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International Journal of Industrial

Engineering & Technology (IJIET)

ISSN(P): 2277-4769; ISSN(E): 2278-9456
Vol. 4, Issue 6, Dec 2014, 11-18
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.


Assistant Professor, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Gandhigram, Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India

The current industrial engineering system gives more importance to production process in clothing Industry.
This typical system creates high amount of non-value added activity particularly high rework and rejection, poor line
balancing, poor machine maintenance etc. Large amount research findings concluded that the high production philosophy
is connected with superior machine maintenance .The machine related problems are addressed through Total Productive
Maintenance (TPM) system, which is an important tools under the umbrella of Lean production philosophy.In this research
work the researcher team used TPM as a key lean tools to address the said issues at ABC Clothing factory, India. T. Shirt
production layout was selected for this study, where in 5 different sewing machines were chosen for TPM implementation.
Performance efficiency levels of these sewing machines were studied before and after the TPM implantation. It found that
15% to 30% of improvement in performance improvement and also found the lead time improvement due to TPM
implementation on sewing machines as well as interaction effect with kaizen tool is also exist with respect to product lead
time improvement. Emotional balance of the employees (Samuel Thavaraj 2014) may also have an influence on effective
implementation of the TPM.

KEYWORDS: Sewing Machine, TPM, Lean Manufacturing, Product Line, Keizan

After the industrial revolution, manufacturing firms began to often to employ complex machines in the production
floor.These complex machines disturbed the production process when the machine break down occurs. As a result, the
machine engineers were developed to execute the maintenance functions separately. This kindof approach emerged as
maintenance strategy which is today called break down maintenance. This strategy was popular in the world till 1950s,
emphasizedthe repairing and replacement of machine components after the machines stopped working.This break down
maintenance strategy embraces the relative approach. Later the maintenance engineering and management fraternities
began to develop maintenance strategies that aimed to reduce or eliminate the break downs of machines.In this direction of
progress, the world witnessed the emergence of a revolutionary strategy, which today called total productive
maintenance(TPM). TPM emerged in Japanese companies during the beginning of the 1970s. Later, it was propagated by
Japanese institute of plant maintenance (JIPM) and an expert by name Naakajima. Today the TPM is used in both
academics and practitioners as a world class manufacturing strategy (Ahuja and khamba, 2008).

The objective of lean is to create the most value for the customer while consuming the least amount of resources
to design, build, and sustain the product. TPM is one of the processes control tool in lean manufacturing process, which


B. Senthilkumar & H. Samuel Thavaraj

focuses on stabilizing the process, institutionalizing thechange, and driving continuous improvement activities.
The production processes of many manufacturing operations are not in controlnor are they performing at the levels
necessary to support a lean environment; therefore, there is a need to address these areas as part of the implementation.
As inventory levels are reduced, the uptime on machinery becomes even more important. Because there is little inventory
to buffer unplanned downtime in a lean environment, when a machine goes down the entire production line goes down;
therefore, a formal TPM program is instrumental in supporting a lean manufacturing implementation (William M. Fled,
2001). There are three main aspects of a TPM program: preventative maintenance, corrective maintenance, and
maintenance prevention. Each one of these components has a different mission and required outcome as part of the TPM
program. The effort here is aimed at performing preventative maintenance actions on equipment in a preplanned/scheduled
manner, as opposed to in an unplanned or chaotic manner. Also, the inclusion of operators in this program, specifically to
conduct daily maintenance on the equipment and identify abnormalities as they occur, is paramount to successful
preventative maintenance. By doing this, the throughput and available capacity on equipment are significantly improved
(William M. Fled., 2001).
A unique feature of TPM is that it emphasizes the total participation of employees to improve the performance of
the machineries (Cooke, 2000; chan et al., 2005). TPM is incorporated with the preventive maintenance concepts (Eti et al.,
2004). The applications of TPM was extended to achieve various other strategies, one among them is the application of
TPM in lean manufacturing paradigm. As concluded by Senthilkumar. B & Sampathv. r (2012)Lean manufacturing
minimize the sewing machine down time by suitable implementation of TPM.
As per Shirose and Kunio(1992)there are in actuality six main reasons, with associated causes, for throughput
losses on machinery (Figure 1). Shirose identified these losses in his book, TPM for Workshop Leaders, and declared them
to benegative obstacles to efficiency. The negative was is by eliminatingthe obstacles to efficiency obstacles that in TPM
are called the sixbig losses.Each of these losses has an impact on the throughput and planned capacityof equipment.

Figure 1: Total Productive Maintenance: Six Big Losses (Shirose and Kunio (1992)
Machine breakdown is one of the major headaches for people related to production. The reliability of the
equipment on the shop floor is very important because if any one of the machines is down the entire shop floor
productivity may be nil. The tool that takes care of these sudden breakdowns and helps maintenance as well as production
workers to minimize these unplanned breakdowns is called total productive maintenance. Total Productive Maintenance
(TPM) is a maintenance program, which involves a newly defined concept for maintaining plants and equipment. The goal

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3857

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

An Evaluation of TPM Implementation in Clothing Industry in India-a Lean Philosophy Based Approach


of the TPM program is to increase production, increase employee morale and job satisfaction (Bisen and Srivastava 2009).
TPM is set of tools, which implemented in an organization as a whole gives the best utilization of machines with least
disruption of production. This is about the involvement of production workers in the day to day general maintenance of
machines like cleaning, lubricating etc. which saves the time of skilled maintenance person at the same time the production
workers are made more responsible in maintaining their machines

This proposed research is conducted at ABC Clothing Ltd., India whose major products are knitted fabric based
garments. To address the current issues of the industry, the researcher recorded the current level of performance
efficiency of selected sewing machines in the product line subsequently after proper implementation of TPM the
revised performance efficiency was recorded. In this regard machines downtime due to maintenance issues were
recorded on regular interval.
Secondly, the research team implemented the TPM initiative along with kaizen implementation towards the
reduction of product lead time in the same product line. To evaluate the performance the lead time is recorded before
and after implementation of TPM
Product Selection

Figure 2: Knitted Crew Neck T. Shirt

In this research work, the single jersey knitted fabric based T. Shirt-Crew neck type production line is selected for
TPM implementation where the following types of sewing machines were selected such as the table 1.
Table 1: Details of Machines Used for TPM
S. No





Machine Specification
Single Needle Lock
stitch(SNLS) machine
with flatbed
Five thread over lock
(5TOL) stitch machine
with submerged bed
Five thread flat lock
(5TFL) stich machine
with flatbed

No of Sewing Machines
Selected for Implementation


TPM is set of practice, which when implemented in an organization as a whole gives the best utilization of
machines with least disruption of production. Machine breakdown is one of the major headaches for people related to


B. Senthilkumar & H. Samuel Thavaraj

production. The reliability of the equipment on the shop floor is very important because if any one of the machines is down
the entire shop floor productivity may be affected. The tool that takes care of these sudden breakdowns and makes
maintenance as well as production workers to minimize these unplanned breakdowns is called total productive
The goal of this is to eventually train the operators to look after the equipment in their workstation (Nakajimi
1988). In this research the TPM focus is to provide assignments like machine inspection, cleaning, lubrication, needle
replacement and basic machine setting tasks to the machine operator. This frees up the technicians or maintenance team for
productive maintenance, which includes higher value-added activities such as equipment improvement, overhauls, training,
etc. The key measure of TPM is machine effectiveness, which includes availability, performance efficiency, and Overall
Equipment Effectiveness (OEE).

Availability =(loading time down time)/ loading time

Performance efficiency = (net operating time lost time) / net operating time
Accurate equipment records are essential in order to identify potential problems (Hartmann1992).This TPM tool

is in implemented in T. Shirt product line for the selected sewing machines suitably and the benefit of this implementation
is monitored subsequently. Few of the maintenance activities mentioned below, which were earlier done by the
maintenance team, would be assigned to the machine operator/team members in the module.

Broken needle replacement

Foot pedal adjustment

Finger guard setting

Pressure bar setting

Thread tension adjustment

Bobbin case tension adjustment

For this task the particular sewing machine operators are trained exclusively in the machine maintenance and

trouble shooting for about 15 days in the above mentioned skill sets.


Analysis of Sewing Machine Performance Due to TPM Implementation
The TPM tool has been implemented in selected lean layout. The researcher is interested to find the influence of
TPM on performance efficiency of the sewing machine. So four machines from three modules of T. Shirt production
system are taken for this study. The average break down of sewing machine per day due to maintenance related problems
are analyzed before implementing TPM tool. With the average break down data, the performance efficiency of the sewing
machine is calculated. The same performance efficiency of the sewing machine is calculated after TPM tool
implementation. Both the calculated data are plotted in the following graph.

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3857

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0


An Evaluation of TPM Implementation in Clothing Industry in India-a Lean Philosophy Based Approach

Figure 3: Influence of TPM Tool on Performance Efficiency of the Sewing Machine

The above graph indicates that the influence of TPM tool has significantly increases the sewing machine
performance in all the cases. Because of the TPM tool implementation, the operator gets additional skills of
troubleshooting of sewing machines, basic maintenance and lubrication. Due to this the operator will not expect help from
maintenance team which reduces the sewing machine idle time significantly, whereas the actual maintenance team will be
involved in other development tasks.
Analysis of Interaction Effect of Kaizen and TPM on Lead Time
The researcher has analyzed the interaction effect of TPM and Kaizen on production lead time reduction at
T. Shirt product line layout. The study is conducted for analyzing production lead time for making 100 pieces of T. Shirt
garments. Two way ANOVA tool is utilized to study the same. For that, two level of experiment was executed and for each
level combination the experiment is replicated five times. The following tables indicate the details of experiment
Table 2: Interaction Effects of Kaizen and TPM on Lead Time of T. Shirt Garment
Production Lead Time for
100 Pcs of Garment
Without Kaizen
With Kaizen

Without TPM

With TPM



The tests Hypotheses are as follows

Ho: There is no interaction effect between TPM and Kaizen on Lead time
H1: Interaction effect is exist between TPM and Kaizen on Lead time
Table 3: Between-Subjects Factors


Value Label









B. Senthilkumar & H. Samuel Thavaraj

Table 4: Tests of between-Subjects Effects

Dependent Variable: Lead Time for 100 pcs Production
Corrected Model

Type III Sum of



Mean Square




















Kaizen * TPM












Corrected Total



a. R Squared = .962 (Adjusted R Squared = .955)

The output (Table 2) states that the F value against Kaizen, TPM and Kaizen*TPM is 197,174 and 29.23
respectively and the significance (p value) is 0.000 in all the cases. Since the p value is less than 0.01, it is concluded that
Kaizen tool implementation on lead time for making 100 pcs is significant. Similarly with TPM tool implementation on
lead time for making 100 pcs is significant. The interactive influence of Kaizen and TPM on lead time for making 100 pcs
is also significant. So it is understood that the interaction effect exists between TPM and Kaizen on Lead time for making
100 pcs of T. Shirt garments.


The main objective of this research was to develop a general methodology to Total Productive (TPM)
maintenance procedure in clothing industry. It is concluded that the TPM implantation initiative has improved the
performance efficiency of the sewing machines in all the selected models. This helps to minimize the machine
down time, improve the product lead time and improves the product quality in clothing Industry.

TPM is implemented with kaizen in parallel mode, which has also yield better performance in terms of
minimizing the production lead time for the T. shirt product line and the interaction effects of both these tools
were studied through ANOVA based approach has concluded the significant interaction effect is exist. It is further
concluded that TPM emphasis the achievement of overall performance of the organization.

It is reconfirmed that TPM has the ability to accelerate the implementation of lean tools to achieve continuous
improvement in organizations.


Ahuja, I. P. S. and khamba, J. S, An evaluation of TPM implementation initiatives in an Indian manufacturing

enterprise, Journal of quality in maintenance engineering, 2008,vol.13, No.4, pp.338-352.


Bisen, V. and Srivastava, S. Production and Operation Management. Lucknow, India Global Media, p. 175,


Chan, F. T. S, Lan, H. C .W, Ip, W. L, chan, H. K. and kong, s, Implementation of total productive maintenance
:A case study, International Journal of production economics, 2005, vol. 95, No.1, pp.71-94.

Impact Factor (JCC): 4.3857

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

An Evaluation of TPM Implementation in Clothing Industry in India-a Lean Philosophy Based Approach



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