present time, public hospital sector handles
the majority of acute care separations and accounts for most regional and remote
hospitals while private hospitals are concentrated in metropolitan areas, and are more
likely to treat patients of higher socio economic advantage. Public hospitals treat
medical cases originated in an area including emergency cases where as in private
sector, cases are selective and opted. These services are separate, not overlapping
between public and private sector.
Public Hospitals are completely and entirely run on the Government funding and
money. Everything from the construction, to the salary of Doctors/Staff, to the medical
equipments, medicines each and every single thing is being taken care of by local
Government. A public hospital is considered to be a preferable option for the not- sorich lot of people who despite acute illness cant afford heavy fees of private hospitals.
Although it is very ironical to see that a hospital governed by the Government (who has
obliviously more funds than a group of people or one person alone), does not offer that
level of service which can be counted on in most of the times.
The building is designed for Basement+ Lower Ground + Ground +4 floors.
OPDS, Registration Facilities are planned in Ground floor. Basements are used for
occupying various services like Medical Gases, Laundry, Electrical room, Generator etc.
Operation theatres, Wards, Labour Rooms, pediatrics wards and Nursing Station are
planned in Other Floors. So it is planned to construct Basement+ Lower Ground+ Ground
floors (3 floors) for accommodating the important facilities which is inevitable for the
functioning of M&C Hospital. A Ramp is provided for connecting all the floors. The other
facilities as per the initial planning can construct as future expansion for which the
column and foundations are designed for.
The building foundation was first proposed with column isolated footings based on the
submitted soil report of nearest building. The Sbc recommended by soil expert was
150kN/m2 1.5m from GL. The Building is proposed with two basements, so the founding
level will be 4m below from existing GL, the N value at this level is good and hence the
calculation of Sbc at this level yields as 200kN/m 2. The design of foundation was done
adopting a sbc of 200kN/m2 and the DPR was submitted to Executive Engineer. On
scrutiny of the same, he doubted bout the adoption of Sbc and the joint site visit with
Exe. Engineer, Asst. Exe. Engineer and the Consultant decided to do a soil investigation
at the proposed plot. The Geotechnical investigation is carried out by the Consultant
itself and the results were co ordinate from Mar Athanasius College of Engineering.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM
The whole structure is analyzed as closed column beam frame in ETABS analysis
software and the design of various structural elements done manually.
Load transfer path is slab-beam-column-footing to soil.
Design parameters
Design loads
Dead loads
The dead loads are in accordance with IS 875 Part 1 (1987).
For the calculation of dead load acting over beams at various levels the unit
weight of the building materials are taken according to that given in IS 875 Part -I-Dead
weight of building materials. For calculating the live load acting over various floor levels
IS 875 Part II is referred. All the loads are given according to the data given in the floor
plans and cross sections given. The self weight of the structure is taken by the software
itself.
The unit weight of hollow brick masonry is taken as =20 kN/m 3
The unit weight of concrete is taken as

=25 kN/m3

Weight of brick wall

= 0.20 x 3.3x 20 = 13.20kN/m

Wt of floor finish

= 1.0 kN/m2

Self Wt of floor slab (12cm Thick)

= 3 kN/m2

Load considered for water tank

= 15 kN/m2

Live loads
The live loads are in accordance with IS 875 Part 2 (1987).
Live load (kN/m2)

type
Wards, Nursing
stations

Operating rooms, X
rays, Scan, store
area,

Stair cases,
Balconies, Corridors,
OPDs, Offices,
Laboratories,
laundries, Kitchen

4
2.5
3

Earthquake Loads as per IS: 1893 (part 1): 2002


Dynamic forces on multi-storied are best computed through a detailed vibration analysis.
Detailed dynamic analysis or modal analysis or pseudo static analysis should be carried
out depending on the importance of problem. BIS Code 1893 (Part 1): 2002 recommends
that [Ref: Cl: 7:8:1]
Dynamic analysis shall be performed to obtain the design seismic force, and its
distribution to different levels along the height of the building and to the various lateral
load-resisting elements for the following buildings:
a)

Regular buildings those greater than 40m in height in Zone IV


and Zone V, and those greater than 90m in height in Zone II and
Zone III.

b)

Irregular building all framed buildings higher than 12m in Zones


IV and Zone V, and those greater than 40m in height in Zone II and
III.

Since the height of the residential complex is 44.35m and its located in Zone III, static
method of analysis was performed to find the seismic load and its distribution.
Static method:
The base shear or total design lateral force along any principal direction shall be
determined by the following expression:
VB = Ah W
where,
VB = The design base shear
Ah = Design horizontal acceleration spectrum value using the fundamental natural
period T.

W = Seismic weight of the building.


The design horizontal seismic coefficient Ah

Z I Sa
2Rg

Where,
Z = Zone factor given in table 2, for the Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE)
and service life of structure in a zone. The factor 2 in the denominator of Z is
used so as to reduce the MCE zone factor to the factor for Design Basis
Earthquake (DBE)
I = Importance factor, depending upon the functional use of structures,
characterized by hazardous consequences of failure, post-earthquake
functional needs, historical value or economic importance (Table 6 IS 1893
(Part 1):2002
R = Response reduction factor, depending on the perceived seismic damage
performance of the structure, characterized by ductile or brittle deformations.
However, the ratio (I/R) shall not be greater than 1.0. The values for
buildings are given in Table 7 of IS 1893 (Part 1): 2002.
Sa
Average response acceleration coefficient.
g

Distribution of Design Force


The design base shear VB was distributed along the height of the buildings
as per the following expressions.
Qi VB

Wi hi

in

W h
i 1

i i

Where,

Qi = Design lateral force at floor i


Wi = Seismic weight of floor i
hi = Height of floor i measured from base.

n = Number of storeys in the building is the number of levels at which the


masses are located.
Seismic weight, W
The seismic weight of each floor is its full dead load plus appropriate
amount of imposed loads while computing the seismic weight of each floor, the weight of
columns and walls in any storey shall be equally distributed to the floors above and below
the storey. The seismic weight of the whole building is the sum of the seismic weights of
all the floors. Any weight supported in between storey shall be distributed to the floors
above and below in inverse proportion to its distance from the floors.
Imposed uniformly distributed floor

Percentage of imposed load

loads kN/m

Upto and including 3.0

25

Above 3.0

50

Table-Percentage of imposed load to be considered in seismic weight calculation


Determination of Design Base Shear for Seismic Analysis:
As per IS 1893 (Part 1):2002
Fundamental natural period, Ta(Clause 7.6.2)
h = height of building exclude basement floor

= 0.09h/d
= 20.30 m

d- base dimension at plinth level in respective direction=36.6


= 0.50sec
For 0.1<T<67
Average response acceleration coefficient

Sa /g = 2.5

(Clause 6.4.5)
Zone factor (clause 6.4.2 table 2)

Z = 0.16 (zone 3)

Importance factor (clause6.4.2 table 6)

I = 1.5

Response reduction factor (clause6.4.2 table7)

R=5

4.3.6. Calculation of design seismic pressure


Calculation of design seismic pressure
The above parameters are defined in the ETABS software and software itself will
calculate the seismic loads and create the load cases and load combinations. The software
automatically has done the distribution of seismic force.

STRUCTURAL MATERIALS
Concrete and Reinforcement
Concrete: M25 for Foundations, M30 for Columns, M25 for Beams, Slabs, Stairs,
and all other components
Steel reinforcement:
Fe500 TMT grade pertaining to IS: 1786 1985
Cover:
From durability requirement, environmental exposure condition is assumed as
severe for substructure and super structure.

The nominal cover to outermost reinforcement shall be as follows for two hour
fire rating.
Columns

40mm

Beams

25mm

Slab

20mm

Stair

25mm

Foundations

50mm

MODELLING AND ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY

BRIEF:
The building is modelled as 3D structure and is analysed as SMRF (Special
Moment Resisting Frames).
The FEM based structural software (ETABS Nonlinear v9.7.2) is used for modeling and
analysis of the building.
MODELLING
The basic approach for using the program is very straight forward. The user
establishes grid lines, defines material and structural properties, places structural
objects relative to the grid lines using point, line and area object tool. All the types of
loads that the structure is subjected can be defined and assigned to the appropriate
structural components. The analysis can be performed and the results are generated in
graphical or tabular form that can be printed to a printer or to a file for use in other
programs. The following topics describe some of the important areas in the modeling.
Defining Material Properties
In the property data area, name of the material, mass per unit volume, weight
per unit volume, modulus of elasticity, Poissons ratio should be specified for each type
of material defined. The mass per unit volume is used in the calculation of self-mass of
the structure. The weight per unit volume is used in calculating the self-weight of the
structure.

Defining Frame Sections


Frame sections like beams, columns and are defined under this. The sizes of
beams and columns are fixed here and their reinforcement requirements and concrete
covers defined. Hinges were introduced (i.e. end moments were released) near the
connecting where ever required.
Defining Slab Sections
For defining the type of slab section in ETABS, there are three options available
based on its behavior, namely shell type, membrane type and plate type. Shell type
behavior means, both in-plane membrane stiffness and out-of-plane plate bending
stiffness can be provided for the section. Membrane type behavior mean, only in-plane
membrane stiffness is provided for the section. Plate-type behavior means that only outof-plane bending stiffness is provided for the section. In the present analysis, slabs are
given membrane type behavior to provide in plane stiffness and shear walls are defined
as shell elements. Shell elements should be divided in to finer mesh so that proper
connectivity is achieved, as our focus is mainly on the global behavior of the in filled
frame structure.
Dead load, live load, roof live load, are defined under the static load case option
of the define menu. Various load combinations can also be defined in the load
combinations option of the define menu.
Member Property Specifications and Support Condition
The dimensions of different members were fixed based on the trial design. The column
dimensions provided for the modeling is as prescribed by the Architect. If necessary it
will revised during the design stage. The beams are provided in such a way that torsion is
released since compatibility torsion alone comes in them. The member properties
assigned are as given below.
Slab
Thickness of the slab = 120mm

Beams
The dimensions of the beams are as shown below
Beam

Breadth, B Depth, D

Fixed Beams 200mm

500mm

Fixed beam

250mm

600mm

Fixed beam

200mm

450mm

Column:
The column dimensions are as follows:
Ground floor: 250mm X 500mm, 300mm X 500mm, 400mm X 400mm, 500mmX 500mm,
(steel as per details)
Staircase:
The staircase is provided as an equivalent slab. The thicknesses of the slab used for
staircase is 175mm
Support condition
Then support conditions were given to the structure. The support condition given was
pinned.
LOAD COMBINATION
The following are the load combinations as IS: 456-2000
1) 1.5 D.L + 1.5 LL
2) 1.5 DL + 1.5 SLX
3) 1.5 DL - 1.5 SLX
4) 1.5 DL + 1.5 SLY
5) 1.5 DL - 1.5 SLX

6) 0.9 DL + 1.5 SLX


7) 0.9 DL - 1.5 SLX
8) 0.9 DL + 1.5 SLY
9) 0.9 DL - 1.5 SLY
10) 1.2 DL + 1.2LL + 1.2 SLX
11) 1.2 DL + 1.2LL - 1.2 SLX
12) 1.2 DL + 1.2LL + 1.2 SLY
13) 1.2 DL + 1.2LL - 1.2 SLY

Column Layout

Completed Model

Completed Extruded Model

Completed Extruded Model of Ramp

DESIGN OF ELEMENTS
Analysis Results

Axial Force on Columns

Bending Moment Diagram of Beams

Shear Force Diagram of Beams

Design Methodology:
All structural concrete elements will be designed according to the Limit State
Method as specified in IS: 456 - 2000 for reinforced concrete elements and detailing will
be as per standards.
Design of foundation:
The building foundation was first proposed with column isolated footings based
on the submitted soil report of nearest building. The Sbc recommended by soil expert
was 150kN/m2 1.5m from GL. The Building is proposed with two basements, so the
founding level will be 4m below from existing GL, the N value at this level is good and
hence the calculation of Sbc at this level yields as 200kN/m2. The design of foundation
was done adopting a sbc of 200kN/m2 and the DPR was submitted to Executive
Engineer. On scrutiny of the same, he doubted bout the adoption of Sbc and the joint
site visit with Exe. Engineer, Asst. Exe. Engineer and the Consultant decided to do a soil
investigation at the proposed plot. The Geotechnical investigation is carried out by the
Consultant itself and the results were co ordinate from Mar Athanasius College of
Engineering.
Soil Profile
The

boreholes,

numbered

1,2.3

and

were

terminated

at

29.40

m,29.90m,26.00m and 27.70m respectively. Hard rock was encountered in all the
boreholes. Lateritic clayey silt were found in all the bore holes. Very fine sandy silt, very
fine silty sand and Lateritic clay with sand were found in some of the boreholes ,Hard
rock was fund in all the boreholes,. The N value is found tobe varying from 7 to greater
than 100.
DATA AND DISCUSSION
The bore hole details are given in the attached bore log. The report on the
analysis of the recovered representative samples collected from the boreholes is
attached. Based on visual identification and the laboratory test results using
representative samples, the soil profile at the bore hole location is drawn and are also
presented in borehole logs. For the lateritic clay found in all the bore holes, sand content
3% to9%, silt content varies between 42% and 73% and clay content was between 18%
and 46%. The specific gravity is found to be between 2.54 and 2.56. The cohesion was

between 0.30 kg/cm2 and 0.60 kg/cm2. The N value for these strata was fond to be
between 8 and 21. For the lateritic clayey silt found in all the bore holes, sand content
2% to 15% silt content varies between 72% and 87% and clay content was between 3%
ad 27%. The cohesion was between 0.25 kg/cm2 and 0.70 kg/cm2. The N value for these
strata was found to be between 7 and 45. The very fine sandy silt found in bore holes 1,3
and 4 sand content varies between 15 % to 42% and silt content varies between 55%
and 85%. The N value for these strata was found to be between 23 and greater than 100.
The very fine silty sand found in bore holes 1 and 2 sand content varies between 58% to
68% and silt content varies between 32% and 42%. The N value was found to be greater
than 100. The Lateritic clay with sand found in bore holes 2,3 and 4, sand content varies
between 0% to 21%, silt content varies between 36% and 55% and clay content between
35% and 45%. The N value for these strata was fond to be between 7 and 18. From the
test results for the stratum having N value more than 10 the safe bearing capacity can be
taken as 6.3T/sq.m and for layers having N value 20, it may be taken as 17.2T/sq.m.
RECOMMENDATIONS
The soil at the site mainly consists of Lateritic clay and Lateritic clayey silt. Very
fine sandy silt. Very fine silty sand and Lateritic clay with sand were found in some of the
boreholes. Hard rock was found at all the bore holes. The N value is found to be varying
from 7 to greater than 100.
For the stratum having N value more than 10, the safe bearing capacity can be
taken as 6.3T/sq.m and for layers having N value 20, it may be taken as 17.2T/sq.m.
Depending on the number of floors, the foundation shall be decided. It is suggested to
provide pile foundation which extends to hard rock. Open foundation shall be adopted.
If the load on foundation is not high. She recommendations made in this report are
based on the results of field tests as well as tests done on the samples recovered from
the bore holes. It is presumed that the soil below the maximum depth of exploration at
the site does not vary much or rather improves from that observed at the maximum
depth
Based on this report, the foundation system adopted is Pile Foundation. Since
the capacity is not provided by the Soil Expert, the Consultant Engineer calculated both
geotechnical and Structural Capacity of various dia piles

Geotechnical Capacity of Piles


450mmDia

500mm dia

550mm dia

Pile Capacity
Sl No

Pile Diameter(mm)

Pile Capcity(kN)

450

970

500

1100

550

1300

Design of Pile
450mm Dia Pile
As per IS: 2911
Fixity depth = 8d

= 8 x 0.45

Total No of Pile

=134 No.s

= 3.6m

Base Shaer( Result from Etabs)= 4354kN


Horizontal Force

=32.73kN

Moment due to horizontal force

= 117.8kNm

Factored Moment

Mu

=176kN-m

For 450mm dia pile;

=970kN

Pu

=1445kN

Pu
f ck D 2 = (1445x1000)/ (25x4502)
=0.284

f ck D 3

176 10 6

25 450 3

=0.077
Providing 40 mm clear cover and assuming 20 mm dia bar
d'

=50

d1
D = 0.106
P
.062 , p = 1.55
f ck

pmin= 0.8
Area of longitudinal steel

As 2403 mm 2

This is to be provided up to fixity depth 8d = 3.6m


Hence provide 12 nos of Y16mm dia bars as longitudinal reinforcement
Provide circular links of 8 mm dia at 200 mm c/c spacing.
Provide minimum longitudinal reinforcement as per IS 2911 Part I/ section 2
Minimum area of longitudinal steel = 0.4% of total c/s area
=635 mm2
Hence provide 6 nos of Y16mm dia bars as longitudinal reinforcement
Provide circular links of 8 mm dia at 150 mm c/c spacing.
Provide circular spacers of 12mm dia at 3000mm c/c

500mm Dia Pile


As per IS: 2911
Fixity depth = 8d

= 8 x 0.5

= 4.0 m

Total No of Pile

=134 No.s

Base Shaer( Result from Etabs)= 4354kN


Horizontal Force

=32.73kN

Moment due to horizontal force

= 130.8kNm

Factored Moment

Mu

=196.38kN-m

For 450mm dia pile;

=1100kN

Pu

=1650kN

Pu
f ck D 2 = (1650x1000)/ (25x5002)
=0.264

f ck D 3

196 10 6

25 500 3

=0.062
Providing 40 mm clear cover and assuming 20 mm dia bar
d'

=50

d1
D = 0.10
P
.041 , p = 1.01
f ck

pmin= 0.8
Area of longitudinal steel

As 1982 mm 2

This is to be provided up to fixity depth 8d = 4m


Hence provide 10 nos of Y16mm dia bars as longitudinal reinforcement
Provide circular links of 8 mm dia at 200 mm c/c spacing.

Provide minimum longitudinal reinforcement as per IS 2911 Part I/ section 2


Minimum area of longitudinal steel = 0.4% of total c/s area
=785 mm2
Hence provide 5 nos of Y16mm dia bars as longitudinal reinforcement
Provide circular links of 8 mm dia at 150 mm c/c spacing.
Provide circular spacers of 12mm dia at 3000mm c/c
Design of Pile Cap
Two pile group
Material Constants
Concrete, fck = 25 N/mm
Steel,

fy = 500 N/mm

Each pile should be connected using pile cap with a minimum of 100mm edge distance to either
sides of the pile. This pile cap is designed as simply supported beam.
As per IS 2911 spacing between two pile is 2.5 x dia of pile
Length of pile cap

= 2.5 x 500 + 2 x 250 + 2 x 150


=2050 mm=2050mm

Depth of pile cap

= development length of column bar + cover

As per SP-16 Table 65


For 20 mm diameter bars
Ldc = 777 mm
Assume a 100 mm projection of pile in to the cap concrete
Depth of pile cap

= 777 + 100
= 877 mm

Provide an overall depth, D = 1000mm


Breadth of pile cap = diameter of pile + 150 mm overhang
= 500 + 2 x 150
= 800mm
Size of pile cap 2.05 x 0.8 x 1.0 m

Effective depth, d = 900 mm


b =800 mm
Factored axial load on pile Pu = 1650 kN
Bending moment at face of column = 1100 x 0.625
= 656.25 kN-m
Ultimate moment, Mu
Mu / (bd2)
% of tension steel, pt

= 1030 kN-m
= 1.69
= 0.428

Area of tension reinforcement, Ast =

3425mm

Provide reinforcement of Y25mm dia bars 7 Nos


Area of steel provided

= 3430 mm

Distance from face of the column to the centre of the pile = 0.625m > Dp/2

Hence Maximum shear force on pile cap = 1100kN


Ultimate shear, Vu

= 1650 kN

Nominal shear stress, v

= 2.4 N/mm

100 As/ (bd)


Deign shear strength, c
ie, v > c

= 0.48
= 0.49 N/mm

so shear reinforcement are needed

Assume 12mm dia 6 legged stirrups


Vus

= Vu - c bd

Diameter of bar
Area of shear reinforcement effective in shear, Asv

= 1372 kN
= 12 mm
= 678.58 mm

Provide Y12 mm dia 6 legged stirrups


Spacing of shear reinforcement, Sv

= 0.87 x d x fy x Asv
Vus
<300mm c/c

Provide Y20 mm dia 6 legged stirrups at 200mm c/c


As per IS 456:200
Depth of pile cap is greater than 750 mm. Hence side face reinforcement is needed.
Side face reinforcement

= 0.1 % of web area


= 0.1 x 800 x900/100
= 720 mm

Side face reinforcement on one face

= 360 mm

Hence provide 5 Nos of Y10mm diameter bar on one face

Design of columns:
Columns are designed by taking the forces and moments from the FEM software.
The sizes of columns are kept constant at all the stories. The design of column is done
considering the axial compression, biaxial bending moment including slenderness effect.
Excel spread sheets are used for designing of columns as per standards. The Columns are
designed for GF+4 floors.

Axial force diagram of typical Column

3 Design of column subjected to biaxial bending (with reinforcement equally on all the four sides.)
Ref IS 456-2000 & SP 16 charts for compression with bending

fck
N/mm
30

fy
2

size of column

N/mm
500

mm
500

mm
500

kN
3560

Check for short or slender column


unsupported unsupported
Leff/L
Elx
Ely
Lx, Cl 25.1.3 Ly, Cl 25.1.3
m
3.4

m
3.4

1.200

Cc

bar dia.

d/

kN.m
16

mm
40

mm
16

mm
48.00

Lex/D

Ley/b

design loads & moments


Pu
Mux
Muy
kN.m
10

effective length
Lex
Ley

1.200

m
4.08

Result
Cl 25.1.2

m
4.08

8.16

8.16

Lex/D

Ley/b

<12,short

<12,short

Longitudinal steel percentage assumed for column


Reinf. details at support
p
Nos.
dia
Asc
p prov.
assumed
mm2
mm
%
%
8
20
4
16
1.33
3317.52
1.33
Additional moments in slender column
Pbx, SP 16 Table 60
d//D
Pbx
obtained
considered
k1
k2
value
value
kN
0.096
0.10
0.207
0.425
1693.81
Puz

reduction factor, k

Cl 39.6

kx
0.353

ky
0.353

obtained

considered

value

value

0.096

0.10

additional moments

additional moments

Cl 39.7.1

Cl 39.7.1.1

Cl 39.7.1.1

kN
4576.988

d//b

Pby, SP 16 Table 60
k2
Pby
kN
0.207
0.425
1693.81
k1

Max ,kN.m May ,kN.m Max ,kN.m May ,kN.m

0.000

0.000

0.000

0.000

Moments due to minimum eccentricity


minimum eccentricity
Cl 25.4

ex
0.023

ey
0.023

moments due to minimum


eccentricity

Mex,kN.m Mey,kN.m
83.54
83.54

Total moments to be considered for column design are:


Mux
Muy
Pu/fck bD
p/fck
Chart No 45 SP16
kN.m
83.54
Pu/Puz

kN.m
83.54
n

Cl 39.6

Cl 39.6

0.778

1.963

0.475

0.04

(Mux/Mux1)

d /D
0.10

+ (Muy/Muy1) n < 1

Chart No 46 SP16
2

Mux1/fck b D

0.035
Result

IS 456-2000 Cl 39.6

Cl 39.6

0.82

<1 Ok

d /b
0.10

Muy1/fck b D

0.035

Mux1

Muy1

kN.m
131.250

kN.m
131.250

ETABS 2013 13.1.3

License #*192TZNDF9YDF4PW

ETABS 2013 Concrete Frame Design


IS 456:2000 Column Section Design

Column Element Details Type: Ductile Frame (Summary)


Level

Element Section ID Combo ID Station Loc Length (mm)

GF

C83

C300X500

DCON7

LLRF

3900

0.594

Section Properties
b (mm) h (mm) dc (mm) Cover (Torsion) (mm)
300

500

50

23.6

Material Properties
E c (MPa)

f ck (MPa)

Lt.Wt Factor (Unitless)

f y (MPa)

f ys (MPa)

27386.13

30

500

500

Design Code Parameters


C

1.5

1.15

Axial Force and Biaxial Moment Design For P u , M u2 , M u3


Design P u
kN

Design M u2
kN-m

Design M u3
kN-m

Minimum M 2
kN-m

Minimum M 3
kN-m

2092.8237

-45.7945

142.2591

41.8565

48.693

Rebar Area Rebar %


mm
%
3152

2.1

Axial Force and Biaxial Moment Factors


K Factor Length Initial Moment
Unitless
mm
kN-m

Additional Moment
kN-m

Minimum Moment
kN-m

Major Bend(M3)

0.831928

3300

57.2852

48.693

Minor Bend(M2)

0.704905

3300

-18.3178

41.8565

Final Model with Pile.EDB

Page 1 of 2

7/16/2014

ETABS 2013 13.1.3

License #*192TZNDF9YDF4PW

Shear Design for V u2 , V u3


Shear V u
kN

Shear V c
kN

Shear V s
kN

Shear V p
kN

Rebar A sv /s
mm/m

Major, V u2

64.3742

140.4314

54

87.6777

332.53

Minor, V u3

63.1923

133.5314

50

63.1923

554.22

Joint Shear Check/Design


Joint Shear
Force
kN

Shear
V Top
kN

Shear
V u,Tot
kN

Shear
Vc
kN

Joint
Area
cm

Shear
Ratio
Unitless

Major Shear, V u2

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Minor Shear, V u3

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

(1.1) Beam/Column Capacity Ratio


Major Ratio Minor Ratio
N/A

N/A

Additional Moment Reduction Factor k (IS 39.7.1.1)


Ag
cm

A sc
cm

1500

31.5

P uz
kN

Pb
kN

Pu
kN

k
Unitless

3207.0354 989.5549 2092.8237

0.502467

Additional Moment (IS 39.7.1)


Consider Length
Section
KL/Depth KL/Depth KL/Depth
Ma
Ma
Factor Depth (mm)
Ratio
Limit
Exceeded Moment (kN-m)
Major Bending (M 3 )

No

0.8462

0.5

5.4907

12

No

Minor Bending (M 2 )

No

0.8462

0.3

7.754

12

No

Notes:
N/A: Not Applicable
N/C: Not Calculated
N/N: Not Needed

Final Model with Pile.EDB

Page 2 of 2

7/16/2014

Design of beams
The RC beams and slabs are designed using Excel spreadsheet using the analysis
results from FEM software. The top as well as bottom reinforcement shall consist of at
least two bars throughout the member length.

Bending Moment diagram of typical continuous beam

Shear Force diagram of typical continuous beam

Design for area of steel and shear for singly reinforced beam by limit state design method
Calculation of Ast req for beams
Ref IS 456-2000 Cl G-1.1b & G-1.1c For sections without compression reinforcement

fy

fck

N/mm2

N/mm2

b
mm

D
mm

Cc
mm

Cg of bar
mm

d
mm

Mu lim
kN.m

500

25

200

500

25

467

145.03

Mu support
kNm

Ast req. spt

pt req.spt

Ast span
mm2

pt req.span

mm

Mu span
kNm

d req mm

d prov mm

Result

135

802.93

0.86

55

288.73

0.31

450.56

467

okay

Reinforcement details provided at support and span of beam


Reinf. details at support
Nos.
dia
Ast support
pt support
Result
mm2
mm
%
2
2

16
16

804.25

0.86

okay

Nos.
2
2

pt lim
%
0.94

check for depth

Reinf. details at span


dia
Ast span
mm2
mm
16
16

pt span
%

804.25

0.86

Check for shear in beams (limit state design method)


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 40.1, Cl 40.2.3, Table 19, Table 20 & Cl 40.2.1

fck

Vu

N/mm2

kN

pt
prov.
%

25

110

0.86

c max

Result

Cl 40.1

Table 19

Table 20

N/mm2
1.18

N/mm2
0.61

N/mm2

tau_v > tau_c,design for shear

3.1

tau_v <tau_cmax, Ok

Design for shear reinforcement (vertical stirrups)


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 40.4a

Vu
kN
110

bd

kN
56.97

Vus
req
kN
53.03

Vus/d
req
kN/cm

fy
N/mm2

1.14

415

assuming
no.
stirrup dia of stirrup
mm
legs
8

stirrup

Vus/d prov.

sp assumed

kN/cm

mm

Cl 40.4 a

100

3.630

Check for minimum and maximum spacing of stirrup

Result

Cl 26.5.1.5

stirrup
sp prov.
mm

300

100

Hence ok

Min stirrup

Max stirrup

spacing mm

spacing mm

Cl 26.5.1.6

546.64

Side face reinforcement


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 26.5.1.3

mm
200

D
of
web
mm
500

side face
reinf.
req. / face

side face reinf. mm2 /face prov.

spc b/w
bars not to

no.
per face
2

dia of

Ast prov.

exceed

bar

mm2

Cl 26.5.1.3

12

226.19

200 mm

span
mm

d
mm

pt req.
%

pt prov.
%

pc
%

MFt

MFc

467

0.31

0.86

1.924

Cl 26.5.1.3

not req

Check for span to depth ratio


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 23.2.1

fy

Type of
beam

N/mm2

Cont.Beam

500

5250

l/d

l/d

Result

prov

Cl 23.2.1

Cl 23.2.1

11.24

50.02

Okay

Design of slab
Design of slab
Material Constants:
Concrete, fck = 25 N/mm
Steel,

fy = 500 N/mm

Loads:
Using

120 mm thick slab

Dead Load on Slab = 0.12 x 25 = 3 kN/m


Live Load on Slab =

3kN/m

Finishes

1.5 kN/m

Partition load

2.5 kN/m

Total

10.0 kN/m

Boundary Conditions one long edge discontinuous


Assume a clear cover of 20 mm & 8 mm dia bars
Eff: depth along shorter direction dx

= 96 mm

Eff: depth along longer direction dy

= 88 mm

Effective span as per IS 456: 2000 clause 22.2.b


lyeff = 3.2+0.088 = 3.288 m
lxeff = 3.9+0.096 = 3.996 m
lyeff/lxeff =1.22, Hence design as Two Way Slab.

1 Design for area of steel and shear for two way slab by limit state design method
Slab Geometry
Lx
Ly
Ly/Lx
Result
m
m
3.2
3.9
1.219 <2, Hence two way slab
Grade of concrete, steel, & overall depth of slab
fy
fck
b
D
N/mm2
500

N/mm2
25

mm
1000

Cc bot
mm
20

Cg of bot bar

d bot
mm
96

Cc bot
mm
20

Cg of bot bar

mm
120

Lx-shorter span
mm
4

Cc top
mm
20

Cg of top bar

mm
4

d top
mm
96

Ly-longer span
mm
12

d bot
mm
88

Cc top
mm
20

Cg of top bar

mm
12

d top
mm
88

Load calculation of the slab


Total
Live load Misc. load unfactored
of the slab of the slab load of the
slab

Partial
safety
factor

Dead
Load of
the slab

Floor
finish of
the slab

DL
kN/m2

FF
kN/m2

LL
kN/m2

ML
kN/m2

TL
kN/m2

IS 456-2000

w
kN/m2

1.5

7.5

1.5

11.25

Moment & Shear calculation


Moment calculation for '1m' strip of the slab spanning Lx
w
Lx
- Mux cont. edge 'kNm'
w Lx2
2
- x
m
kNm
- x w Lx2
kN/m
11.25

3.2

115.20

0.049

Calculation of Ast req for slab spanning Lx


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl G-1.1b & G-1.1c
- Mux cont.
+ Mux span
Ast min
pt req.cont.
kNm
5.6448

mm
144.00

%
0.15

kNm
4.26

Table 18

Vu 'kN' Table 13 IS 456


+ Mux mid-span 'kNm'
+ x
C w Lx
+ x w Lx2 Coef-shear

5.64

0.037

Ast min

pt req.span

mm2

%
0.15

144.00

Design
load of the
slab

4.26

0.600

Reinforcement details provided at support and span of slab spanning Lx


Reinf. details at support
Reinf. details at span
dia prov.
spacing
Ast cont.
pt cont.
Result
dia prov.
spacing
Ast span
2
mm
mm2
mm
mm
%
mm
mm
8
150
8
150
0.35
335.10
okay
335.10
0
250
0
150
Moment calculation for '1m' strip of the slab spanning Ly
w
Lx
- Muycont. edge 'kNm'
w Lx2
2
- y
m
kNm
- y w Lx2
kN/m
11.25

3.2

115.20

0.037

4.26

+ Muy mid-span 'kNm'


+ y
+ y w Lx2
0.028

3.23

21.60

pt span
%
0.35

Calculation of Ast req for slab spanning Ly


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl G-1.1b & G-1.1c
- Muy cont.
+ Muy span
Ast min
pt req.cont.
kNm
4.26

mm2
144.00

%
0.16

kNm
3.23

Ast min

pt req.span

mm2

%
0.16

144.00

Reinforcement details provided at support and span of slab spanning Ly


Reinf. details at support
Reinf. details at span
dia prov.
spacing
Ast cont.
pt cont.
Result
dia prov.
spacing
Ast span
mm2
mm2
mm
mm
%
mm
mm
8
0

150
250

335.10

0.38

okay

8
0

150
250

pt span
%

335.10

0.38

Check for shear in solid slabs for limit state design method
Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 40.1, Cl 40.2.3, Table 19, Table 20 & Cl 40.2.1.1
fck
N/mm2
25
pt
%
0.35

Vu

kN
21.6

mm
1000
k

Cl 40.1
N/mm2
0.23

Check for span to depth ratio


Ref IS 456-2000 Cl 23.2.1
fy
Type of
span
beam

c max

Cl 40.2.1.1 Table 20
N/mm2
N/mm2
0.55

Cont.slab

N/mm
500

mm
3200

l/d
prov
33.33

l/d
Cl 23.2.1
76.34

Result
Cl 23.2.1
Okay

clear

cg

of slab mm cover mm of bar mm


120
20
4

3.1

d
mm
96

Result
tau_v < k tau_c, Ok
tau_v <1/2 tau_c max,Ok

pt req.

pt prov.

pc

MFt

MFc

mm
96

%
0.15

%
0.35

%
0

2.936

DESIGN OF DOG LEGGED STAIRCASE


Data
Internal Dimensions
Length
Width
Floor Height
Fck
Fy
Riser
Tread
Landing width
Effective Span
Height of each flight
No. of risers in each flight
No. of Tread in each flight

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4.76
2.6
3.9
25
500
160
280
1200
4.8
1.95
12.1875
11.1875

m
m
m
2
N/mm
2
N/mm
mm
mm
mm
m
m
Nos
Nos

152

mm Required

D
d

=
=

175
154

mm
mm

Loads
DL of waist slab
DL on horizontal area
DL of steps
LL
FF
Total load
Factored load

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

4.375
5.04
2
5
1.5
13.54
20.3

kN/m

=
=

58
49

kN-m
kN

146

mm

=
=
=

2.466
0.652
1005

%
2
mm

=
=

12
112

mm
mm

Ast

185

mm

Dia of bar
Spacing

=
=

8
270

mm
mm

Design

2
2

kN/m
2
kN/m
2
kN/m
2
kN/m
2
kN/m
(of one flight)

BM and SF
Mu
Vu
d from BM consideration
k
pt
Ast

Main Reinforcement
Dia
Spacing

Distribution Steel

Development Length

Floor Beam

4760
mm
DOWN

UP

1200 mm

Mid Landing Beam


2600
mm

PLAN

Ld = 590 mm

300
mm
Y8 @ 270 mm C/C (Distribution Reinforcement)
Y12@112 mm C/C
(Main Reinforcement)
175 mm
175 mm

DETAILING

ETABS 2013 13.1.3

License #*192TZNDF9YDF4PW

ETABS 2013 Shear Wall Design


IS 456:2000 Pier Design
Pier Details
Story ID Pier ID
TF

Centroid X (mm)

P4

Centroid Y (mm) Length (mm) Thickness (mm)

8115.5

10950.9

4556.7

250

LLRF
0.426

Material Properties
E c (MPa)

f ck (MPa)

Lt.Wt Factor (Unitless)

f y (MPa)

f ys (MPa)

25000

25

500

500

Design Code Parameters


S

IP MAX

IP MIN

P MAX

1.15

1.5

0.02

0.0025

0.8

Pier Leg Location, Length and Thickness


Station
Location

ID

Left X 1
mm

Left Y 1
mm

Right X 2
mm

Right Y 2
mm

Length Thickness
mm
mm

Top

Leg 1

7650

11130

9700

11130

2050

250

Top

Leg 2

9700

11130

9700

11886.7

756.7

250

Top

Leg 3

5900

10500

7650

10500

1750

250

Bottom

Leg 1

7650

11130

9700

11130

2050

250

Bottom

Leg 2

9700

11130

9700

11886.7

756.7

250

Bottom

Leg 3

5900

10500

7650

10500

1750

250

Flexural Design for P u, M u2 and M u3


Station
Required
Required
Current
Flexural
Location Rebar Area (mm) Reinf Ratio Reinf Ratio Combo

Pu
kN

M u2
kN-m

M u3
kN-m

Pier A g
mm

784.892

139.749

275.88

1139166

Top

2848

0.0025

0.0037

DWAL14

Bottom

5457

0.0048

0.0037

DWAL12 635.1675 -660.8535 -3663.8173

1139166

Shear Design
Station
Location

ID

Rebar Shear Combo


mm/m

Pu
kN

Mu
kN-m

Vu
kN

Vc
kN

Vc+ Vs
kN

Top

Leg 1

OS

DWAL12

430.2772 1013.9719 -1311.7222 130.8789

Top

Leg 2

1018.78

DWAL7

297.3436 -172.3923

272.992

50.4431

272.992

Top

Leg 3

OS

DWAL11

493.7266 -892.7358

1127.576

115.2453

431.0062

Bottom

Leg 1

OS

DWAL12

72.6428 -1121.5661

-1314.807 147.0513

516.9426

Bottom

Leg 2

861.61

DWAL9

167.9797 189.7462

238.6595

50.4431

238.6595

Bottom

Leg 3

OS

DWAL12

878.7701 -880.6772

-1092.6488 153.1835

468.9444

500.7702

Number of legs where shear force exceeds max allowed (top, bottom) = 2, 2

Final Model with Pile.EDB

Page 1 of 2

7/16/2014

DETAILING
All the structural elements were detailed according to IS 456:2000 and SP34.
Detailed drawings were prepared in AutoCAD 2007. Detailing of all the structural
elements were done based on SP 34 and IS 13920

COLUMN DETAILS
Special confining reinforcement as per is 13920:1993
Special confining reinforcement shall be provided over a length lo from each joint face,
towards midspan, and on either side of any section, where flexural yielding may occur
under the effect of earthquake forces
The length lo shall not be less than
(a) Larger lateral dimension of the member at
Section where yielding occurs,
(b) 1/6 of Clear span of the member, and
(c) 450 mm.
The spacing of hoops used as special confining reinforcement shall not exceed 1/4 of
minimum member dimension but need not be less than 75 mm nor more than 100 mm.

BEAM DETAILING
Different things which are to be detailed in Beam Detailing is shown below vide sp 34,
page 108

SLAB DETAILING
Different things which are to be detailed in Slab Detailing is shown below vide sp 34,
page 127

Design of Retaining Wall


Height of Earth Filling

=3.6m

Thickness of Wall Assumed

=200mm

Unit weight of Soil

= 17kN/m3

Surcharge Pressure

= 5kN/m 2

Co efficient of Active Earth Pressure

=0.33

Earth pressure

(Kah)

=25kN/m2taperded to top to a Value 0 kN/m2

Analysis
The building is having two basements so the retaining wall is inevitable at basement 1and 2. An
internal retaining wall is proposed to separate basement2 and basement 1. The retaining wall is
supported on grade beams, building columns and slabs at top. Hence it is acting as a retaining
slab supported on four sides which effectively reducing the design complications. Another
retaining wall is proposed to retain the external earth forming the road. This retaining wall is
supported on beams at bottom, vertically restrained columns. The top of retaining wall is fixed to
lateral beams connecting vertical columns. This retaining wall is supported on columns
supported on cantilevered grade beams. The analysis is done with building frame in Etabs
software, the results were extracted to design the same.

Moments in Plate
Maximum Vertical Moment Mx = 50kNm

Moments in Plate
Maximum Horizontal Moment Mx = 30kNm

Depth of Section
Effective Depth dreq =Mu/ (0.138fck b)
d= 147.5mm,
Provided d =175mm with an overall depth of 200mm. hence okay.
Design for Vertical Moment
Mx = 50 kNm
Factored Moment = 75kNm
Mu/(bd2) = 2.45and
Pt =0.648
Hence provide reinforcement as T 12 @ 100mm C/C as Vertical.
Design for Horizontal Moment
Mx =30 kNm
Factored Moment = 45kNm
Mu/(bd2) = 1.50and
Pt =0.648
Hence provide reinforcement as T 12 @ 150mm C/C as Vertical.
Design for Shear

Vu =45 kN
Factored Shear Force Vu= 67.5kN
Nominal shear stress, v = Vu/bd
= 0.385
From IS 456,
Design shear stress c = 0.60
v<c, hence provided Ast is safe for shear stresses.
-