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Applications of Irradiation Technology in

INDIA

FOOD PRESERVATION PROGRAMME


Aims:
Preventing microbial contamination.
Extending shelf-life under recommended conditions of storage.
Overcoming quarantine barriers in international trade.
IRRADIATION & CONVENTIONAL METHODS

Basis to fix the Doses :


Low-dose applications (less than one kGy)
Medium dose (one to ten kGy)

High dose (above 10 kGy)


Food Irradiation in India- Applications
Delayed ripening of fruits
Disinfestation of grains
Preservation of sea foods
Microbial decontamination of spices
Cost of Irradiated Food
From Re 0.25 to 0.50 per kg. For a low dose
Rs 1-3 per kg for high dose application
The cost of plant could be between Rs 50-100 millions

Technology/Assistance Available

Bhabha Atomic Research Center (BARC)

Back-bone of Indian programme


Research reactors
Standardization of dosimeter procedure.
Nodal agency

Training to the staff.


Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology (BRIT):
Centre for Advanced Technology
Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI):
To promote the commercial use

Development of Infrastructure facilities


REGULATIONS:
The Atomic Energy (Control of Irradiation of Foods) Rules, 1996 .
The Prevention of Food Adulteration (Fifth Amendment) Rules,
1994.

REGULATORY BODIES :
Department of Atomic Energy (DAE)
The Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)
Food Package Irradiator in Food Technology Division, BARC
Defense Laboratory, Jodhpur

Food items approved for radiation preservation by the Ministry of


Health & Family Welfare under Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules,
1955
NAME OF
FOOD
Onion
Potato
Ginger
Garlic
Mango
Rice,
Semolina,
Wheat flour,
Maida
Meat & meat
products,
Rasins , Figs,
Dried Dates
Spices

PURPOSE

Sprout inhibition

Disinfestation
(Quartine)

MINIMUM
DOSE (KGy)

MAXIMUM
DOSE (KGy)

0.03
0.06
0.03
0.03

0.09
0.15
0.15
0.15

0.25

0.75

0.25
0.25

1.0
1.0

0.25

0.75

2.5

4.0

6.0

14.0

Disinfestation

Shelf life
enhancement &
pathogen control
Microbial
decontamination

Additional food items recommended by the Central Committee for Food


Standards for approval

NAME OF
FOOD
Pulses & Dried
Sea food
Fresh sea food

Frozen sea food

PURPOSE

MINIMUM
DOSE (KGy)

MAXIMUM
DOSE (KGy)

Disinfestation

0.25

1.0

Shelf life
enhancement

1.0

3.0

pathogen control

4.0

6.0

Consumer Responses and Opposition


Lethal effects have been found from the feeding of irradiated food
to mice
Some animals fed irradiated food have been found to have reduced
growth, change white blood cells, and kidney damage
Polyploidy - has been observed in children, monkeys.
Conclusions
BARC process on food irradiation below and above 10 kGy is well
understood and established
It follows safety and nutritional adequacy of foods irradiated and
produced under Good Manufacturing Practice
Irradiation is established as a versatile, environmentally-friendly
treatment of foods
Experimental trials of irradiated foods in the areas prone food
borne disease could be useful in order to provide evidence for the
usefulness of irradiation on controlling such disease incidence.