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International Journal of Metallurgical &

Materials Science and Engineering (IJMMSE)


ISSN(P): 2278-2516; ISSN(E): 2278-2524
Vol. 4, Issue 5, Dec 2014, 1-10
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

SPACE DESIGN FOR HYPERACTIVITY AND DISTRACTED ATTENTION


(METHODOLOGY OF SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS USE)
LAILA AMER ALKAHTANY
Department of Interior Design, Princess Noura Bint Abdel-Rahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

ABSTRACT
Non-government institutions have been upgrading the level of services provided to people with special needs
since their numbers have increased worldwide, due to the recognition of new diseases, such as hyperactivity, diverted
attention and learning difficulties, which increase in a number annually. The study of good areas, their design
methodology, and adequate learning environments, both at home and in schools, for a particular class of people, is required
in developing a design methodology of spaces for children. Where they suffer from hyperactivity and distracted attention
by allocating proper design spaces that satisfy general and special considerations. However, this methodology depend on
exploring possible options for choosing suitable materials. Since there are many options for choosing sustainable materials
that have garnered little attention, material efficiency, using less new materials to achieve the same goals is a rich
opportunity to create sufficient spaces for children who suffer from hyperactivity and distracted attention The research
method involves a selected sample of children aged four years to 12 years, selected international examples, that include
many applications of sustainable material use, and selected numbers of local examples from Riyadh of attempts to use one
of these applications. The aim of this study is to develop a design methodology that reflects the foundations and
considerations of interior design in the context of the Saudi Code of designing special places for people with special needs
according to principles of sustainable material use.

KEYWORDS: Distracted Attention, ADHD, Sustainable Materials


INTRODUCTION
Interior designers must carefully consider which materials and finishes to use to realize different designs for
people suffering from hyperactivity and distracted attention. The materials can be natural or synthetic, virgin or recycled,
simple or high-tech, local or exotic. It can be evaluated as part of a whole design assessment. The interiors purpose should
inform the palette of materials used. Its important for the designer to pick natural materials, such as maple for the floors,
walls, and ceilings. especially for children with special needs such as those suffering from hyperactivity and distracted
attention.
Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex disorder that affects the sense and
communication. Architectural design is one of the key factors that can contribute to address this condition Architectural
design helps to activate the humanity benefit by achieving the following basic design criteria [13]

Beauty: shape, joy and simplicity.

Materials and Techniques: construction and strength.

Occupation: comfort, appropriateness, beneficial, tranquility, and order.

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Laila Amer Alkahtany

Therefore the use of sustainable materials and solar energy is a successful design trend, which effect on the
success of the design of different these spaces with positive impact in sustainability.

REQUIREMENTS OF DESIGN SPACES FOR ADHD


ADHA is a disease whose treatment requires avoiding stimuli and distractions to increase concentration the
correlation between the design of the ceilings, walls, floor contributes in the formation of a space that has great impact on
the diseases treatment. A sense of unity is therefore preferred that can be achieved by using finishing materials so that the
ceilings are of the same color as the walls and the floor, with the same lines, durability, degree of isolation, and level of
sound absorption. A complex interior or architectural design can create stress for people with ADHD [12]. A clear, simple
design for the school buildings facilitates the occupants use of the space, maintains the psychology of movement,
and provides time and effort expended in a space, all of which essential in the treatment of people with special needs.
Moreover, such design helps to regulate movement and control ADHD children and contributes to enjoyment of the
location.
Clear planning and organization of space help increase the efficiency and effectiveness of the use of the building
regarding the location of classrooms, services, and educational facilities, whether for integrated patients, students,
or teachers Studying the design of the walls clearly indicates limits in the details around the windows that help to organize
and reduce shadows and give the area an atmosphere of impression It is clear that the wall end is free from loins. This is
another example of simplicity in the coverage and participation on self-control concerning the convergence of vertical with
horizontal lines in the space. Gradation and simplicity of line and color help to maintain shape and function Interestingly,
this simple design contributes to providing security and revives wide spaces with highly technical details and bold lines by
using linear relations and color gradation in the space to r educe visual stimuli and environmental impact. Simple color
gradation connecting the color of the walls, floor, and ceiling facilitates self-control, provides a sense of security and
greater calm in the space, increases concentration, and eliminates distractions. At the same time, natural lighting is one of
the important elements that achieve adequate lighting of the area, which consists of forms characterized by force Natural
lighting n any building can raise morale (see Figure 1) [4].

Figure 1: Different Requirements of Interior Design for ADHD


Using Sustainable Materials in Interior Spaces
Sustainability has a direct impact on the health of both our members and the communities we serve, says John
Kouletsis [14]. In addition, environmental interior design focuses on materials intended applications, esthetic qualities,
environmental and health impacts, availability, ease of installation and maintenance, and initial and lifecycle costs. Interior
designers must first evaluate, compare, and rank potential materials and products based on each individual project before
providing sample options to the client [1]. This section examines the current situation and future outlook for critical
Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9076

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Space Design for Hyperactivity and Distracted Attention


(Methodology of Sustainable Materials Use)

materials used in sustainable energy applications in the design of spaces for individuals with ADHD These materials have
the capacity to transform the way we capture, transmit, store, and conserve energy. This paper highlights materials that
demonstrate some of the constraints to the expansion of renewable energy technologies [10].
Interior materials and finishes are a component of buildings whose overall lifecycle impacts may be significantly
greater than those associated with the initial manufacture and installation of the products. Interior finishes are replaced
many times during the course of a buildings service life. Materials and finishes are also frequently replaced prior to
functional obsolescence for aesthetic reasons. The CSA Standard S478-95 Guideline on Durability in Buildings compares
the interior components in a typical office building to the design service life of the building itself.
Some of the materials are simply rare in their overall abundance in the Earths crust or do not commonly occur in
single deposits with significant concentrations. Others are difficult to recover economically [Critical Materials for
Sustainable Energy Applications. Therefore, the interior materials used should minimize resources and waste, as well as
their impact on the environment throughout the lifecycle.
Indoor environmental quality includes statements for nine specific characteristics, including four for indoor air
quality and five for human comfort [5]
Indoor air quality

Meet the minimum requirements for indoor air quality.

Prevent exposure of building occupants to environmental tobacco smoke.

Prevent indoor air quality problems that result from the construction or renovation process.

Specify low-emitting materials and furnishings.

Human Comfort

Provide a high level of individual occupant control of thermal, ventilation, and lighting systems.

Provide appropriate thermal conditions.

Provide a connection between indoor spaces and outdoor environments of lifecycle design Minimize the amount
of materials used.

Facilitate disassembly for recycling or reuse.

Specify salvaged or refurbished materials.


Indoor materials have the ability to support healthy environments, to reduce transportation energies that carry

secondary health concerns, and to influence thermal performance and improve air quality, including minimizing
outgassing, toxicity, and mold. Additionally, the selection of proper materials can positively affect the respiratory and
digestive systems, as well as the eyes and skin [9].

DIFFERENT APPLICATIONS FOR USING SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS FOR HYPERACTIVITY&


DISTRACTED ATTENTION KIDS
In recent years concern for the environment has affected every aspect of life. Sustainability is more than a
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Laila Amer Alkahtany

marketing scheme. To those who truly seek to improve where and how they live, sustainability involves avoiding the
depletion of natural resources. So sustainable interior design applications are thus defined as the balance between interior
design applications and use of the Earths resources or natural resources that benefit humans and the Earth now and in the
future [9]]. Pilatowicz (1995) defines sustainable interiors as interiors designed in such a manner that they sensibly address
the impact of all their functions, parts, and elements on the global environment. The author also defines environmentally
conscious interior design as professional practice that attempts to create indoor spaces that are environmentally sustainable
and healthy for the occupants [3].
Sustainable interior design practices are actions that lessen environmental impact due to site selection, water use,
energy use, and material selection (Rider, 2005)This paper focuses on sustainable material selection that is suitable for
users afflicted by hyperactivity and distracted attention. Examples of sustainable design applications in this paper include
specifications of new types of sustainable flooring, building envelopes or cladding, and furniture [3].
Flooring Solutions
Flooring manufacturers are creating new products aligned with health care sustainability goals. Therefore,
numerous new types of sustainable floors are available that are suitable for spaces for hyperactivity and distracted attention
users. For example, dance floors are using new sustainable flooring that can be exploited to take advantage of the kinetic
energy of users with hyperactivity and distracted attention.
Dance floors
It takes time, effort, and money to keep flooring looking good and suitable for special users such as those with
hyperactivity and distracted attention and there are many good reasons to have a maintenance program to keep the flooring
in top condition. An appropriate dance floor system in a proper environment is safe for users with hyperactivity and
distracted attention and can dramatically reduce injuries and slips and falls. Second, a clean floor is a healthy floor that can
help eliminate the transmission of bacteria and viruses, along with reducing upper respiratory inflammation from dust and
other contagion [8].
In theory, this type of floor can take the energy of any step or jump and convert it into electricity, although the
process is still expensive and inefficient, converting just a fraction of human energy into usable power. That electricity is
then used to power a light show in and around the floor. Such a floor can be used as an effective sustainable application in
interior spaces for children with hyperactivity and distracted attention, since they have exaggerated kinetic energy; at the
same time, the emitted light should be subdued, with light colors, to avoid increasing the childrens excitement and
movement. The technology is still evolving and the worlds first sustainable dance floor is currently being reprogrammed
and electronically adjusted to improve output. It is one of a handful of energy-generating floors in the world, most of which
are still experimental. As Smit states, our idea is that theres enough energy in this world, you just have to use it the right
way [2].
The floor is a modular system, with components that are 65 cm wide, 65 cm long, and 30 cm high, each producing
up to 25W. The whole environment uses interactive technologies and sustainable materials, energy-harvesting
mechanisms, software, and embedded electronics to create a playful and educational context. Figure 2 is a
three-dimensional drawing for the flooring of Club Watt in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, designed by Studio Roosegaarde,
which develops the concept of using the dancers movements to power lights within the dance floor [11].
Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9076

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Space Design for Hyperactivity and Distracted Attention


(Methodology of Sustainable Materials Use)

Figure 2: Sustainable Dance Floor Using the Movement of People to Produce


Useable Electricity for Hyperactivity & Distracted Attention Kids
Building Envelope& Wall Covering (IN/OUT)
Building envelopes have a significant impact on operating energy performance. Over the service life of the
building, the contribution of insulation, air barriers, and windows to energy savings can more than compensate for the
negative environmental impacts associated with the individual envelope materials. The energy performance characteristics
of envelope materials should therefore be one of the key selection criteria.
Reused Carpet Tiles
Reusing carpet tiles is a wonderful way to save money and time, in addition to perfectly insulating a building from
a hot climate, keeping the building cool without air conditioning. The concept here is to utilize the leftover products of
carpets for construction materials, with unused carpet tiles chosen for their insulation properties. These tiles are
compressed together by a heavy wooden ring beam and stabilized by steel columns to construct the walls.
These non-recycled tiles provide excellent insulation. The Lucy/carpet house is an example of such an application
(see Figure 3) [7].

Figure 3: Using Reused Carpet Tiles in Lucy/carpet House, Hale Country, USA, 2002
Solar Ivy Plastic Leaves (Out)
The lightweight leaves of Solar Ivy are free to naturally flutter about in the wind, capturing sunlight from various
angles. The energy collected by each leaf is then transferred to the electrical grid through a grid tie inventor or stored in
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batteries on-site for later use. In addition to providing dramatic visual flair by way of a very adaptable alternative energy
system, Solar Ivy, like a strategically placed tree, provides shade to structures, further reducing energy costs by controlling
heat gain (see Figure 4) [7].

Figure 4: Sustainable Dance Floor Due to its Light Weight 4x7 Foot Strip of
Solar lvy, is Capable of Generating 85 Watts of Solar Power
Unites of Furniture
Furniture
Furniture can make of wood, bamboo, cardboard, metal, plastics, and fabric. In addition, it is worth noting that
cardboard can be a viable option where durability is not a major concern, but certified and recycled sources should seek.
The potential of using reclaimed furniture, which is widely available from antique shops and easy to fit any interior
scheme, should, however, not be discounted. Vintage finds can include chairs, tables, sofas, and beds, as well as
accessories, from lamps to pictures to sculpture [Sustainability in Interior Design looking at furniture is an excellent way to
understand sustainable development since furniture design demonstrates construction techniques on a small, manageable
scale.
Cardboard
Cardboard offers an excellent opportunity for the design of sustainable furniture products. Cardboard can be fully
recycled and can be made from up to 100% recycled paper and cardboard. Cardboard will not replace many of the current
applications for which plastic use, but there should be a conscious effort to return as much as possible. There are six
classes of material defined in this typology: corrugated cardboard, paperboard, tube, pulp, paper mach, and paper core
board. Four common methods of constructing furniture from the cardboard sheet found in the survey folding, fabricating
and laminating (see Figure 5).[16]

Figure 5: A Typology of Cardboard Furniture as Sustainable Furniture


for Hyperactivity and Distracted Attention Children
Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9076

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Space Design for Hyperactivity and Distracted Attention


(Methodology of Sustainable Materials Use)

Figure 5 shows four common methods of constructing furniture from the cardboard sheet, as determined from the
survey -folding, fabricating, laminating, and mechanical fasteningsince cardboard varies in the size of fluting and paper
type and quality (see Figure 6).[16]

Figure 6: Different Types of Cardboard Furniture as Sustainable Furniture


Another example of using cardboard to make furniture is the Kraft and Solo benches by Brazilian designer
DomingosTotora. These Kraft benches exemplify their devotion to sustainability by barely hiding the material. Slices of
recycled cardboard pulp, 1 cm (0.5 inch) thick, are held together with a water-based glue, proudly proclaiming their
origins. The bench varies in width, depending on the number of slices of cardboard used. Viewing the piece, one can easily
imagine the source material being put out on the streets of cities across Brazil for recycling. Other work, such as the Solo
benchrecently a nominee for Design of the Year by Design Museum Londonshowcases the malleability and potential
of the material and its ability to change textures quickly. The Solo bench is finished and sanded so finely that it takes on
the appearance of stone. Even on close inspection, it is difficult to pick up on the fact that what you are seeing and
touching is recycled cardboard. Only the color, a brownish hue familiar to anyone who has ever taken out the trash, hints as
its origins (see Figure 7). [7].

Figure 7: Kraft and Solo Benches from Old Cardboard

RECOMMENDATIONS
Designers need to take advantage of the potential within children suffering from hyperactivity and attention
deficit. Their kinetic energy can operate as a source of one of the energies required within interior spaces, such as
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Laila Amer Alkahtany

electrical, thermal energy, or light energy. Therefore, it can use as a kind of sustainable materials means that applied to
achieve higher efficiency of the interior spaces at the lowest possible cost or the optimal exploitation of available and
reused materials. It can also exploit solar energy in warm areas to be converted to electrical energy or light within general
spaces, as well as within spaces reserved for children suffering from hyperactivity and distracted attention.
Therefore, the following rules should be followed in the selection of sustainable materials for interior spaces for
general hyperactive and distracted attention individuals [Best practice guide, Material choices for sustainable design.

Select materials that will not adversely affect human health avoiding adverse impacts on health, safety, and
comfort inside the spaces in general or specifically for users with hyperactivity and distracted attention. It is
important to evaluate both the quality and overall quantity of materials to use and how the use of one material
over another can influence indoor air quality. Users should always be the primary concern in selecting building
materials.

Select materials that contribute to operating energy efficiency.

Select durable, long-life materials that require little or no additional finishing and minimal maintenance.

Consider omitting unnecessary materials and reducing the quantities of all materials.

Select salvaged and reusable building materials.

Select materials manufactured from renewable resources and harvested in a sustainable manner.

Select materials that have recycled content and that are recyclable.

Select materials that require minimal manufacturing and processing and low embodied energy.

Select locally manufactured materials.

Select materials that can dispose of safely.


For these types of spaces) materials should be selected that meet sustainability requirements, such as a floor that

takes advantage of the kinetic energy of users to emit thermal or electrical energy inside the space.

REFERENCES
1.

Alicia Cargo, An evaluation of the use of sustainable material databases within the interior, University of Florida,
USA, Jan. 2013.

2.

Elisabeth Rosenthal, Partying Helps Power a Dutch Nightclub, The New York Times from the Rotterdam Journal,
nytimes.com, October 24, 2008

3.

Leigh M. Bacon, Interior Designers Altitudes Toward sustainable interior design practices and barriers
encountered when using sustainable interior Design practices, Master Degree, College at the University of
Nebraska, May 2011, Lincoln, Nebraska.

4.

Lorna Mcknight, Designing for ADHD: in search of guidelines, ChiCI Group, University of Central Lancashire,
UK.

Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9076

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Space Design for Hyperactivity and Distracted Attention


(Methodology of Sustainable Materials Use)

5.

Mihyun Kang & Denise A. Guerin, The State of Environmentally Sustainable Interior Design Practice, American
Journal of Environmental Sciences, 2009 Science Publications, ISSN 1553-345X.

6.

PAUL KERNAN ARCHITECT, PENNER & ASSOCIATES, Best Practices Guide (Material Choices for
Sustainable Design), Greater Vancouver Regional District Policy & Planning Department, May 2001. Phaidon,
Vitamin Green, Phaidon Presss limited, New York, USA, 2012.Z

7.

Randy Swartz, stage steps flooring solution, Philadelphia, stagestep@stagestep.com.

8.

USGBC Research Committee, A National Green Building Research Agenda, November 2007.

9.

Resnick Institute Report, Critical Materials For Sustainable Energy Applications, California Institute of
technology, USA, Sep. 2011.

10. Sin Moxon, Sustainability in interior design, London EC1V 1LR, 2012, Laurence King Publishing Ltd.
11. http://www.archdaily.com/177293/designing-for-autism-lighting/oct2011
12. http://www.archdaily.com/197788/architecture-for-autism-architects-moving-in-the-right-direction/Jan.2012.
13. WWW. H FMMAG A Z I N E. C OM, MAY 2 0 1 2.
14. www.sustainabledanceclub.com
15. www.survey of cardboardfurniture.com,

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