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Application of the WAVE system at the initial stages of engine design

Peter A. Golubev, Michael A. Mironychev,

Alexei M. Nesterenkov


The paper deals with the results of the WAVE system application
to the optimization of the both gasoline and new diesel engines of the OJSC
ZMZ production. The design and test data analysis points to the excellent
convergence of the results in the full range of the engine speed
characteristics. Particular attention is given to the problem of the motor car
intake system design on the basis of the WAVE models. The
recommendations are defined for the optimum intake system assembly
design. The comparison of the design results and the data of the engine
laboratory tests for some variants of motor car intake system are cited in the

WAVE-simulation and investigation of the engine performance

The engine operation simulation and the WAVE mathematical
model tests were conducted on the base of the following engine types:
a) ZMZ 514.10 in-line 4 cylinder and 4-stroke turbo-supercharged
/ direct-injection diesel engine:

D/H = 87/94;

capacity = 2,24 L;

power = 96KW;

max. torque = 284NM

The engine was developed on the basis of ZMZ 4062.10 seriesproduced gasoline engine. Ricardo was involved in the works on the diesel
engine operation optimization.
b) ZMZ 301.10 6- cylinder V-engine:

the angle between the half-blocks =90;

electronic fuel injection system;

D/H = 92/80;

capacity = 3,2 L;

power = 155KW;

max. torque = 300NM

c) ZMZ 4052.10 in-line 4-cylinder gasoline engine that presents

the modification of series-produced ZMZ 4062.10

electronic fuel injection system;

D/H = 95,5/86;

capacity = 2,5 L;

power = 112KW;

- max. torque = 211NM

Engine operation simulation was based on the WAVEpreprocessor application. Figures 1-3 show engine WAVE-models. To
confirm the calculated and the experiment model adequacy the comparison
of the cylinder volumetric efficiency (K) values used as a criterion.
Figures 4 and 5 show the calculated and the experiment K values
in the whole speed range of ZMZ 514.10 and ZMZ 4052.10 engines. The
results of the analysis indicate that the difference of the calculated and the
experiment K values lies within the experimental error and constitutes 5-8%.

Figures 6-8 show the net results of variation of some constructive
parameters for the engine under consideration.
a) the rational geometry of the diesel engine intake channels was
defined that gave the opportunity to increase K value by 1215% at low and middle engine speeds ( Fig. 6 and 7);
b) the optimal combination of the value timing phases and the
vale lift law were found for ZMZ 301.10 engine that resulted in
the K value increase by 15% in the whole engine speed range
(Fig. 9) .

WAVE-simulation of the motor car intake system

One of the key challenges of the engine mounting in the motor car
is the selection of the rational intake system design. The design problem is
defined as the optimization of the system geometric parameters to minimize
the hydraulic losses at the input.
Figure 10 shows the 3D CAD-model of the intake system. On the
basis of that model the WAVE-model of the intake system was developed
and, further, combined with the WAVE-model of ZMZ 4052.10 (Fig. 3).
The design problem was to improve the intake element (chamber)
and to minimize the losses at the input. In that case K was again taken as a
criterion of optimum.
Figure 11 shows the net calculated K characteristic curves for the
optimal chamber geometry defining the hydraulic losses at the input of no
more than 1%.

Conclusion Remarks

As it is described in the paper WAVE software may be of high

efficiency in application to the structural optimization of engine and
specialized motor car construction elements, e.g. intake system.
WAVE application results in the indisputable advantage in the
period of engine development as well as in considerable reduction of the test
work volume and costs.
The calculation implementation based on the application of
WAVE software and search of optimum using the mathematical test planing
methods is considered as a rather prospective direction of works.


Ricardo Software, WAVE manuals V3.4.2

Fig. 1
WAVE-model of the ZMZ 514.10 Engine

Fig. 2
WAVE-model ZMZ 301.10 engine

WAVE-model ZMZ 4052.10 engine

Fig. 4
The calculated and the experiment K values for the ZMZ 514.10

Fig. 5
The calculated and the experiment K values for the ZMZ 4052.10


Fig. 6
The optimal K value for ZMZ 514.10


Fig. 7
The optimal K value for ZMZ 514.10


Fig. 8
The optimal K value for ZMZ 301.10


Fig. 9
3D CAD model of the intake system


Fig. 10
The calculated K values for the optimal chamber geometry