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# Experiment 1: Thermal Efficiency Apparatus

## (Done By Tin Cheong Eng)

Table 2 Calculation
Trial PH = VH X I H
1
2
3
4
5

24.2
16.2
9.8
5.0
1.8

PW = VW2 / R
0.23805
0.10125
0.03538
0.02311
0.00684

## (Done By Tin Cheong Eng)

TH
(K)
365
341
317
299
287

Tc
(K)
287
285
282
280
279

T = TH -TC (K)

THERMAL

CARNOT

78
56
35
19
8

0.98368
0.62500
0.36100
0.46225
0.38025

21.370
16.422
11.041
6.355
2.787

Q1. After the whole experiment, we realized that the thermal efficiency THERMAL is directly
proportional to the increase in the PH and PW values. As the PH and PW values increases, the
thermal efficiency also increases.
Same goes for the Carnot efficiency factor. When T value to increase, Carnot efficiency
increases as well.
Therefore, we conclude that the larger the difference in temperature between the hot source
and the cold sink, the larger is the potential thermal efficiency of the cycle.
(Done By Eddie)
Q2. The Carnot efficiency is the maximum efficiency possible for a given temperature
difference. According to the graph, is the output efficiency always less than the Carnot
efficiency.
According to the graph comparison, Carnot efficiency get lesser when the changed of
temperature reduces. Output efficiency falls until a value of 0.004 and stays around that
region. There is a possibility that as the changed of temperature gets smaller the Carnot
efficiency will goes below the output efficiency eventually.
(Done By Gary Tan)
Q3. The Carnot Efficiency increase as the temperatures increases.
(Done By Teo Ziquan)
Q4. Output efficiency increases as the temperature difference increases
(Done By Beng)
Q5.

## (Done By Nicholas Sim Tyng Huei)

Q6. Heat engine can come in the form of a steam engine or a diesel engine. Though such
devices have very low efficiency, it can be of practical use in remote areas to run things
because one advantage, the cost of maintaining such a device is relatively low.
The other advantage is that the general surroundings acts as the heat sink, providing
relatively cool gases which, when heated, expand rapidly to drive the mechanical motion of
the engine thus providing sufficient work done required at remote areas e.g powering up
light bulbs in a small village in a forested area.
(Done By Eddie)
Q7. If the difference between the temperature of the hot side and the cold side was
decreased, would the maximum efficiency increase or decrease?

## Given that Carnot Efficiency (maximum efficiency) = (TH TC) / TH

(TH TC) is the difference between the temperature of the hot side and the cold side
If the nominator of the formula decreases the maximum efficiency will decrease as well.
(Done By Gary Tan)
Q8.
PH = V H X I
Trial
1
2
3
4
5

24.2
16.2
9.8
5.0
1.8

PW = VW2 /
R
0.23805
0.10125
0.03538
0.02311
0.00684

TH (K)
365
341
317
299
287

Tc (K)
287
285
282
280
279

Rate of Change in
entrophy
0.06547
0.04715
0.030789
0.016639
0.00624

PH / TH - PW / Tc = S / t
From the figure above, it can be said that the total changes in entrophy is positive as it is an
isolated system. As the entrophy of an isolated system during a process always increases
or, in the limiting case of a reversible process, remains constant.
(Done By Teo Ziquan)

## Experiment 2: Confirming The Bernoulli Equation

Q1. Identify the 3 conditions in fluid flow necessary for Bernoullis Equation to hold?
The flow of the fluid must be steady.
The fluid must be inviscid.
The fluid is incompressible.
(Done By Gary Tan)
Q2. A spirit level is needed in order to set up the rig horizontal to the hydraulic bench in
order to achieve accurate result. As in the experiment, the spirit level is already attached to
the base plate and by adjusting the adjustable leg of the rig, we can level the rig horizontal
to the bench. The rig is horizontal when the bubble in the spirit level is in the centre
position (Done By Teo Ziquan)
Q3. Firstly we close both bench flow control valve and the outlet flow control valve, after
that we open the air bleed screw. Remove cap from the adjacent air inlet / outlet connection,
connect a length of small bore tubing from the air valve to the volumetric tank. Well then
open bench flow control valve and allow flow through the manometers to purge all air from
them. Tighten air bleed; partly open both bench valve and outlet flow control valve.
(Done By Eddie)
Q4 Turn the valve till the max reading on the piezometer has been obtained I will get the
max flow. For test 2 the flow valve is adjusted till, we get the difference between h1 and h5
is 50mm. For the last test we adjusted the valve till we get the difference between h1 and h5
is the mid values of test 2.
(Done By Beng)
Maximum Flow

h1

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6

StaticFlow
,h
With
h3
h4
180h1 170h2
135
120
90 h5
125h6
(mm)
h1 - h5 =50mm
Stagnation
235 180
223 180
215 175195 155215
H(mm)
h (mm)
Dynamic
Stagnation
250
250
250
250
250
230
2
v /2gH(mm)
, (H-h)
0
10
45
60
85
30
mm
5
15
27
35
55
15
Velocity
,V
2
v /2g , (H-h)
(m/S)
0.000 0.014 0.030 0.034 0.041 0.024
Velocity , V (m/S) 0.010 0.017 0.023 0.026
0.033
0.017

collected (sec)
Time
81for 5 liter
collected (sec)
119

Mid-Values
Between Test 1
And Test 2
h (mm)
H(mm)
v2/2g , (H-h)
Velocity , V
(m/S)

h1

h2

h3

h4

h5

h6

## Time for 5 liter

collected (sec)

215

200

170

155

140

160

96

215

210

210

210

210

190

10

40

55

70

30

0.000

0.014

0.028

0.033

0.037

0.024

Q5. Bernoullis principle states that as fluids velocity increases, the pressure decreases, and
as the velocity decreases, the pressure increases. Bernoullis principle also states that the
total energy of a particle in motion is constant at all points on its path in a steady flow, as
per the equation stated below;

According to the law of conservation of matter, the mass flow at any point along the tube
must be the same, and the velocity and pressure must change to accommodate this
continuity of flow. So as the flow approaches the converging portion of the tube, the
velocity increases and static pressure will decreases in order to maintain the same mass
flow.
(Done By Nicholas Sim Tyng Huei)
Q6. According to the plot obtained from above, it is shown that the stagnation head in terms
of (mm) maintained its height throughout point h1 to h4 except for h5 & h6. This is so
because Venturi meter is a device for measuring discharge in a pipe. It consists of a rapidly
converging section which increases the velocity of flow and hence reduces the pressure. It
then returns to the original dimensions of the pipe by a gently diverging 'diffuser' section
which will cause an increase of pressure will result a drop in the stagnation head for h5 &
h6.
(Done By Eddie)
Q7.

(Done By Beng)

## Experiment 3: Impact of a Jet

Q1. V1 = V2, the magnitude of the velocity does not change as the fluid flows around the
deflector and only the direction changes. Assuming that the flow is steady fluid,
incompressible flow and no viscosity. V1 = V2 is because the friction is negligible and it
does not slow down.
(Done By Nicholas Sim Tyng Huei)
Q2.
Fx =

(Vout Vin)

Fy =

(V2Cos V1)

Fy =

(V1Cos V1)

Fy =

V1 (Cos 1)

## (Done By Gary Tan)

Q3. Since there is the force going in the X direction on both sides is equal and opposite
due to the symmetrical configuration, Fx cancels out one another in both the X directions.
Thus Fx is ignored.
(Done By Teo Ziquan)
Q4.
Impact of Jet Apparatus - Flat Plate
Area ,A (m2): 0.00005027

## Nozzle Diameter,d (m): 0.008

Volume
Time
Applied
Collected Required Mass

litres
16

Flow
rate

Velocity

Vol.

Q=Vol./ t

V1=Q/
A

m3
0.016

sec
60

kg
0.1

m3/s
0.000267

m/s
5.305

(Velocity) 2

V12

Applied
Force ,
W

(m/s)2
28.145

N
0.981

22
27.5
30
33.5

0.022
0.0275
0.03
0.0335

60
60
60
60

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

0.000367
0.000458
0.000500
0.000558

7.295
9.118
9.947
11.108

53.211
83.143
98.946
123.381

1.962
2.943
3.924
4.905

## Impact of Jet Apparatus - Hemispherical Cup

Area ,A (m2) : 0.00005027

Volume
Collected
Vol.
litres
11.5
16.5
19.5
22.5
25.5

m
0.0115
0.0165
0.0195
0.0225
0.0255

Time
Applied
Required Mass
t
sec
60
60
60
60
60

Flow
rate

Velocity

Q=Vol./ t

V1=Q / A

kg
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5

m /s
0.000192
0.000275
0.000325
0.000375
0.000425

m/s
3.813
5.471
6.466
7.460
8.455

(Velocity) 2

Applied
Force

V12

W
2

(m/s)
14.540
29.931
41.805
55.657
71.489

N
0.981
1.962
2.943
3.924
4.905

## (Done By Tin Cheong Eng)

Q5. The difference maybe due to the assumption that the friction is too small to even
consider but friction does exist on the surface of the plate. Secondly, water jet velocity is
considered to be constant after it leaves the nozzle till it hit the plate, but due to the
existence of gravitational force there is a difference between the initial velocity when the
water leaves the nozzle and the velocity at which it hit the plate. Finally, the distance at
which the water nozzle is positioned from the plate is not considered in the calculation.
(Done By Gary Tan)
Q6.

Splash guard
Level of Jet
Calibration of Spring
Assumption of Friction
Growth of Altitude on the Jet of water

Q7. This modification may be more accurate, but the meter, F used in this arrangement will
require frequent calibration. Unlike the modification as stated above, the hydraulics test
bench that were used in our experiment will only require us to zero the spirit level.

## Experiment 4: Pipe Friction Investigation

Q1. Mercury manometer has larger pressure differences, while water manometer has
smaller pressure differences.
We will choose to use the mercury manometer. It is because if we were to use the water
manometer and if there is large pressure difference, it will not be as accurate and will cause
inconvenience.
(Done By Nicholas Sim Tyng Huei)
Q2. External and internal vernier calliper.
(Done By Nicholas Sim Tyng Huei)
5. Report
Q5.1.
Pipe Diameter, d = 0.006 m

## Pipe Area, A = 2.8274 X10-5 m2

Velocity, U = Q / A

Vol
V
,litres
10
10
10
10
10
10

Vol

Time

V ,m3
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

t,sec
44
38.4
33.5
31.5
29
27

Flow
Rate
Q , x 10-4
m3 / s
2.2727
2.6042
2.9851
3.1746
3.4483
3.7037

Velocity

Loss

Loss

u,m/s
8.038
9.210
10.558
11.228
12.196
13.099

H , mHg
0.126
0.166
0.253
0.283
0.323
0.343

h, mH2O
1.71
2.26
3.44
3.85
4.39
4.66

Log h
0.234
0.354
0.537
0.585
0.643
0.669

Log u
0.905
0.964
1.024
1.050
1.086
1.117

## (Done By Tin Cheong Eng)

Q5.2.
Pipe Diameter, d = 0.00175 m
Pipe Area, A = 2.4053 X10-4 m2
Velocity, U = Q / A
Vol

Vol

Time

V ,litres
10
10
10
10
10
10

V ,m3
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01
0.01

t,sec
21.2
18
13.8
12.3
11
10.5

Flow
Rate
Q , x 10-4 m3 / s
4.7170
5.5556
7.2464
8.1301
9.0909
9.5238

Velocity
u,m/s
19.611
23.097
30.127
33.801
37.796
39.595

Loss
h, mH2O
0.125
0.175
0.275
0.320
0.405
0.440

Log h

Log u

-0.903
-0.757
-0.561
-0.495
-0.393
-0.357

1.292
1.364
1.479
1.529
1.577
1.598

## (Done By Tin Cheong Eng)

Q5.3.
Pipe Diameter, d = 0.006 m
n = log h / log u
0.258
0.367
0.524
0.557
0.592
0.599

## Pipe Diameter, d = 0.00175 m

n = log h / log u
-0.699
-0.555
-0.379
-0.324
-0.249
-0.223
(Done By Eddie)
Q5.4.
Re = pvd/u
(1000*0.006*8.038)/0.001 =
48228
(1000*0.006*13.099)/0.001
= 78594
(1000*0.0175*1.961)/0.001
= 34317.5
(1000*0.0175*3.960)/0.001
= 69300

P = Fluid density
V = Fluid velocity
D = Diameter of pipe
U = Absolute viscosity
Transitional flow: 2000 < Re < 4000
Pipe flow is fully turbulent.

(Done By Beng)

## Experiment 5: Mechanical Equivalent of Heat

a. Table of Results
Ambient Temperature ( C)
Intial Water Temperature (C)
Revolution Counter
100
Water Temperature
18.4
(C)

22
18
200

300

400

500

600

700

19.4

20.2

21.0

21.8

22.2

23.0

0.6867 0.7358

0.7848

21.523

1.4715

WS (kgf)

300

4.1855

707

0.368

0.7848

0.7848

0.7848

0.7848

## (Done By Tin Cheong Eng)

b. Calculation of mechanical work from:
Work done = (WL WS + S) D N
Where WL = Large weight in Newton
WS = Small weight in Newton
S = Spring balance reading in Newton
D = Diameter of calorimeter in drum in metres
N = Number of revolutions
If D = 150mm
Therefore;
Work done
= (WL WS + S) D N
= (21.523 -1.4715 +0.7638) (0.15) (700)
= 6866.324 Nm
c. Calculation of heat generated from:
Heat generated = (mwater Cwater + mcal Ccal) T
Where mwater = mass of water in gm
Cwater = specific heat of water, 4.1855 J/gC
mcal = mass of calorimeter, 707 gm
Ccal = specific heat of calorimeter, 0.368 J/gC
If T = 5 C,
Therefore;
Heat generated = (mwater Cwater + mcal Ccal) T
Heat generated = 7579.130 J
d. Calculation of Mechanical Equivalent of Heat from;

J = 0.906
e. Theoretical value of Mechanical Equivalent of Heat,
J = Work done / Heat generated
If both the work and heat have the same unit of energy, Work done = Heat generated

J=1
Percentage error of J in our experiment = (1- 0.906) X100 %
= 9.405 %
f. The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle
to heat and thermodynamic processes:

g. As to what the first law states, energy is only converted as per our experiment as it
changes from a potential energy to kinetic energy (Workdone) and to thermal energy (Heat)
and hence no energy is being created or destroyed.

Experiment 7: Hydrostatics
The HYDROSTATICS TEST BENCH
5. RESULTS AND ANALYSIS
Q5.1. Volume of density bottle __50__ ml
Mass of empty density bottle ..... _31.5_ gm
Mass of density bottle with water ... __82_ gm
Density of Water = Mass of Water / Volume of Water
Density of water = _1010
kg / m3
Volume of empty density bottle ....__ 50_ ml
Mass of empty density bottle __30 gm
Mass of density bottle with diesel fuel .._73.5__ gm
Density of diesel fuel = mass of diesel fuel / volume of diesel fuel
Density of diesel fuel = ___870 __ kg/m3
Specific gravity of diesel fuel = density of diesel fuel / density of water.
S.G. diesel fuel = 0.861_
Q5.2. Height of water column ------------------------ _45 cm
Height of diesel fuel column ------------------ _53 cm
S.G (diesel) = h water/ h diesel
S.G (diesel) = 0.849
Q5.3.
Step 1. Empty bottle -> find mass of bottle = 32.3 g
Step 2. Empty bottle & sand -> find mass of bottle and sand = 43.5 g
(Step 2. Step 1. = Mass of Sand)
43.5 32.3 = 11.2g
Step 3. Full water bottle & sand = 94.8 g
Step 4. Sand with water in the bottle = 90.2 g
(Step 3. Step 4. = Mass of Water in the Bottle = Vol. of Sand)
94.8 90.2 = 4.6 g

Therefore;