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Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21 (2014) 722–728

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Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/ultson

Physical and chemical characteristics of ultrasonically-prepared
water-in-diesel fuel: Effects of ultrasonic horn position
and water content
Yoshihiro Kojima a,⇑, Hiroki Imazu b, Keiichi Nishida c
a
b
c

EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
Department of Chemical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan
Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603, Japan

a r t i c l e

i n f o

Article history:
Received 25 January 2013
Received in revised form 26 September 2013
Accepted 27 September 2013
Available online 7 October 2013
Keywords:
Ultrasound
Emulsion fuel
Emulsion stability
Water content
Cracking
Combustion characteristics

a b s t r a c t
An ultrasonic technique was applied to preparation of two-phase water-in-oil (W/O) emulsified fuel of
water/diesel oil/surfactant. In this study, an ultrasonic apparatus with a 28 kHz rod horn was used.
The influence of the horn tip position during ultrasonic treatment, sonication time and water content
(5 or 10 vol%) on the emulsion stability, viscosity, water droplet size and water surface area of emulsion
fuels prepared by ultrasonication was investigated. The emulsion stability of ultrasonically-prepared fuel
significantly depended on the horn tip position during ultrasonic irradiation. It was found that the change
in the stability with the horn tip position was partly related to that in the ultrasonic power estimated by
calorimetry. Emulsion stability, viscosity and sum of water droplets surface area increased and water
droplet size decreased with an increase in sonication time, and they approached each limiting value in
the longer time. The maximum values of the viscosity and water surface area increased with water
content, while the limiting values of the emulsion stability and water droplet size were almost
independent of water content. During ultrasonication of water/diesel oil mixture, the hydrogen and
methane were identified and the cracking of hydrocarbon components in the diesel oil occurred. The
combustion characteristics of ultrasonically-prepared emulsion fuel were studied and compared with
those of diesel oil. The soot and NOx emissions during combustion of the emulsified fuel with higher
water contents were significantly reduced compared with those during combustion of diesel oil.
Ó 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
A mixture of two immiscible liquids for which the droplets of
one phase are dispersed within the layer of another continuous
phase is called an emulsion. Emulsions have commonly been
applied in industry fields of paints, foods, medicine, cosmetics,
polymerization, fuel-processing, etc. [1–4]. In general, there are
two forms of emulsion such as oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion and
water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion. To make stable emulsion formed
for the two liquids to be mutually insoluble in each other, it is
necessary to apply sufficient agitation to the liquids in the
presence of an emulsifying agent.
Recently, many researchers have studied about the application
of high power ultrasonic technique to the preparation of materials
and synthesis and decomposition of chemical species, because it is
possible to enhance the chemical reaction rates and modify
chemical and/or physical properties of materials under
⇑ Corresponding author. Tel.: +81 52 789 3912.
E-mail address: ykojima@esi.nagoya-u.ac.jp (Y. Kojima).
1350-4177/$ - see front matter Ó 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.09.019

ultrasonication [5–12]. Ultrasound wave propagation through a
liquid causes flow which is called acoustic streaming, in the same
direction as the propagation, due to the radiation pressure gradient
resulting from the attenuation of sound [13–14]. In addition, high
power ultrasonic irradiation to a solution brings about the
formation, growth and collapse of cavitation bubbles periodically.
The implosive collapse of the cavitation bubbles during the
adiabatic compression results in formation of a high temperature
and pressure spot, also called ‘‘hotspot’’. Additionally, the collapse
and/or formation of the cavitation bubbles cause the formation of
high-speed microjets, microstreaming and generation of the
shockwave [15–19]. These physical effects such as acoustic
streaming, high-speed microjets, microstreaming and shockwave
contribute to effective mixing of solution, disruption of immiscible
liquid layers and promotion of mass transfer at the liquid–solid
interface owing to removal of impurity from solid surface or at
liquid–liquid interface region due to an increase in liquid–liquid
interfacial area through emulsification of O/W or W/O mixture.
Many researchers have reported the preparation of emulsion fuels
[20–25] and coal–water fuels [26], solvent extraction of organic

Cracking test of saturated carbon components in water (5 ml)/diesel oil (45 ml) mixture or diesel oil (50 ml) under ultrasonication was performed in the stainless steel cylindrical vessel with the concave bottom. Ion-exchange water was employed. specific heat of water at constant pressure and rate of temperature increase.4. NR-TH08. Omega Engineering Inc. respectively. / Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21 (2014) 722–728 components from oil shell [27] and synthesis of biodiesel fuel by ultrasonic methods [28–29]. 2. The amount of the mixture solution was about 500 ml and the liquid height in the reaction vessel was hence about 70 mm. A horn-type (Degetal Sonifier S-250D.) and PC. The cylindrical reaction vessel (ID 100 mm) containing the sample mixture solution was immersed in a water bath and the mixture solution was kept at a constant temperature of 298 ± 1 K. 1. 2. PUS. sonolysis of oil components in water/oil system without an emulsifying agent was investigated. Price has reported that chemical components in diesel oil were cracked under ultrasonication [30]. 2.2. CPUS and DT/Dt denote the water mass. Reagents Diesel fuel supplied to the public was purchased from a gas station.) and PC was set at center axis of the furnace in order to measure temperature at 10 points in the furnace. an ultrasonic technique was applied to preparation of two-phase water-in-oil emulsion fuel in the presence of an emulsifying agent.6 by changing the air volumetric flow rate. Horn Horn Thermocouple Generator PC Vessel Gas phase Sample port of gas components Thermometer Sample (water/oil or oil) Cooling water inlet h Sample (water/oil/Surfactant or water) Water bath (a) Cooling water outlet Vessel (b) Fig. The fuel was atomized from the atomization nozzle set in the center of the burner. dissipated to the reaction system was calculated from the following equation: PUS ¼ M US C PUS DT Dt ð1Þ where MUS. NR-TH08. to cracking of chemical components in liquid fossil fuel. Emulsification Span80 was used as a surfactant to improve the stability of the emulsion. In this study. The stainless steel cylindrical furnace has an inner diameter of 100 mm and a length of 600 mm.1. as shown in Fig. The ultrasound power. Ltd. R type thermocouple (Pt/Pt-Rh13%. Ultrasonic apparatus 2. Fuel with swelled air used as oxide agents was supplied into a furnace. The frequency of ultrasound was 28 kHz and electronic input powers were 20 and 100 W. Experimental 2.7 MPa. Kojima et al. Schematic diagram of the experimental apparatuses for preparation of emulsion fuel and cracking test of diesel oil. Branson Ultrasonics Co. Measurement Fig. the fuel volumetric flow rate was 2 L/min and the fuel equivalence was adjusted to 0. Kato Tekko burner factory) was employed for combustion experiments of diesel fuel and emulsified fuels prepared by ultrasonic treatment. 1(a) shows a schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus. Keyence Corp.) was used to emit ultrasound. Span80 was added into the diesel fuel/water mixture solution and the surfactant content was 2 vol%. In addition. a sampling probe was set to take the exhaust gas. Several researchers have studied about the application of ultrasonic chemical effects which occur in/around hotspots. diameter distribution of fine water droplets and water surface area was investigated in water/diesel oil/surfactant mixture. . 2. at the pump pressure of 0.5. Ultrasound power measurement The sonochemical reactor was equipped with a K type thermocouple (Copper and constantan. For all combustion tests.3. 2. The combustion characteristics of the emulsion fuel prepared under ultrasonication were studied and compared with those of diesel oil. Influence of position of a horn tip emitting ultrasound into sample solution.) which is connected with a temperature recorder (NR-500. Combustion test The stainless steel cylindrical furnace equipped with a commercial burner (SG-S Series. The water content in the mixture solutions was 5 or 10 vol%. 1(b).1.5. sonication time and water content on the emulsion stability. At outlet of the furnace.723 Y. strand diameter £ 0. viscosity.1 mm) connected with a temperature recorder (NR-500. Keyence Corp. Span80 (C24H44O6) was purchased from Wako Pure Chemical Industries.

2. The temperature of sample during measurement was kept at 288 K and the measurement period was 60 s. Results and discussion PUS [W] 724 8. The amount of soot generated during combustion was evaluated based on a reference smoke-scale with 10 levels. ES½%  ¼ 3.8 7. 2. The median diameter (D50 [lm]) was employed as the mean water droplet diameter.). the time-change 95 9.5. Higher levels of the smoke-scale indicate that larger amounts of soot are formed during combustion. 3.3. 2. The concentrations of NO and NOx in the exhaust gas were determined using a NO/NOx analyzer. The water surface area per unit volume of emulsion mixture was calculated based on the assumption that the water droplets have spherical shape and was defined as follows. As shown in Fig.2 94 9 93 8. Toki Sangyo Co. the PUS obtained under the condition of h = 15 mm near the bottom of the vessel was not larger than those under the conditions of h = 30 and 60 mm. although PUS is considerably large. 2. Shimazu. .). V E ½ml  100. Presumably such convection currents cause sufficient agitation for the solution. but the result indicated that the ultrasonication condition was not good for the stability of emulsion. Effect of water content on physical properties of fuel 3. Emulsion stability and viscosity change The time-changes in ES and viscosity of emulsion prepared by sonication treatment were investigated under the water content conditions of 5 and 10 vol%.5. However. 3.6 92 8. ES: ES of mixture fuel prepared by ultrasonic treatment of water (10 vol%)/diesel oil (88 vol%)/surfactant (2 vol%) system at the electric power of 100 W for 5 min.6 88 0 10 20 30 40 50 Distance from bottom. 2. the volume of the emulsion phase exiting in the mixture solution was measured. while the highest value of PUS was represented under the condition of h = 30 mm. Positive and negative R values imply that the amount of the saturated carbon component increases and decreases by sonication treatment.5. In the case of h = 30 mm corresponding to approximately middle position of mixture.5.4 91 ES [%] emulsion stability. GL Sciences Inc. Ltd) was used. as shown in Fig. Water droplet size measurement Diameter distribution of water droplets in W/O emulsion was determined by a laser diffraction apparatus (HORIBA LA-920). GL Sciences Inc. Analysis of chemical species Hydrogen and methane were identified by TCD gas chromatography (GC-8A.4 9. Kojima et al. the dependence of the ES and PUS on the horn tip position was similar. and Column WG100. respectively. a rotating viscometer (TVB-10 W.).1. wherefore the position of interface of two immiscible liquids.8 ð4Þ where PA0 and PA1 are the peak areas of chromatogram of saturated carbon component of carbon number n obtained for samples before ultrasonication and after ultrasonication for 1 h. Ultrasonication from a horn tip placed at h = 5 mm. In addition.   6 2 4p D50 10  VW 2 A½m2 =m3  ¼   6 3 4 p D50 10  VT 3 2 ð3Þ where V W [ml] is volume of water in sample mixture and V T [ml] is volume of sample mixture. The revolution rate of the rotating viscometer was 60 rpm. 8. Emulsion stability was defined as follows. V BE ½ml ð2Þ where V BE and V E are volumes of emulsion phase before and after centrifugal treatment.4. PUS:PUS measured for water system at the electric power of 20 W. was considered favorable for disturbing the initial interface of immiscible liquids of oil and water. the highest ES value was obtained when a horn tip was placed at the heights of h = 60 mm..5. Viscosity measurement To measure the viscosity of ultrasonically-prepared emulsion.) equipped with column (Inert-cap 1. Emulsion stability measurement Emulsion stability of ultrasonically-prepared emulsion fuel was evaluated as the following: The ultrasonically-prepared emulsion fuel was added in a centrifugal vessel and was load at the revolution of 3000 rpm for 15 min by a centrifugal separator. The variation in the effective power of ultrasound (PUS) with the horn tip position was also investigated. After a sequential of centrifugal treatment.2. Combustion exhaust gas was removed from the flame tip in the furnace via the sampling tube to trap the soot in the gas on a paper filter. On the other hand. As showed in Fig. 2. Effects of position (h) of a horn tip on the emulsion stability (ES) of mixture fuel and effective power (PUS).1. PA0 3. The change rate (R) in the amount of the saturated carbon components of diesel oil by sonication treatment was defined as follows. respectively. the horn positioned at h = 30 mm as well as h = 5 mm probably hinder the effective streaming required to form stable emulsion to some extent. leading to efficient formation of stable emulsion.2 90 8 89 7. The amount of soot in the exhaust gas was measured with a smoke-tester (Bacharach Instrument Co. diesel oil and water before sonication treatment was about 5 mm from the bottom of a reaction vessel.2. respectively.Y. water surface area per unit emulsion volume. GL Sciences Inc. down-acoustic streaming generated by ultrasound emitted from the horn placed at h = 60 mm smoothly forms convection current in mixture solution. h [mm] 60 70 Fig. This is because the ultrasonication condition was probably unsuitable for mixing over all mixture solution in a vessel due to stereo obstruct of the horn immersed deeply in the solution. / Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21 (2014) 722–728 2.2. Dependence of emulsion stability and effective power on horn tip position Dependence of the emulsion stability (ES) on the tip position (h) of an ultrasonic horn was examined for water/diesel oil/surfactant mixture fuel. The quantification of saturated carbon components of C10-C23 in water/diesel oil mixture was performed by GC-FID (GC-4000.   PA1 R ½% ¼  1  100.

Median diameter decreased with an increase in sonication time and approached limiting value in the longer time. 4. An increase in the water surface area in oil layer is responsible for an increase in static electric friction of water phase with oil phase. The results are shown in Fig. Soot-contaminated level obtained for diesel oil combustion was 4. the water surface area for 10 vol% water content was larger than that for 5 vol% water content in the same sonication time.1 Frequency [%] 10 100 (b)Sonication time:14min (a)Sonication time:14min 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0.2. Both the stability and viscosity increased with sonication time up to the first 10 and 14 min for water contents of 5 and 10 vol%. respectively. Time-changes in stability and viscosity of emulsion mixtures of 5 and 10 vol% water contents prepared by ultrasonic treatment at horn position (h) 60 mm and 298 K. Kojima et al. / Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21 (2014) 722–728 100 3. 5.01 0. .01 0. 50 Frequency [%] (a)Sonication time:2min (b)Sonication time:2min 40 40 30 30 20 20 10 10 0 0. Combustion characteristics Combustion characteristics of emulsion fuel prepared under ultrasonication were investigated.2. During earlier sonication time. probably resulting in an increase in viscosity of emulsion.01 1 50 0. indicating that emulsified fuels have better performance for the reduction in soot emission compared to diesel oil and additionally the extent of the reduction increases with water content. 5 shows the median diameter of water droplets (D50) in emulsified mixture and the water surface area (A) in the mixture.725 Y. However. and reached respective maximum values. 3 and 5. Fig. As shown in Fig. 6 shows the photographs of filter contaminated by soot in exhaust gas during combustion of emulsified fuels and diesel oil.01 0. Fig.3. the limiting value was almost independent of water content. Water droplet size and water surface area The change in water droplet size distribution with sonication time was investigated. The maximum value of viscosity significantly depended on the water content. the distribution was significantly broad. respectively. in the ES was similar to that in viscosity of emulsified mixture. longer sonication time led to the shaper distribution and the water droplets were fine. while the levels were 2 and 1 for emulsified fuels of water contents of 5 and 10 vol%. Water droplet size distribution of emulsion mixtures of 5 and 10 vol% water contents prepared by ultrasonic treatment at horn position (h) 60 mm and 298 K.1 1 10 Droplet diameter [μm] (a)5 vol% water content 100 0 0. 3.1 1 10 100 50 0 0. However. it is noticed that the dependences of water surface area and viscosity on water content are considerably similar. 4. due to difference in water content of emulsified solution. 9 98 8 7 ES [%] 94 Stability(5vol% water content) Stability(10vol% water content) Viscosity (5vol% water content) Viscosity (10vol% water content) 92 90 6 5 88 86 Viscosity [mPa s] 96 4 84 3 82 80 2 0 5 10 15 20 25 Sonication time[min] Fig. From the results in Figs. 50 3. while the maximum value of ES was almost the same one regardless of water content.1 1 10 100 Droplet diameter [μm] (b)10 vol% water content Fig.

The results in Fig. The results in Fig. After the mixture of diesel oil and water in a vessel was subjected to ultrasound for 1 h. CH4 and H2 were not identified in a gas phase. Sonolysis of saturated carbon components in water/diesel oil Dieset oil Diesel oil / 5vol% water content Diesel oil / 10 vol% water content Level Low conc. The change in the amount of the saturated carbon components (C10–C23) by sonication treatment for 1 h was investigated for water/diesel oil 80 NO 70 Concentration [ppm] Microexplosion of water droplets in emulsion fuel during combustion resulted in miniaturization of the fuel. Fig. CH4 was not formed inevitably and H2 was also not identified in a gas phase. Distribution of temperature in a furnace during combustion of diesel fuel and emulsified fuels prepared by ultrasonic treatment at horn position (h) 60 mm and 298 K. Fig. NOx 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Diesel oil Diesel oil/5vol% water Diesel oil/10vol% water content (10 min) content (14 min) Fig. and emulsion fuels prepared by ultrasonic treatment at horn position (h) 60 mm and 298 K. 7. during agitation of the water/diesel oil mixture using a mechanical stirring (400 rpm). probably indicating that the ignition of the emulsion fuel was worse than that of diesel oil. The chromatogram of the gas components is shown in Fig. have reported the cracking of saturated components in diesel fuels under ultrasonication [30]. 6. In the case of ultrasonic treatment of water for 1 h. Price et al. Time-changes in water droplet size and water surface area for emulsion mixtures of (a) water (5 vol%)/diesel fuel (93 vol%)/surfactant (2 vol%) and (b) water (10 vol%)/diesel fuel (88 vol%)/surfactant (2 vol%) prepared by ultrasonic treatment at horn position (h) 60 mm and 298 K. Kojima et al. Also. Concentrations and NO and NOx in exhaust gas during combustion of diesel fuel. The concentrations and NO and NOx in exhaust gas during diesel oil and emulsion fuel combustions were investigated. Soot High conc. 7. the presence of water droplets dispersed into oil fuels causes the temperature to fall in the furnace and the lower temperature probably contributes to reducing generation of thermal NOx during combustion. 7 shows the distribution of temperature in a combustor. probably leading to effective combustion of the oil due to the increased oil surface area which allows the oil to contact easily with O2 in the air. 8 demonstrate that the concentrations of NO and NOx in exhaust gas decreased with an increase in water content. the gas components presenting in the vessel were analyzed by gas chromatography. As shown in Fig. Fig.726 Y. the lowering of combustion temperature was significant near the atomizing nozzle. . 7 demonstrate that the latent heat of vaporization of water presenting in the emulsion was considerably responsible for the decrease in combustion temperature with an increase in water content. The temperature during combustion of the emulsion fuel was lower than that of diesel oil. Especially. 5. 9. 8. Photographs of filters contaminated by soot in exhaust gas during combustion of diesel fuel and emulsion fuels prepared by ultrasonic treatment at horn position (h) 60 mm and 298 K. 3. These results may indicate that the chemical species in the mixture of diesel oil and water is cracked under ultrasonication.4. The peaks demonstrating the formation of H2 and CH4 gases can be seen in the chromatogram. / Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21 (2014) 722–728 1250 1200 Temperature [ഒ] 1150 1100 1050 1000 950 Diesel oil 900 Diesel oil/5vol% water content 850 Diesel oil/10vol% water content 800 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Distance from atomizing nozzle [cm] Fig.

. meanwhile high [1] H.). Emulsions and Emulsion Technology. Ultrason. The results of sonication treatment for diesel oil without addition of water are also shown in Fig. New York. Bosenbecker. while the highest viscosity and water surface area increased with the water content. Gedanken.L. / Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 21 (2014) 722–728 727 CH4 H2 molecule weight components such as C23 component decreased. Acoust. it is known that. probably due to chemical effect resulting from ultrasonically-induced cavitation. Garrett. 1974. Kojima. J. Conclusions Retention time [min] Fig. water droplet median diameter and water surface area changed with sonication time.E. 10.D. N. the R values of C20–C22 as well as C23 were negative and the positive R values of low molecule weight components were relatively higher compared with those for diesel oil. Kojima. Pergamon Press.P. The stability of emulsion mixture prepared by ultrasonication depended on the position of a horn tip in the mixture during the preparation. Am. 18 (2011) 789. in the case of sonication treatment of water/diesel mixture.P. indicating that the oil was cracked by ultrasonically-induced cavitation effects. R. Gormley. J. Gil. 19 (2012) 1227. The slight difference in the ultrasonic cracking behavior of the carbon components between water/diesel oil mixture and diesel oil with no addition of water may be attributed to water sonolysis in water/diesel oil. Koda. E. 6–8).V. J. Tanahashi. [12] D. Soc. A. there is the difference in combustion characteristics between the emulsion fuels and diesel oil. Nomura. Ultrason. Chromatogram of chemical components in a gas phase after ultrasonic treatment of water (10 vol%)/diesel oil (90 vol%) for 1 h. A. Puissant. Uribe. [13] G. T. Siqueira. Handbook of Cosmetic Science. New York. low molecule weight components increased with sonication time. J. [11] M. Sonochem.M. the water molecule is dissociated in/around hotspot to form the hydroxyl and hydrogen radicals. J. 19 (2012) 174.A. Palacios-Santander. Ultrason.Y. Ona. 1963. Robert. Macmillan. B. W. Am.L. 1978. Franco-Romano. Ultrason. Kojima et al. In addition. 11 (2004) 47. 4. Ultrason. I. 125 (2009) 1319.). [14] Y. P. [8] A. J. Asakura. 104 (1998) 3115. Sonochem. S. Rosen. viscosity. M. H. during sonication treatment of water.W. As indicated in the Section 3. 9. In general. mixture and the results are summarized in Fig. Ultrason. Soc. Neuenfeldt. Gouvêa. Sonochem. P. Driowya. Acoust.M. The water content in ultrasonically-prepared emulsion fuel of water/diesel oil/surfactant improved combustion characteristics of the diesel oil. Sonochem. Kawaguchi. to investigate physical and chemical characteristics of the fuel.S. Ultrason. The present study suggests that an ultrasonic technology is one of promising methods for preparation of eco-friendly fuel with high emulsion stability. New York. HOO radicals would be formed via the reaction of H radicals with O2 molecules under air atmosphere: The radicals formed via such water sonolysis under air atmosphere are likely to be high reactivity with organic compounds. [9] L. M. 10. 19 (2012) 1127. there was no significant change of them. Cunico. K. Hidalgo-Hidalgo de Cisneros. 10. Sonochem. 12 (2005) 359. The difference in the combustion characteristics may be somewhat due to the cracking phenomena of oil components during ultrasonic preparation shown in Figs.D. S. G. [10] Y.B. 19 (2012) 1132. [2] H. Liu. Wu. Ultrason. Drawanz. S. New York. [6] Y. Bareño. By sonication treatment of both the diesel oil without water and water/diesel oil. Y. E. Y. The highest emulsion stability and smallest median diameter of the water droplet were independent of the water content. Sugiyama. Asakura. [5] S. Change in the amount of the saturated carbon components of C10–C23 in a liquid phase by ultrasonic treatment of water (10 vol%)/diesel oil (90 vol%) mixture and diesel oil for 1 h . The stability. Wu. Lissant (Ed. G.M.J. 9 and 10. Bougrin. Sonochem. Safarifard. Auberger. 15 Diesel oil 10 侊⒦ 10 vol% Water/Diesel oil 侊⒦ R [%] 5 0 Ultrasonic preparation of two-phase water-in-oil emulsion fuel was performed in water/diesel oil/surfactant system using an ultrasonic apparatus with a 28 kHz rod horn.O. after the time reached about 10 and 14 min at the respective water contents of 5 and 10 vol% in mixture. H. References -5 -10 -15 C10 C11 C12 C13 C14 C15 C16 C17 C18 C19 C20 C21 C22 C23 Saturated carbon components Fig. Benhida. Morsali. 8 (2001) 81. Martínez. S. Cubillana-Aguilera. [15] X. Surfactants and Interfacial Phenomena. Ultrason. Experimental result of ultrasonication of water/diesel oil indicated that the oil composition changed during ultrasonication. Marcel Dekker. However. Naranjo-Rodríguez. Kojima. Sonochem.J. Koda. However. [4] M. G. [7] V.3 (Figs. Koda. Sonochem. [3] K. Matsuda. Sonochem. Fujita. V. 17 (2010) 978. J. Wiley. Hibbott (Ed. Surface Active Chemicals. 1972.

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