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To introduce

This essay discusses is explored


The definition of will
is briefly outlined
be given
The issue focused on
is demonstrated ...
.

is defined
is explored

is included

are identified

In this essay ..

is explained

The key aspect


discussed
Views on . range
from .

are presented

The central theme

is described

Emphasised are

is explained and illustrated


with examples

is justified
is examined

is analysed

is evaluated

To conclude
In summary,
In brief,
To conclude,
It has been shown that,

To review,
To summarise,
Thus,
In short,

In conclusion,
To sum up,
Hence,

To compare and contrast


Similarly,
In comparison
However,
And yet
On the contrary,
Whereas
While this is the case

In the same way


Complementary to this
This is in contrast to
Nevertheless,
On the other hand,
In contrast to
... disputes

Likewise,
Then again,
In contrast,
Conversely,
Notwithstanding
That aside, ...
Despite this, ...

To add ideas
Also,

Equally important ...

Furthermore,
Moreover,
Next
Another essential point
More importantly, In the same way

Subsequently,

As well as ....
Additionally, ...
Another ...


Then,

In addition,
Firstly, ... secondly, ... thirdly, ...
finally, ...

Then again,

Besides, ...
To elaborate, ...

To present uncommon or rare ideas


Seldom ...
A few ...
Rarely ...

Few ...
... is uncommon
... is rare ...

Not many ...


... is scarce ...
... is unusual ...

To present common or widespread ideas


Numerous ...
Several ...
Most ...
... is prevalent ...

Many ...
Almost all ...
Commonly ...
... is usual ...

More than ...


The majority ...
Significant ...
Usually ...

To present inconclusive ideas


Perhaps ...
... may be ...
There is limited evidence for
... is debated ...
...
... could ...
... may include ...

... might be ...


... is possibly ...

To give examples
For example, ...
An illustration of ...
Specifically, ...
Such as ...
For instance, ...

... as can be seen in ...


... as demonstrated by ...
... is shown ...
As an example ...

... supports ...


... is observed ...
... exemplifies ...
To illustrate, ...

To show relationships or outcome


Therefore ...
As a result ...
Hence, ...
Otherwise, ...
The evidence suggests/shows ... It can be seen that ...
These factors
After examining ....
contribute to ...
Considering ... it can be
Subsequently, ....
concluded that ...
The outcome is ...
The result ...

For that reason ...


Consequently, ...
With regard to ...
It is apparent that
...
The effect is ...
The correlation ...

The relationship ...

The link ...

The connection ...


... affects ...
... influences ...
... informs ...
... demonstrates ...

... interacts with ...


Thus it is ...
... predicts ...
... presupposes
... impacts on ...

The convergence
...
Both ....
... causes ...
... leads to ...
... emphasises
... supports ...

To present prior or background ideas


In the past, ...
Customarily, ...
Prior to this, ...
Previously, ...
Conventionally, ...
Initially, ...
Until now, ...

Historically, ...
Beforehand, ...
Earlier, ...
Over time, ...
Foundational to this is ...
At first, ...
The traditional interpretation ...

Traditionally, ...
Originally, ...
Formerly, ...
At the time of ...
In earlier ...
Recently ...

To present others' ideas


Based on the findings of ...
proposed that
it can be argued...
As explained by
states that
claims that
concluded that
However, ... stated that ... suggested

Similarly, stated that


for example,
agreed that
.
Based on the ideas of defined . as .
relates
As identified by
disputed that
contrasts
With regard to argued
confirmed that
concluded that
that

... argues .
highlights
demonstrates
found that
identifies
... wrote that
demonstrated
also
reported .
hypothesised that
pointed out that
maintained that

expressed the opinion


... also mentioned .
... asserts that .
that
goes on to
identified
emphasises
state/suggest/say
According to

explored the idea

Useful linking words and phrases that can be used at the start of new
paragraphs:
challenges the idea . showed that

A contrary explanation is that,


Although,
As a consequence,
As a result,
As we have seen,
At the same time,
Accordingly,
An equally significant aspect of
Another, significant factor in
Before considering X it is important to note Y
By the same token,
But we should also consider,
Despite these criticisms, its popularity remains high.
Certainly, there is no shortage of disagreement within
Consequently,
Correspondingly,
Conversely,
Chapter, in particular, has focused on the
Despite this,
Despite these criticisms, the popularity of X remains largely
undiminished.
Each of these theoretical positions make an important contribution to our
understanding of,
Evidence for in support of this position, can be found in,

Evidently,
For this reason,
For these reasons,
Furthermore,
Given, the current high profile debate with regard to, it is quite
surprising that
Given, the advantages of outlined in the previous paragraph, it is
quite predictable that
However,
Having considered X, it is also reasonable to look at
Hence,
In addition to,
In contrast,
In this way,
In this manner,
In the final analysis,
In short,
Indeed,
It can be seen from the above analysis that,
It could also be said that,
It is however, important to note the limitations of
It is important to note however, that
It is important however not to assume the applicability of, in all cases.
It is important however not to overemphasis the strengths of
In the face of such criticism, proponents of, have responded in a number
of ways.
Moreover,

Notwithstanding such criticism, .its popularity remains largely


undiminished.
Notwithstanding these limitations, .it worth remains in a number of
situations.
Noting the compelling nature of this new evidence, has suggested that.
Nevertheless, remains a growing problem.
Nonetheless, the number of, has continued to expand at an exponential
rate.
Despite these criticisms, its popularity remains high.
On the other hand, critics of, point to its blindness, with respect to.
Of central concern therefore to, sociologists is explaining how societal
processes and institutions
Proponents of, have also suggested that
Subsequently,
Similarly,
The sentiment expressed in the quotation, embodies the view that,
This interpretation of, has not been without its detractors however.
This approach is similar to the, . position
This critique, unfortunately, implies a singular cause of,
This point is also sustained by the work of,
Thirdly,
This counter argument is supported by evidence from,
The use of the term,
Therefore,
There appears then to be an acceleration in the growth of
There is also, however, a further point to be considered.
These technological developments have greatly increased the growth in,

Thus,
To be able to understand,
Undoubtedly,
While such failures must not be discounted, there were in comparison
small, when compared
Whilst the discussion in the preceding paragraph,
Whether crime rates were actually lower at this time continues to be a
matter of debate. Evidence from
There are an almost limitless number of linking phrases and words one can
use. What is important is that they complement the style of your writing.
Use these examples to arouse your creativity.
linking words and phrases
Listing

Giving examples

Generalising

first, second, third

for example

in general

first, furthermore,
finally

for instance

generally

to begin, to conclude

as follows:

on the whole

next

that is

as a rule

Reinforcement

in this case

for the most part

also

namely

in most cases

furthermore

in other words

usually

moreover

Result/consequence

Highlighting

what is more

so

in particular

in addition

therefore

particularly

besides

as a result/consequence especially

above all

accordingly

mainly

as well (as)

consequently

Reformulation

in the same way

because of this/that

in other words

not only ... but also

thus

rather

Similarity

hence

to put it more simply

equally

for this/that reason

Expressing an
alternative

likewise

so that

alternatively

similarly

in that case

rather

correspondingly

under these
circumstances

on the other hand

in the same way

Deduction

the alternative is

Transition to new
point

then

another possibility
would be

now,

in other words

Contrast

as far as x is concerned in that case

instead

with regard/reference
to

otherwise

conversely

as for ...

this implies that ...

on the contrary

it follows that

if so/not

in contrast

turning to

Stating the obvious

in comparison

Summary

obviously

Concession (sth
unexpected)

in conclusion

clearly

however

to conclude

naturally

even though

in brief

of course

however much

to summarise

as can be expected

nevertheless

overall

surely

still

therefore

after all

yet