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# SECTION A (12 x 0.

5 = 6)
Attempt any twelve Questions
Q1.
a. Why the assumption of perfect bond between concrete and steel is made in RCC
design.
Strain compatibility condition
b. Estimation of cracking moment will require transformed section I, Give reason?
The flexural formula is valid for homogeneous section hence composite section of
concrete and steel is transformed into a homogeneous section so that flexural
formula is valid.
c. What do you understand by structural integrity?
A structure is said to have structural integrity if it is able to withstand localised
damage or failure of a structural member, caused by any unforeseen or abnormal
events (that may reasonably be expected) without spread of damage or collapse to a
large part of the structure. In other words, the failure of one element should not
lead to a progressive collapse or incremental collapse of the rest of the structure.
d. Why side reinforcement is provided for beam having depth more than 750mm.
SIDE FACE REINFORCEMENT--This rule takes into consideration crack width
limitation as well as lateral buckling of web in beams.
e. How a balanced section in WSM is different from that of LSM.
In WSM we take permissible stress of concrete and steel where as in LSM we take
strain into account.
f. Why clear cover is more in column as compared to that of slab.
To ensure progressive collapse or incremental collapse of the structure in case of
fire.
g. The modular ratio is taken as 1.5m in order to compute the stress in compression
steel. Justify?
This is because the long-term effects of creep and shrinkage of concrete, as well as
the nonlinearity at higher stresses, result in much larger compressive strains in the
compression steel than those indicated by the linear elastic theory using the
normally specified value of m.
h. What do you interpret for the assumption made for WSM design in IS 456 as All
tensile stresses are taken up by reinforcement and none by concrete, except as
otherwise specifically permitted (Cl. B-1.3)
Concrete has cracked.

## i. Derive fst = mfcs

fst = stress in reinforcing steel, fcs = stress in concrete surrounding the steel, m =
modular ratio.
Equate strain in concrete = strain in steel, hence derive the expression
j. In a RCC beam how crack width can be limited.
With proper reinforcement detailing as prescribed in code.
k. How the serviceability condition of RCC is ensured.
By following the provision prescribed in code for span/depth ratio, minimum
reinforcement, maximum spacing between bars
l. On what basis minimum percentage of steel has been prescribed in IS 456?
For restricting crack width.
m. Sketch the typical Reinforcement detail in continuous beam.

n. Compute lever arm factor for balanced section with grade of steel Fe500 and concrete
M25.
0.25

SECTION B (3 x 3 = 9)
Attempt any three Questions
Q2. Justify the selection in span to depth ratio as per IS456 for limiting deflection control.

Q3. In a one way slab why and which span will transfer more load to the support?

## Q4. Why it is uneconomical to design an over reinforced section as per WSM.

For pt > pt,b (i.e., for over-reinforced (WSM) sections), the rate of gain in allowable
moment capacity with increase in tensile reinforcement area drops off rapidly. This is so,
because the allowable limit of stress is reached in concrete in compression, and, unless the
compression capacity is suitably enhanced, there is not much to gain in boosting the

flexural tensile capacity of the beam section either by adding more tension steel area or
by improving the grade of steel.
For this reason, over-reinforced (WSM) beams are considered to be highly uneconomical
in the traditional WSM method of design.

Q5. Derive expression to determine cracking moment of Singly Reinforced RCC beam.
Given width of beam b, effective depth d, effective cover c, Area of tension steel Ast.

In flexural formula, the value of I and extreme fibre distance from NA has to be
computed.
o For determining I, Transform the given singly reinforced section as
Transformed section.
o For transformed section locate NA by equating Moment of area above NA
o Hence find I and extreme fibre distance.

SECTION C (5 x 3 = 15)
Attempt any five Questions
Q6. A beam has a rectangular section as shown below Assuming M 20 concrete and Fe 250
steel, compute the stresses in concrete and steel under a service load moment of 125 kNm.
Check the calculations using the flexure formula.

## ANSWER: k=0.4, j =0.87, fst = 99MPa, fc= 4.8MPa

Q7. For Q6 determine the allowable moment capacity of the section under service loads.
Also determine the corresponding stresses induced in concrete and steel.

Q8. A rectangular reinforced concrete beam, located inside a building in a coastal town, is

simply supported on two masonry walls 230 mm thick and 6m apart (centre-to-centre). The
beam has to carry, in addition to its own weight, a distributed live load of 10 kN/m and a
dead load of 5 kN/m. Design the flexural reinforcement for the beam as per WSM, given that
its size is limited to 250 mm 400 mm, and that it has to carry, in addition to the loads
M25 grade concrete and Fe415 steel.
Find maximum span moment at centre as sum of moment at mid span due to udl
Find effective depth required to resist the maximum moment coming in the beam.
Decide whether section depth limitation is adequate or not, if it is not adequate
Design doubly reinforced section.