Turkish Vowels, Pronouns, Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs

a------o /| /| open e------¨ | o ----- | | | | close | ı----|-u |/ |/ i------¨ u unround / round Case Absolute Accusative Genitive Dative Locative Ablative Absolute / Nominative Accusative / Direct object Genitive / Possessive / Owner of, of-X Dative / Indirect object / motion toward Locative Ablative / comparison back ----front a/ı o/u e/i o/¨ ¨ u --> --> --> --> a/ı u/a e/i u/e ¨

Nouns

Application nominative direct object owner-of, of-X indirect object, motion toward in a place from/through a place/thing I you he/she/it me you him/her/it my ... your ... his/her/its ... to me to you to him/her/it in me in you in him/her/it ... than me ... than you ... than it this that near that far

Singular -(y)i -(n)in -(y)e -de -den

Plural -ler -leri -lerin -lere -lerde -lerden biz siz onlar bizi sizi onları bizim sizin onların bize size onlara bizde sizde onlarda bizden sizden onlardan bunlar ¸unlar s onlar

Pronouns

Demonstrative

we you they us you them our ... your ... their ... to us to you to them in us in you in them ... than us ... than you ... than them these those near those far

ben sen o beni seni onu benim senin onun bana sana ona bende sende onda benden senden ondan bu su o

Adjectival forms and modifications

-li -siz -¸i c -(y)ici -lik -igde -ligi -ki -¸e c -(y)i¸ s

with without the professional the habitual abstract noun formation (b¨y¨kl¨k = largeness or size) u u u ditto... ditto... abstract adjective formation (sabahki hava = morning weather”) -ish or as for (T¨rk¸e = Turkish, ben¸e = as for me) u c c add to a verb stem for the noun (girmek = to enter, so giri¸ = entrance) s Comparison: use daha for more: daha b¨y¨k = bigger (more big) u u daha iyi = better (more good) en b¨y¨k = biggest (most big) u u en iyi = best (most good) benden b¨y¨k = bigger than me u u benden iyi = better than me. from here from there from where? which? why? when? how? buraya oraya nereye? to here to there to where?

Comparison

Adjectives and adverbs Nouns

Superlative: use en for most: Use ablative measure:

Locations

nereburaoraka¸? c ne? kim? kimin? -(i)m -(i)n -(s)i

where? here there

burada orede nerede?

here there where?

buradan oraden nereden?

Question words

how much? or how many? what? who? whose? -(i)miz -(i)niz -leri owned by me owned by you owned by he/she/it

hangi? ni¸in? c ne zaman? nasıl?

Possession owner(n)in ownedX where X is replaced by:

owned by us owned by you all owned by them

1