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UnitUnit-IV

UNIT-IV

MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES

37. INTRODUCTION

In industrial testing and research laboratories, it is essential to measure the voltages

and currents accurately, ensuring perfect safety to the personnel and equipment. Hence a

person handling the equipment as well as the metering devices must be protected against

over-voltages and also against any induced voltages due to stray coupling. Therefore, the

location and layout of the devices are important. Secondly, linear extrapolation of the devices

beyond their ranges is not valid for high voltage meters and measuring instruments, and they

have to be calibrated for the full range.

Electromagnetic interference is a serious problem in impulse voltage and current

measurements, and it has to be avoided or minimized. Therefore, even though the principles

of measurements may be same, the devices and instruments for measurement of high voltages

and currents differ vastly from the low voltage and low current devices. Different devices

used for high voltage measurements may be classified as in Tables 7.1 and 7.2.

Table 7.1: High Voltage Measurement Techniques

Type of Voltage

Method or Technique

(i) Series Resistance Micro-ammeter

DC Voltages

(iii)Generating Voltmeters

(iv) Sphere & spark gaps

(i) Series Impedance ammeters

(ii) Potential Dividers (R or C type)

AC Power Frequency

(iii)Potential Transformers

(Electromagnetic or CVT)

(iv) Electrostatic Voltmeters

(v) Sphere Gaps

Voltages, and other rapidly changing

voltages

(ii) potential dividers with a cathode ray

oscillo-graph (capacitive, or resistive

dividers)

(iii)Peak voltmeters

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Table 7.2: High Current Measurement Techniques

Type of Current

Method or Technique

(i) Resistive shunts with milli-ammeter

(iii) Magnetic Links

Frequency)

(ii) Electromagnetic current transformers

(i) Resistive shunts

and rapidly changing currents

(iii) Magnetic Links

(iv) Hall effect generators

REFERENCE:

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LIMITATION

Coulombs law defines the electrical field as a field of forces, and since electrical

fields may be produced by voltages, the measurement of voltages can be related to a force

measurement. In 1884 Lord Kelvin suggested a design for an electrostatic voltmeter based

upon this measuring principle. If the field is produced by the voltage V between a pair of

parallel plane disc electrodes, the force F on an area A of the electrode, for which the field

gradient E is the same across the area and perpendicular to the surface, can be calculated

from the derivative of the stored electrical energy Wel taken in the field direction (x). Since

each volume element Adx contains the same stored energy dWel = (E 2 Adx )/ 2 , the attracting

force F = dWel / dx becomes

F =

AE 2

2

A

2S

V2,

(3.7)

Where = permittivity of the insulating medium and S = gap length between the parallel

plane electrodes.

The attracting force is always positive independent of the polarity of the voltage. If

the voltage is not constant, the force is also time dependent. Then the mean value of the force

is used to measure the voltage, thus:

1

A 1

A

2

F (t )dt = 2 2 (t )dt = 2 (Vr .m.s. ) ,

T0

2S T 0

2S

T

(3.8)

instruments.

The design of most of the realized instruments is arranged such that one of the

electrodes or a part of it is allowed to move. By this movement, the electrical field will

slightly change which in general can be neglected. Besides differences in the construction of

the electrode arrangements, the various voltmeters differ in the use of different methods of

restoring forces required to balance the electrostatic attraction; these can be a suspension of

the moving electrode on one arm of a balance or its suspension on a spring or the use of a

pendulous or torsional suspension. The small movement is generally transmitted and

amplified by a spotlight and mirror system, but many other systems have also been used. If

the movement of the electrode is prevented or minimized and the field distribution can

exactly be calculated, the electrostatic measuring device can be used for absolute voltage

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measurements, since the calibration can be made in terms of the fundamental quantities of

length and forces.

The paramount advantage is the extremely low loading effect, as only electrical fields

have to be built up. The atmospheric air, high-pressure gas or even high vacuum between the

electrodes provide very high resistivity, and thus the active power losses are mainly due to

the resistance of insulating materials used elsewhere. The measurement of voltages lower

than about 50 V is, however, not possible, as the forces become too small.

The measuring principle displays no upper frequency limit. The load inductance and

the electrode system capacitance, however, form a series resonant circuit, thus limiting the

frequency range. For small voltmeters the upper frequency is generally in the order of some

MHz.

In spite of the inherent advantages of this kind of instrument, their application for

H.V. testing purposes is very limited nowadays. For D.C. voltage measurements, the

electrostatic voltmeters compete with resistor voltage dividers or measuring resistors, as the

very high input impedance is in general not necessary. For A.C. voltage measurements, the

r.m.s. value is either of minor importance for dielectric testing or capacitor voltage dividers

can be used together with low-voltage electronic r.m.s. instruments, which provide acceptable

low uncertainties. Thus the actual use of these instruments is restricted and the number of

manufacturers is therefore extremely limited.

REFERENCE:

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PRINCIPLE & CONSTRUCTION

Similar to electrostatic voltmeters the generating voltmeter, also known as the rotary

voltmeter or field mill, provides a lossless measurement of D.C. and, depending upon the

construction, A.C. voltages by simple but mainly mechanical means.

The principle of operation is explained by Fig. 3.11. An adequately shaped, coronafree H.V. electrode excites the electrostatic field within a highly insulating medium (gas,

vacuum) and ground potential. The earthed electrodes are subdivided into a sensing or pickup electrode A, a guard electrode G and a movable

electrode M, all of which are at same potential.

Every field line ending at these electrodes binds free

charges, whose density is locally dependent upon

the field gradient E acting at every elementary

surface area. For measurement purposes, only the

elementary surface areas dA = a of the electrode A

are of interest. The local charge density is then, (a)

= E(a), with the permittivity of the dielectric.

If the electrode M is fixed and the voltage V

voltmeters and field sensors

would flow between electrode A and earth. This current results then from the time-dependent

charge density, (t,a), which is sketched as a one-dimensional distribution only. The amount

of charge can be integrated by

A

Where A is the area of the sensing electrode exposed to the field. This time-varying charge is

used by all kinds of field sensors, which use pick-up electrodes (rods, plates, etc.) only. If the

voltage V is constant, again a current i(t) will flow but only if M is moved, thus steadily

altering the surface field strength from full to zero values within the covered areas. Thus the

current is

i (t ) =

dq d

=

dt dt

(a)da = dt E (a)da

A( t )

(3.23)

A( t )

The integral boundary denotes the time-varying exposed area A(t) and (a) as well as

E(a) are also time dependent if the voltage is not constant. The field lines between H.V. and

sensing electrode comprise a capacitive system. Thus the charge q can be computed by an

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electrostatic field computation or by calibration of the system. The integration across the

time-varying area A(t), however, provides a time-varying capacitance C(t), and also if the

voltage changes with time, q(t) = C(t)V(t) and

i (t ) =

d

[C (t )V (t )]

dt

(3.24)

Various kinds of generating voltmeters use these basic equations and the manifold designs

differ in the constructional means for providing C(t) and interpreting the current i(t).

Generating voltmeters are very linear instruments and applicable over a wide range of

voltages. The sensitivity may be changed by the area of the sensing electrodes (or iris) as well

as by the current instrument or amplification. Their early application for the output voltage

measurement of a Van-de-Graffs thus may well be understood. Excessive space charge

accumulation within the gap between H.V. electrode and generating voltmeter, however,

must be avoided. The presence of space charges will be observed if the voltage is switched

off.

Vibrating electrometers are also generating voltmeters, but will only be mentioned here as

they are not widely used. The principle can well be understood with reference to Fig. 3.11

neglecting the movable disc. If the sensing electrode would oscillate in the direction of the

H.V. electrode, again a current i(t) = dq/dt is excited with constant voltage V due to a

variation of the capacitance C =C(t). The sensing electrode may also pick up charges when

placed just behind a small aperture drilled in a metal plate. Commercial types of such an

instrument are able to measure D.C. voltages down to 10 V, or currents down to 10-17A, or

charges down to 10-15pC, and its terminal resistance is as high as 1016 .

REFERENCE:

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MEASUREMENTS

High D.C. voltages are usually measured by connecting a very high resistance (few

hundreds of mega-ohms) in series with a micro-ammeter as shown in Fig. 7. 1. Only the

current / flowing through the large calibrated resistance R is measured by the moving coil

micro-ammeter. The voltage of the source is given by V=IR.

The voltage drop in the meter is negligible, as the impedance of the meter is only few

ohms compared to few hundred mega-ohms of the series resistance R. A protective device

like a paper gap, a neon glow tube, or a zener diode with a suitable

series resistance is connected across the meter as a protection against

high voltages in case the series resistance R fails or flashes over. The

ohmic value of the series resistance R is chosen such that a current of

one to ten microamperes is allowed for full-scale deflection. The

resistance is constructed from a large number of wire wound resistors

in series. The voltage drop in each resistor element is chosen to avoid

surface flashovers and discharges.

A Value of less than 5kV/cm in air or less than 20kV/cm in

good oil is permissible. The resistor chain is provided with corona

free terminations. The material for resistive elements is usually a

carbon-alloy with temperature coefficient less than 10-4/0C. Carbon and other metallic film

resistors are also used. A resistance chain built with 1% carbon resistors located in airtight

transformer oil filled P.V.C. tube, for 100 kV operations had very good temperature stability.

The limitations in the series resistance design are:

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

Series resistance meters are built for 500 kV D.C. with an accuracy better than 0.2%.

REFERENCE:

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AND IMPULSE VOLTAGES

A uniform field spark gap will always have a sparkover voltage within a known

tolerance under constant atmospheric conditions. Hence a spark gap can be used for

measurement of the peak value of the voltage, if the gap distance is known. A sparkover

voltage of 30 kV (peak) at 1 cm spacing in air at 200C and 760 torr pressure occurs for a

sphere gap or any uniform field gap. But experience has shown that these measurements are

reliable only for certain gap configurations. Normally, only sphere gaps are used for voltage

measurements. In certain cases uniform field gaps and rod gaps are also used, but their

accuracy is less. The spark gap breakdown, especially the sphere gap breakdown, is

independent of the voltage waveform and hence is highly suitable for all types of waveforms

from D.C. to impulse voltages of short rise times (rise time 0.5s). As such, sphere gaps

can be used for radio frequency A.C. voltage peak measurements also (up to 1 MHz).

Sphere gaps can be

arranged either (i) vertically

with lower sphere grounded,

or (ii) horizontally with both

spheres connected to

the

grounded.

In

horizontal

configurations, it is generally

arranged

such

that

both

high voltage above the ground. The two spheres used are identical in size and shape. The

schematic arrangement is shown in Figs. 7.18a and 7.18b. The voltage to be measured is

applied between the two spheres and the distance or spacing S between them gives a measure

of the sparkover voltage. A series resistance is usually connected between the source and the

sphere gap to (i) limit the breakdown current, and (ii) to suppress unwanted oscillations in the

source voltage when breakdown occurs (in case of impulse voltages). The value of the series

resistance may vary from 100 to 1000 kilo ohms for A.C. or D.C. voltages and not more than

500 in the case of impulse voltages.

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In the case of A.C. peak value and D.C. voltage measurements, the applied voltage is

uniformly increased until sparkover occurs in the gap. Generally, a mean of about five

breakdown values is taken when they agree to within 3%.

In the case of impulse voltages, to obtain 50% flashover voltage, two voltage limits,

differing by not more than 2% are set such that on application of lower limit value either 2 or

4 flashovers take place and on

application of upper limit value

8 or 6 flashovers take place

respectively. The mean of these

two limits is taken as 50%

flashover voltage. In any case, a

preliminary sparkover voltage

measurement is to be made

before actual measurements are

made.

with two metal spheres of identical diameters D with their shanks, operating gear, and

insulator supports (Fig. 7.18a or b). Spheres are generally made of copper, brass, or

aluminum; the latter is used due to low cost The standard diameters for the spheres are

2,5,6.25,10,12.5,15,25,50,75,100,150, and 200 cm. The spacing is so designed and chosen

such that flashover occurs near the sparking point P. The spheres are carefully designed and

fabricated so that their surfaces are smooth and the curvature is uniform. The radius of

curvature measured with a spherometer at various points over an area enclosed by a circle of

0.3 D around the sparking point should not differ by more than 2% of the nominal value.

The surface of the sphere should be free from dust, grease, or any other coating. The surface

should be maintained clean but need not be polished. If excessive pitting occurs due to

repeated sparkovers, they should be smoothened. The dimensions of the shanks used, the

grading ring used (if necessary) with spheres, the ground clearances, etc. should follow the

values indicated in Figs. 7.18a and 7.18b and Table 7.5. The high voltage conductor should

be arranged such that it does not affect the field configuration. Series resistance connected

should be outside the shanks at a distance 2D away from the high voltage sphere or the

sparking point P.

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Irradiation of sphere gap is needed when measurements of voltages less than 50kV are

made with sphere gaps of 10 cm diameter or less. The irradiation may be obtained from a

quartz tube mercury vapour lamp of 40 W rating. The lamp should be at a distance B or more

as indicated in Table 7.5.

REFERENCE:

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Factors Influencing the Sparkover Voltage of Sphere Gaps:

Various factors that affect the sparkover voltage of a sphere gap are:

(i)

The effect of nearby earthed objects was investigated by Kuffel (14) by enclosing the

earthed sphere inside an earthed cylinder. It was observed that the sparkover voltage is

reduced. The reduction was observed to be

V= m log (B/D) + C

where,

(7.21)

V = percentage reduction,

B = diameter of earthed enclosing cylinder,

D = diameter of the spheres,

And m and C are constants.

The reduction was less than 2% for S/D < 0.5 and BID time 0.8. Even for S/D 1.0

and B/D 1.0 the reduction was only 3%. Hence, if the specifications regarding the

clearances are closely observed the error is within the tolerances and accuracy specified. The

variation of breakdown voltage with AID ratio is given in Figs. 7.19a and b for a 50 cm

sphere gap. The reduction in voltage is within the accuracy limits, if S/D is kept less than

0.6.A in the above ratio A/D is the distance from sparking point to horizontal ground plane

(also shown in Fig. 7.19)

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(ii)

The sparkover voltage of a spark gap depends on the air density which varies with the

changes in both temperature and pressure. If the sparkover voltage is V under test conditions

of temperature T and pressure p torr and if the sparkover voltage is V0 under standard

conditions of temperature T = 200C and pressure p = 760 torr, then

V = kVo

where k is a function of the air density factor d, given by:

d=

(iii)

p 293

760 273 + T

(7.22)

IRRADIATION:

Illumination of sphere gaps with ultra-violet or x-rays aids easy ionization in gaps. The effect

of irradiation is pronounced for small gap spacings. A reduction of about 20% in sparkover

voltage was observed for spacings of 0.1D to 0.3D for a 1.3 cm sphere gap with D.C.

voltages. The reduction in sparkover voltage is less than 5% for gap spacings more than 1 cm,

and for gap spacings of 2 cm or more it is about 1.5%. Hence, irradiation is necessary for

smaller sphere gaps of gap spacing less than 1 cm for obtaining consistent values.

(iv)

It has been observed that the sparkover voltages for positive and negative polarity

impulses are different. Experimental investigation showed that for sphere gaps of 6.25 to 25

cm diameter, the difference between positive and negative D.C. voltages is not more than 1%.

For smaller sphere gaps (2 cm diameter and less) the difference was about 8% between

negative and positive impulses of 1/50 s waveform. Similarly, the wave front and wave tail

durations also influence the breakdown voltage. For wave fronts of less than 0.5 s and wave

tails less than 5 s the breakdown voltages are not consistent and hence the use of sphere gap

is not recommended for voltage measurement in such cases.

REFERENCE:

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DIVIDERS & MIXED RC POTENTIAL DIVIDERS

In a resistance potential

divider,

R1

and

R2

are

dimensions

in

the

previous

kV, R1 is no longer small in

dimension and is usually made

of a number of sections. Hence

the divider is no longer a small

resistor of lumped parameters, but has to be considered as an equivalent distributed network

with its terminal to ground capacitances and inter-sectional series capacitances as shown in

Fig. 7.26. The total series resistance R1 is made of n resistors of value R1 and R = nR1'. Cg is

the terminal to ground capacitance of each of the resistor elements R1, and CS is the

capacitance between the terminals of each section. The inductance of each element (L1) is

not shown in the figure as it is usually

small compared to the other elements

(i.e. R1, CS and Cg). This type of

divider produces a non-linear voltage

distribution along its length and also

acts like an R-C filter for applied

voltages. The output of such a divider

for various values of Cg/Cs ratio is

shown in Fig. 7.27 for a step input. By

arranging guard rings at various elemental points, the equivalent circuit can be modified,

where Ch represents the stray capacitance introduced between the high voltage lead and the

guard elements. This reduces the distortion introduced by the original divider.

measurement of fast rising voltages and pulses. The capacitance ratio is independent of the

frequency, if their leakage resistance is high enough to be neglected. But usually the dividers

are connected to the source voltage through long leads which introduce lead inductances and

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residual resistances. Also, the capacitance used for very high voltage work is not small in

dimension and hence cannot be considered as a lumped element. Therefore, the output of the

divider for high frequencies and impulses is distorted as in the case of resistance dividers.

MIXED RC POTENTIAL DIVIDERS: Passive circuits are nowadays rarely used in the

measurement of peak values of high A.C. or impulse voltages. The rapid development of very

cheap integrated operational amplifiers and circuits during the last decades has offered many

possibilities to sample and hold such voltages and thus displace passive circuits.

Nevertheless, a short treatment of basic passive crest voltmeters will be included because the

fundamental problems of such circuits can be shown. The availability of excellent

semiconductor diodes has eliminated the earlier difficulties encountered in the application of

the circuits to a large extent. Simple, passive circuits can be built cheaply and they are

reliable. And, last but not least, they are not sensitive to electromagnetic impact, i.e. their

electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is excellent. In contrast, sophisticated electronic

instruments are more expensive and may suffer from EMC problems. Passive as well as

active electronic circuits and instruments as used for peak voltage measurements are unable

to process high voltages directly and they are always used in conjunction with voltage

dividers which are preferably of the capacitive type.

A.C. VOLTAGES:

A capacitor divider reduces the high voltage V to a low magnitude. If R2 and Rd are neglected

and the voltage V increases, the storage capacitor Cs is charged to the crest value of V2

neglecting the voltage drop across the diode. Thus the D.C. voltage Vm +V2max could be

measured by a suitable instrument of very high input resistance. The capacitor Cs will not

significantly discharge during a period, if the reverse current through the diode is very small

and the discharge time constant of the storage capacitor very large. If V2 is now decreased, C2

will hold the charge and the voltage across it and thus Vm no longer follows the crest value of

Deependra Singh

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V2. Hence, a discharge resistor Rd must be introduced into the circuit. The general rules for

the measuring technique require that a measured quantity be indicated within a few seconds.

Thus the time constant RdCs should be within about 0.5 1 sec. Three new errors, however,

are now introduced: an experiment would readily show that the output voltage Vm decreases

steadily if a constant high voltage V is switched to the circuit. This effect is caused by a

continuous discharge of Cs as well as of C2. Thus the mean potential of V2(t) will gain a

negative D.C. component, which finally equals to about +V2max. Hence a leakage resistor R2

must be inserted in parallel with C2 to equalize these unipolar discharge currents. The second

error refers to the voltage shape across the storage capacitor. Almost independent of the type

of instrument used (i.e. mean or r.m.s. value measurement), is due to the ripple and recorded

as the difference between peak and mean value of Vm. The error is approximately

proportional to the ripple factor (see eqn (2.2)) and thus frequency dependent as the discharge

time constant is a fixed value. For RdCs = 1 sec, this discharge error amounts to ~1 per cent

for 50 Hz, ~0.33 per cent for 150 Hz and ~0.17 per cent for 300 Hz. The third source of

systematic error is related to this discharge error: during the conduction time of the diode the

storage capacitor is recharged to the crest value and thus Cs is in parallel to C2. If the

discharge error is ed, this recharge error er is approximately given by:

e r 2e d

Cs

C1 + C 2 + C s

IMPULSE VOLTAGES:

The measurement of peak values of impulse voltages with short times to crest (lightning

impulses) with passive elements only was impossible up to about 1950. Then the availability

of vacuum diodes with relatively low internal resistance and of vacuum tubes to build active

D.C. amplifiers offered the opportunity to design circuits for peak impulse voltage

measurement but of relatively low accuracy. Now, active highly integrated electronic devices

can solve all problems involved with passive circuits. The problems, however, shall shortly

be indicated by the following explanations. Impulse voltages are single events and the crest

value of an impulse is theoretically available only during an infinitely short time. The actual

crest value may less stringently be defined as a crest region in which the voltage amplitude is

higher than 99.5 per cent. For a standard 1.2/50 sec wave the available time is then about

1.1 sec. Consider now the simple crest voltmeter circuit of Fig. 3.14 discussed earlier,

omitting the discharge resistor Rd as well as R2. The diode D will then conduct for a positive

voltage impulse applied to the voltage divider, and the storage capacitor must be charged

during the rising front only. But instantaneous charging is only possible if the diode has no

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forward (dynamic) resistance. The actual forward resistance RD gives rise to a changing time

constant RdCs and it is known that a response time, which is equal to the time constant RdCs

for such an RC circuit, of about 0.2 sec would be necessary to record the crest value with

adequate accuracy. For a low Cs value of 1000pF the required RD = 200. As also the diodes

junction capacitance must be very small in comparison to Cs, diodes with adequate values

must be properly selected. The more difficult problem, however, is the time required to read

the voltage across Cs. The voltage should not decrease significantly, i.e. 1 per cent for at least

about 10 sec. Hence

the

discharge

time

constant of Cs must

be longer than 103

sec,

and

interaction

thus

the

between

resistance

and

the

input resistance of the instrument necessary to measure the voltage across Cs should provide a

resultant leakage resistance of 1012. A measurement of this voltage with electrostatic or

electronic electrometers is essential, but the condition for the diodes reverse resistance can

hardly be met. To avoid this problem, a charge exchange circuit shown in Fig. 3.15 was

proposed.

REFERENCE:

REFERENCE:

Deependra Singh

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In power system the amplitude of currents may vary between a few amperes to a few

hundred kilo-amperes and the rate of rise of currents can be as high as 1010A/sec and the rise

time can vary between a few microseconds to a few macro seconds. Therefore, the device to

be used for measuring such currents should be capable of having a good frequency response

over a very wide frequency band. The methods normally employed are(i) resistive shunts;

(ii) elements using induction effects; (iii) Faraday and Hall Effect devices. With these

methods the accuracy of measurement varies

between 1 to 10%. Fig. 4.27 shows the

circuit diagram of the most commonly used

method

for

high

impulse

current

resistance R due to impulse current i(t) is fed

to the oscilloscope through a delay cable D.

The delay cable is terminated through an impedance Z equal to the surge impedance of the

cable to avoid reflection of the voltage to be measured and thus true measurement of the

voltage is obtained.

Since the dimension of the resistive element is large, it will have residual inductance

L and stray capacitance C. The inductance could be neglected at low frequencies but at higher

frequencies the inductive reactance would be comparable with the resistance of the shunt.

The effect of inductance and capacitance above 1 MHz usually should be considered. The

resistance values range between 10 micro ohm to a few milliohms and the voltage drop is of

the order of few volts. The resistive shunt used for measurements of impulse currents of large

duration is achieved only at considerable expense for thermal reasons. The resistive shunts

for impulse current of short duration can be built with rise time of a few nanoseconds of

magnitude. The resistance element can be made of parallel carbon film resistors or low

inductance wire resistors of parallel resistance wires or resistance foils.

REFERENCE:

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PROBLEMS

Q. 1

What are the requirements of a sphere gap for measurement of high voltages? Discuss

the disadvantages of sphere gap for measurements.

Q. 2

Explain clearly the procedure for measurement of (i) impulse; (ii) A.C. high voltages

using sphere gap.

Q. 3

Discuss the effect of (i) nearby earthed objects (ii) humidity and (iii) dust particles on

the measurements using sphere gaps.

Q. 4

Describe the construction of a uniform field spark gap and discuss its advantages and

disadvantages for high voltage measurements.

Q. 5

Explain with neat diagram how rod gaps can be used for measurement of high

voltages. Compare its performance with a sphere gap.

Q. 6

Discuss its advantages and limitations for high voltage measurements.

Q. 7

Draw a neat schematic diagram of a generating voltmeter and explain its principle of

operation. Discuss its application and limitations.

Q. 8

Discuss the problems associated with peak voltmeter circuits using passive elements.

Draw circuit developed by Rabus and explain how this circuit overcomes these

problems.

Q. 9

What are the problems associated with measurement of very high impulse voltages?

Explain how these can be taken care of during measurements.

Q. 10 Discuss and compare the performance of (i) resistance (ii) capacitance potential

dividers for measurement of impulse voltages.

Q. 11 Discuss various resistance potential dividers and compare their performance of

measurement of impulse voltages.

Q. 12 Discuss various capacitance, potential dividers and compare their performance for

measurement of impulse voltages.

Q. 13 Draw a simplified equivalent circuit of a resistance potential divider and discuss its

step response.

Q. 14 Discuss various methods of measuring high D.C. and A.C. currents.

Q. 15 Discuss various methods of measuring high impulse currents.

Deependra Singh

112

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