0 Up votes0 Down votes

13 views12 pagesTJPRC Journals

Jan 10, 2015

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd

TJPRC Journals

© All Rights Reserved

13 views

TJPRC Journals

© All Rights Reserved

- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Untold Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- The Field Updated Ed: The Quest for the Secret Force of the Universe
- The Final Day: A John Matherson Novel
- Bloody Sunday: A Thriller
- WomanCode: Perfect Your Cycle, Amplify Your Fertility, Supercharge Your Sex Drive, and Become a Power Source
- The Hormone Reset Diet: The 21-day Diet That Resets Your Metabolism
- The Making of the Atomic Bomb
- Blackfish City: A Novel
- Blackfish City: A Novel
- Wheels of Life: A User's Guide to the Chakra System
- Clinton Cash: The Untold Story of How and Why Foreign Governments and Businesses Helped Make Bill and Hillary Rich
- Chernobyl 01:23:40: The Incredible True Story of the World's Worst Nuclear Disaster
- The Prize: The Epic Quest for Oil, Money & Power
- Multipliers, Revised and Updated: How the Best Leaders Make Everyone Smarter
- Zero Hour
- The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life, Work, and Team With Positive Energy
- The Keto Reset Diet: Reboot Your Metabolism in 21 Days and Burn Fat Forever
- The Power of Full Engagement: Managing Energy, Not Time, is the Key to High Performance and Personal Renewal
- Midnight in Chernobyl: The Story of the World's Greatest Nuclear Disaster
- Positive Energy: 10 Extraordinary Prescriptions for Transforming Fatigue, Stress, and Fear into Vibrance, Strength, and Love

You are on page 1of 12

ISSN(P): 2250-155X; ISSN(E): 2278-943X

Vol. 4, Issue 6, Dec 2014, 53-64

TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

PLACEMENT TO MAXIMIZE LOADABILITY

Y. V. BALARAMA KRISHNA RAO1, R. SRINIVASA RAO2 & V. V. K. REDDY3

1

2

Director, NBKR Institute of Science and Technology, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a comparative analysis on optimal placement of SVC and TCSC devices to maximize the

transfer capacity of the power system. Ant Bee Colony (ABC) algorithm is applied to determine the optimal location and

sizing of these FACTS devices that maximizes system load ability, reduces real power loss, reduces voltage deviation,

with minimum cost of installation. Three case studies namely base case, only SVC, Only TCSC are considered. The

proposed method has been tested on IEEE 6 and 30 bus systems. The results indicate that the proposed method gives better

solution and will be useful in power system planning.

KEYWORDS: FACTS, TCSC, SVC, ABC, System Load Ability, Optimal Location

INTRODUCTION

The demand on the power system keep on increasing everyday in this globalized competitive world, so electric

power system utilities have to operate close to their operating limits to meet the uncertain maximum demand. With the use

of FACTS devices, the electric utilities are able to control the magnitude and direction of real and reactive power flow,

increase transmission line transfer capability, minimizing real power loss and hence enhance the better utilization of

existing power systems [1]. Available transfer capability (ATC) is a measure of the transfer capability remaining in a

physical transmission network for further commercial activity of committed uses. It is observed form the literature [2-20]

this is often modelled as a optimization problem with non-linear objectives and constraints and state of art traditional and

non-traditional optimization techniques are applied to tackle this problem. In [2] an evolutionary approach is presented to

solve the optimal placement of Multi type FACTS devices. In [3] Bifurcation analysis and Eigenvector analysis is applied

to determine the maximum loading point. FACTS devices are solid-state converters that have the capability of control of

various electrical parameters in transmission circuits. Modelling of FACTS devices for power flow studies and the

integration of those devices into power flow studies were reported [4, 5]. The application of FACTS technology offers an

effective and promising solution for enhancing the usable power transfer capability, and hence improves transmission

services of the competitive electricity market [6]. Population based, cooperative and competitive stochastic search

algorithm such Genetic Algorithm (GA) [7-10] is implemented to solve complex problems efficiently. Non-traditional

optimization technique, genetic algorithm is used to optimize the various process parameters involved in introduction of

FACTS devices such as the location of the device, their type, and their rated value of the devices in a power system.

Application of PSO [11, 12] for solving various optimization problems in electrical engineering is explained.

The optimal location of FACTS devices for reducing the production cost along with the devices cost using real

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

54

power flow performance index was explained in [13]. A hybrid tabu search and simulated annealing was proposed to

minimize the generator fuel cost in optimal power flow control with multi-type FACTS devices [14].In some approaches

Power flow algorithm with the presence of TCSC and UPFC has been formulated and solved[15]. A hybrid GA approach

to solve optimal power flow in a power system incorporating FACTS devices has been reported [16, 17]. A Nondominated Sorting Particle Swarm Optimization (NSPSO) is used to solve a mixed continuous discreet Multi-objective

optimization problem which consist of optimal location and size of Static VAR Compensators (SVC) and Thyristor

Controlled Series Capacitors (TCSC) in order to maximize Static Voltage Stability Margin (SVSM), reduce power losses

(PL) and minimize load Voltage Deviations (VD)[23]. In [24] Optimal placement using the sensitivity of transmission loss

with respect to the control parameters of devices using the interior point method for the minimizing real power loss and

multiply with new equation of SVC and TCSC. The new equation of SVC is sum of reactive power flow at the bus and the

new equation of TCSC is sum of real power loss in transmission line.

In this paper, application of ABC algorithm for optimal placement of FACTS devices which has minimum cost of

installation, to maximize the system loadability (MSL), while satisfying the power system constraints, for SVC and TCSC

is presented.. The variables for the optimization for each device are its location in the network, its setting and the

installation cost, in the case of single-type devices. TCSC has been modelled as a variable line reactance inserted in the line

and SVC is modelled as a reactive source injected both ends of the line.

Computer simulations were done for IEEE 6 and 30 bus systems for the base case without FACTS device and

with the insertion of SVC and TCSC. In the test cases with SVC and TCSC it is observed that SL cannot be increased

beyond a limit after placing. The maximum value of SL that can be achieved without violating the constraints is known as

maximum system loadability (MSL). The MSL, minimum number of FACTS devices required to attain the MSL and the

optimal installation cost of FACTS devices are obtained for single type of FACTS devices SVC and TCSC using ABC

algorithm.

The power system as well as the FACTS devices is modelled using power flow equations. The FACTS devices

considered in this paper are Static Var Compensators (SVC) and Thyristor Controlled Series Compensators (TCSC), since

these FACTS devices, besides Phase Angle Regulators, are used most frequently in power systems [21].

SVC Variable Susceptance Model

An SVC is shunt-connected device with the line at both ends and influences the voltage VSVC at the bus to which

it is connected by injecting or absorbing reactive power QSVC [1]. This characteristic is modelled by a shunt-connected

variable susceptance BSVC at both ends of the transmission line as shown in figure 1.This model represents the fundamental

frequency equivalent of all shunt modules making up the SVC. This model is an improved version of SVC models. In this

paper only this model is considered for case studies

55

ABC Algorithm Based Comparative Analysis of Optimal SVC and TCSC Placement to Maximize Load Ability

QSVC = V2SVC * BSVC

(1)

As the size of the SVC is limited, a lower (BSVCmin) and an upper (BSVCmax,) bound exist for the effective

susceptance BSVC, thus,

BSVCmin BSVC BSVCmax.

TCSC Variable Reactance Model

A TCSC is connected in series with a transmission line and is able to influence the active power flow through the

line by adapting the reactance of the line [22]. Hence, the device is modelled as a variable reactance XTCSC connected in

series with the line, as shown in Figure 2. The total reactance Xline of the line including the TCSC is therefore given by

Xline new= Xold + XTCSC

(2)

Where Xold is the reactance of the line itself. The effective reactance XTCSC of the TCSC is limited to a range

between XTCSCmin and XTCSCmax determined by the size of the device.

XTCSCmin XTCSC XTCSCmax

SVC Load Flow Models

The circuit shown in Figure 1 is used to derive the SVC's nonlinear power equations required by Newton's load

flow method. The voltages and angles at the buses i and j are Vi, i and Vj, j respectively. The real and reactive power

flow between the buses i to bus j can be written as follows.

n

Pgi Pdi Pi VV

i j Gij cos( ij ) + Bij sin( ij ) = 0

j =1

(3)

n

i j

Gij sin(ij ) Bij cos(ij ) = 0

j =1

www.tjprc.org

(4)

editor@tjprc.org

56

The effective reactive bus injection by SVC is determined and that buses are treated like voltage controlled bus[1].

TCSC Load Flow Models

n

'

Pgi Pdi Pi VV

i j Gij 'cos( ij ) + Bij sin( ij ) = 0

j =1

(5)

Qgi Qdi Qi VV

i j

Gij sin(ij ) Bij 'cos(ij ) = 0

j =1

(6)

V g i = C o n st if Q g i m in Q g i Q g i m ax

Gij1,Bij1 is the modified line conductance and susceptance due to TCSC reactance which is treated as a variable.

Facts Devices Constraints

The injected reactive power of SVC at the bus,QSVC is considered within the limits is given by

The reactance of TCSC inserted at in the transmission line XTCSC is considered within the limits is given by

PROBLEM FORMULATION

Installation Cost

SVC Installation Cost

The implementation of the variable shunt susceptance models in a Newton-Raphson load flow algorithm requires

the incorporation of a non standard type of bus, namely PVB. This is a controlled bus where the nodal voltage magnitude

and active and reactive powers are specified while the SVCs total susceptance BSVC is handled as state variable. If BSVC

is within limits, the specified voltage magnitude is attained and the controlled bus remains PVB-type. However, if BSVC

goes out of limits, so the bus becomes PQ-type. In this situation, the SVC will act as an unregulated voltage compensator

whose production or absorption of reactive power capabilities will be a function of the nodal voltage at the SVC point of

connection to get the voltage 1.0 p. u. Cost of SVC. The cost of installation of SVC as taken from Siemens database and

reported in [19, 20] given by

CSVC = 0.0003S2 0.3051S + 127.38 in $/KVAR

(7)

IC=CSVC*S*1000 in $

(8)

where S is the operating range of the FACTS devices in MVAR given by S = |Q2| |Q1| where Q is the reactive

power flow in the line after installing FACTS device in MVAR and Q1 is the reactive power flow in the line before

installing FACTS device in MVAR

57

ABC Algorithm Based Comparative Analysis of Optimal SVC and TCSC Placement to Maximize Load Ability

The cost of installation of TCSC taken from Siemens database and reported in [19, 20]. The costs of installation

of FACTS device TCSC is given by

CTCSC = 0.0015S2 0.7130S + 153.75

(9)

IC=CTCSC*S*1000 in $

(10)

Transmission Losses

The proposed algorithm also considers the transmission loss minimization for selecting optimal location of SVC.

Transmission loss minimization is responsible for the redistribution of the reactive power throughout the network, which in

turn induces changes in the active power generated by the slack bus. It has been observed that if the network losses were

reduced in only 0.15%, a more uniform voltage profile was observed at all the buses of a power system. The real power

losses can be calculated using (12)

TL =

igen

Pgi Pdi

i =1

(11)

Voltage Deviations

In a power system, it is desirable to maintain the voltage deviations within 5%. In this paper, the optimal

location and size of SVC is determined by observing minimum value of VD. Voltage deviation is calculated as follows

n

VD = ( Vi ref Vi ) 2

i =1

(12)

Vi Voltage at ith b

Vi refReference Voltage at ith bus

Line Flow Limits Violation

It is important to maintain the line flow limits of the transmission lines within the limits. The line flow deviation

(LFD) is calculated by

LFD =

ijlines

(13)

LFij ref Line flow limit of line ij

System Loadability

The system loadability (SL) is calculated by using the equation given by

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

58

Pd i = Pd 0

(14)

Intial system load and system load after installation of ith set of FACTS devices. Uniform loading of the load is

assumed in this paper. The optimal placement of FACT devices can be expressed mathematically as follows

Max

Subject to

f ( ,V , , P, Q, X svc , X TCSC ) = 0

P min gi Pgi P max gi

Q min gi Qg i Q max gi

V

min

i

ViV

max

i

X TCSCi min X TCSCi X TCSCi max

0 1

(15)

W1-W5 are weightings for the multi objective functions.

f (V, , P, Q) is the power flow equations described by equations(3-6).

In the ABC model, the colony consists of three groups of bees: employed bees, onlookers and scouts. It is

assumed that there is only one artificial employed bee for each food source. In other words, the number of employed bees

in the colony is equal to the number of food sources around the hive. Employed bees go to their food source and come back

to hive and dance on this area.

The employed bee whose food source has been abandoned becomes a scout and starts to search for finding a new

food source. Onlookers watch the dances of employed bees and choose food sources depending on dances.

The main steps of the algorithm are given below: Initial food sources are produced for all employed bees Each

employed bee goes to a food source in her memory and determines a neighbour source, then evaluates its nectar amount

and dances in the hive Each onlooker watches the dance of employed bees and chooses one of their sources depending on

the dances, and then goes to that source. After choosing a neighbour around that, she evaluates its nectar amount.

Abandoned food sources are determined and are replaced with the new food sources discovered by scouts. The best food

source found so far is registered until requirements are met.

In ABC, a population based algorithm, the position of a food source represents a possible solution to the

optimization problem and the nectar amount of a food source corresponds to the quality (fitness) of the associated solution.

The number of the employed bees is equal to the number of solutions in the population. At the first step, a randomly

distributed initial population (food source positions) is generated. After initialization, the population is subjected to repeat

the cycles of the search processes of the employed, onlooker, and scout bees, respectively. An employed bee produces a

ABC Algorithm Based Comparative Analysis of Optimal SVC and TCSC Placement to Maximize Load Ability

59

modification on the source position in her memory and discovers a new food source position. Provided that the nectar

amount of the new one is higher than that of the previous source, the bee memorizes the new source position and forgets

the old one. Otherwise she keeps the position of the one in her memory. After all employed bees complete the search

process; they share the position information of the sources with the onlookers on the dance area.

Each onlooker evaluates the nectar information taken from all employed bees and then chooses a food source

depending on the nectar amounts of sources. As in the case of the employed bee, she produces a modification on the source

position in her memory and checks its nectar amount. Providing that its nectar is higher than that of the previous one,

the bee memorizes the new position and forgets the old one. The sources abandoned are determined and new sources are

randomly produced to be replaced with the abandoned ones by artificial scouts.

Procedures of ABC

Move the scouts only if the counters of the employed bees hit the limit

(16)

Where Pi is the probability of selecting the ith employed bee

th

Movement of the Onlookers:

(17)

where i is The position of the onlooker bee, t is The iteration number, k is The randomly chosen employed bee,

j is The dimension of the solution and is A series of random variable in the range[0, 1].

The Movement of the Scout Bees Follows Equation

(18)

where r is a random number in the range[0.1].

CASE STUDIES

The proposed algorithm for optimal placement of SVC and TCSC has been tested on IEEE 6 and 30 bus systems.

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

60

Pijb and Qijb are the real and reactive power flow in the line ij before placing FACTS device, respectively. Pija and Qija are

the real and reactive power flow in the line ij after placing FACTS device, respectively. TLb and TLa are the transmission

loss occurring in the system before and after installation of FACTS devices SVC and TCSC.

IEEE 6 Bus System

The bus data and line data of the six bus sample system are taken from [17] and it contains three generator and

three load buses with 11 transmission lines. The location, settings of FACTS devices and optimal installation cost are

obtained using the ABC algorithm for optimal placement of SVC and TCSC devices and it is given in Table 1. To prove

the effectiveness of optimally placing SVC and TCSC in a power network three case studies are considered. They are

with SVC

With TCSC

Table 1: IEEE 6 Bus System

In the SVC placement it is placed in 4 lines where as it is placed in 3 lines in [12].The MSL as well as IC

determined in this paper is better that reported in [12].The transmission loss also minimized for increased demand is an

added advantage.

In the TCSC placement it placed only in two lines where as it placed in 5 lines in [12].The MSL is as good while

cost slightly higher as in the ref[12].It has been observed that the results in [12 for TCSC placement violate the line flow

limits of lines (1-2),(1-4),(1-5)and (2-6)

IEEE 30 Bus System

The bus data and line data of the 30 bus system are taken from Matpower3.0 and this system comprises of one

slack bus, 5 PV buses, 24 PQ buses and 41 lines. The location, settings of FACTS devices and optimal installation cost are

obtained using the ABC algorithm for optimal placement of SVC and TCSC devices and it is given in Table 2. To prove

the effectiveness of optimally placing SVC and TCSC in a power network three case studies are considered. They are

with SVC

With TCSC

ABC Algorithm Based Comparative Analysis of Optimal SVC and TCSC Placement to Maximize Load Ability

61

In the SVC placement it is placed in 3 lines where as it is placed in 8 lines in [12].The MSL is as good while IC

determined in this case higher than reported in [12].The transmission loss is slightly increased for increased demand. In [12]

the line flow limit is ignored so the result offered by this ABC is more applicable in real time.In the TCSC placement it

placed only in 4 lines where as it placed in 8 lines in [12]. The MSL as well as IC determined in this paper is better that

reported in [12].

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, a method for optimal placement and sizing of SVC & TCSC is found to minimize the cost of

installation of SVC and TCSC and for improving the system load ability. Simulations are performed using ABC algorithm

on IEEE6 and 30 bus systems. The location of the devices, settings of FACTS devices and optimal installation cost are

obtained for optimal placement of FACTS devices SVC and TCSC. In the IEEE 6and 30 test systems TCSC gives

maximum system load ability at minimum cost of installation. It is also observed from test results that in IEEE 6 bus

system the transmission loss is decreased for increased system load ability and in IEEE 30 bus system the transmission loss

is slightly increased for increased system load ability.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors sincerely thank the management and authorities of Krishna Chaitanya Institute of Technology and

sciences for providing the facilities to carry out this research

REFERENCES

1.

Hingorani, N. G. and Gyugyi, L. 1999. Understanding FACTS: Concepts and Technology of Flexible AC

Transmission Systems. Wiley-IEEE Press.

2.

W. Ongskul, P. Jirapong, Optimal allocation of FACTS devices to enhance total transfer capability using

evolutionary programming, IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, Vol..5, pp.4175-4178,

23-26 May. 2005

3.

A. Kazemi, and B. Badrzadeh, Modeling and Simulation of SVC and TCSC to Study Their Limits on Maximum

Loadability Point, Electrical Power and Energy systems, Vol. 26, pp. 619-626, Apr. 2004.

4.

J.G. Douglas, G.T. Heydt, Power flow control and power flow studies for systems with FACTS devices, IEEE

Trans. Power Syst. 13 (1) (1998) 6065.

5.

D. Povh, Modeling of FACTS in power system studies, in: IEEE Power Engineering Society Winter Meeting, vol.

2, January 2000, pp. 14351439.

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

62

6.

B.V. Manikandan, S. Charles Raja* and P. Venkatesh* Available Transfer Capability Enhancement with FACTS

Devices in the Deregulated Electricity Market Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology Vol. 6, No. 1,

pp. 14~24, 2011

7.

Prakash G. Burade, Dr. J. B. Helonde: By Using Genetic Algorithm Method for Optimal Location of Facts

Devices in the Deregulated Power System, Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology p.f.64-71.

8.

L. J. Cai, I. Erlich, Optimal choice and allocation of FACTS devices using genetic algorithms, in: Proceedings on

Twelfth Intelligent Systems Application to Power Systems Conference, 2003, pp. 16.

9.

A. B. Bhattacharyya, B. S. K. Goswami Optimal Placement of FACTS devices by Genetic Algorithm for the

Increased Load Ability of a Power System World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology Vol: 51

2011-03-26,

10. L. J. Cai, I. Erlich, Optimal choice and allocation of FACTS devices in deregulated electricity market using

genetic algorithms, in: IEEE Conference (0-7803-8718-X/04), 2004.

11. H. Yoshida, K. Kawata, Y. Fukuyama, S. Takayama, Y. Nakanishi, A particle swarm optimization for reactive

power and voltage control considering voltage security assessment, IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 15 (2000)

12321239.

12. M. Saravanan, S. Mary Raja Slochanal, P. Venkatesh, J. Prince Stephen Abraham, Application of particle swarm

optimization technique for optimal location of FACTS devices considering cost of installation and system

loadability, Electric Power Systems Research Volume 77, Issues 34, March 2007, Pages 276283

13. S.N. Singh, A. K. David, A new approach for placement of FACTS devices in open power markets, IEEE

Power Eng. Rev. 21 (9) (2001) 5860.

14. P. Bhasaputra,W. Ongsakul, Optimal power flow with multi-type of FACTS devices by hybrid TS/SA approach,

in: IEEE Proceedings on International Conference on Industrial Technology, vol. 1, December 2002, pp. 285290.

15. N. P. Padhy, M. A. Abdel Moamen, Power flow control and solutions with multiple and multi-type FACTS

devices, Electr. Power Syst. Res. (October) (2004).

16. T.S. Chung, Y. Z. Li, A hybrid GA approach for OPF with consideration of FACTS devices, IEEE Power Eng.

Rev. 21 (2) (2001) 4750.

17. A. J. Wood, B. F. Woolenberg, Power Generation, Operation and Control, Wiley, 1996, ISBN 0-471-58699-4.

18. S. Gerbex, R. Cherkaoui, A. J. Germond, Optimal location of multi-type FACTS devices by means of genetic

algorithm, IEEE Trans. Power Syst.16 (3) (2001) 537544.

19. S.N. Singh, A.K. David, A new approach for placement of FACTS devices in open power markets, IEEE Power

Eng. Rev. 21 (9) (2001) 5860.

20. P. Bhasaputra, W. Ongsakul, Optimal power flow with multi-type of FACTS devices by hybrid TS/SA

approach, in: IEEE Proceedings on International Conference on Industrial Technology, vol. 1, December 2002,

pp. 285290.

ABC Algorithm Based Comparative Analysis of Optimal SVC and TCSC Placement to Maximize Load Ability

63

21. A. Edris, R. Adapa, M. H. Baker, L. Bohmann, K. Clark, K. Habashi, L. Gyugyi, J. Lemay, A. S. Mehraban, A. K.

Meyers, J. Reeve, F. Sener, D. R. Torgerson, and R. R. Wood. Proposed terms and definitions for flexible ac

transmission system (FACTS). Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, 12(4):1848, 1997.

22. Gabriela Hug-Glanzmann, Goran Andersson, Coordinated Control of FACTS Devices in Power Systems for

Security Enhancement, Bulk Power System Dynamics and Control - Vii, August 19-24, 2007, Charleston, South

Carolina, Usa.

23. R. Benabid, M. Boudour, M. A. Abido, Optimal location and setting of SVC and TCSC devices using

non-dominated sorting particle swarm optimization,Electric Power Systems Research Volume 79, Issue 12,

December 2009, Pages 16681677.

24. Chusanapiputt, S.; Phoomvuthisarn, S Biansoongnern, S., Optimal SVC and TCSC Placement for Minimization

of Transmission Losses International Conference on Power System Technology, 2006, PowerCon 2006.22-26

Oct. 2006 Page(s):1 5

www.tjprc.org

editor@tjprc.org

- Contor Viko Multi PhaseUploaded byVali Istrate
- CYMGRD Manual-GroundingUploaded byahmedanas
- IET Labs RTD SimulatorUploaded byJeff Kendall
- SAT BRP Event record 11-09-2013.pdfUploaded bypvhungdktd
- Drive Guard Safe-Off Option for PowerFlex 40P-70 AC DrivesUploaded byGanesh Dey
- ABB-Std CT_VT Ratings-1VAP420006-FL.pdfUploaded byPradeep_Vashist
- Temp. Rise Test SDF72.5(1600A)Uploaded byabdul
- 1. Silabus IML KD 3.3Uploaded byplong bolong
- end_to_end_-_distance.docxUploaded byRichard Regidor
- Plaquette SIMSEN GeneralUploaded byAnonymous KbCB89P
- D-000-11F0-0100V_0_0010.pdfUploaded byDat Tran
- Rsl Dea2313Uploaded byELEKTRIK KVBL
- 6_17_2013Uploaded byAdel Fawzi
- Fisher-Price Rainforest ManualUploaded byIbrahim Kalloufi
- TeganganUploaded byIlham Sainal
- InterpretationsUploaded byEdrianCliffDelPilar
- ETD59Uploaded byJuan Gil Roca
- Bengkel Skema Pemarkahan Fizik Kertas`3Uploaded bySalmizam Izam
- DBP1611UDE2_ENG_IM_003Uploaded byminsky91
- Nepa PlotsUploaded byozoemena29
- 2sd1126Uploaded byneohide
- vczmx6000-oi-mu2h2806ge25r0107Uploaded bybogddy_c30
- Mixaco Motor Test Report.docxUploaded byDuraiRaja
- List of FiguresUploaded bysubodh426
- p (23)Uploaded byamrinder
- LAB ML-313 2018-1Uploaded byJose Alejandro Orellana Solis
- Quotation T8 Tube Light 28wattUploaded bynahidul202
- Dokumen.tips Sf6 Disconnecting Circuit Breaker Ltb 145d1b Disconnecting Circuit BreakerUploaded bymane9
- Jadual Pembahagian Wim - Cu1Uploaded byAmirul Syafiq
- Cable Selection Table for CapacitorUploaded byShashiSharma

- 81IJMPERDOCT201981Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 111.IJMPERDOCT2019111Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 110.IJMPERDOCT2019110Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 109IJMPERDOCT2019109Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 108IJMPERDOCT2019108Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 107IJMPERDOCT2019107Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 106.IJMPERDOCT2019106Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 105.IJMPERDOCT2019105Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 102.IJMPERDOCT2019102Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 99.IJMPERDOCT201999Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 98.IJMPERDOCT201998Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 95.IJMPERDOCT201995Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 94.IJMPERDOCT201994Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 93.IJMPERDOCT201993Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 92.IJMPERDOCT201992Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 91.IJMPERDOCT201991Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 87.IJMPERDOCT201987Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 90.IJMPERDOCT201990Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 89.IJMPERDOCT201989Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 88.IJMPERDOCT201988Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 86IJMPERDOCT201986Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 85.IJMPERDOCT201985Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 84.IJMPERDOCT201984Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 83.IJMPERDOCT201983Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 82.IJMPERDOCT201982Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 51.IJMPERDOCT201951Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 20.IJMPERDOCT201920Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 12.IJMPERDOCT201912Uploaded byTJPRC Publications
- 05.IJMPERDOCT20195Uploaded byTJPRC Publications

- How_to_Create_Adventure_Games.pdfUploaded bycstroeh
- Sliding Shoe Pump - SingleUploaded byRicardo David
- Databases LabUploaded byKiran Kumar M
- Gold MetallurgyUploaded bylluvia2010
- 77 Good Habits to Live a Better Life - S.J. ScottUploaded bydmac058
- Sheldon HistoryUploaded byfgrefe
- Design At 10gbps Using MATLABUploaded byMatlabAsignmentExperts
- Lm Cs6513 Cg Cse v QbUploaded byJinuRoy
- discourse community ethnography - draftUploaded byapi-296317037
- BHU-147-159Uploaded bysimantik_dowerah
- 57095458-Case-Study.docUploaded byNgocHa Ma
- POST Newspaper for 02nd of January, 2016Uploaded byPOST Newspapers
- 5741_2598_club_new_hire_guide_2019Uploaded bySarah Shin
- UT Dallas Syllabus for opre6340.501.07f taught by Kathryn Stecke (kes021000)Uploaded byUT Dallas Provost's Technology Group
- End Semester Autumn 2014152Uploaded byDevang Thakkar
- CONMIX C800 2011Uploaded byFredj Ben Salem
- Computer Aided Design of Microwave CircuitsUploaded byzhoufei
- Cramer July QuarterlyUploaded byRob Port
- Swarnim GujaratUploaded byRangam Trivedi
- Resume Chp 5 Kel 5 EDIT ARKOUploaded byArko Setiyo Prabowo
- PalladiumUploaded bySilverio Feola
- Thrilling Tales Adventure - The Mummy's RevengeUploaded byJohn Strickler
- boi duong HSG TA 10.docUploaded byVânAnh
- FortiWebUploaded byPablo Daniel Miño
- DVD Rewriter Gt-10nUploaded byoscaralvear67
- cua plastic recycling fact sheetUploaded byapi-265188971
- formation of styrene carbonate from styrene oxide and co2Uploaded byapi-306299597
- Removing Uterine FibroidsUploaded byAde Churie Tanjaya
- Mid-Semester presentations & Reflections (2).pptxUploaded byCharlieScheftic
- Gene Gateway WorkbookUploaded byAndréNadal

## Much more than documents.

Discover everything Scribd has to offer, including books and audiobooks from major publishers.

Cancel anytime.