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SECTION3

Weld Tests

2-4-3

1 General 2-4-3/1
The steps to be taken in obtaining approval by the Bureau of electrodes and welding procedures
for
qualifying welders and for demonstrating satisfactory workmanship are given below.

1.1 Weld Groups 2-4-3/1.1


The various groups of welds are designated by index letters and numbers, by which they are
referred
to in subsequent paragraphs, as follows.
Hull Construction H All hull structures
Boilers, etc. Group I B1
Unfired Pressure Vessels Group II B2
Piping Group I P1 As defined in 2-4-2/1.5
Piping Group II P2
Engineering Structures Group I E1
Engineering Structures Group II E2

1.3 Tests 2-4-3/1.3


Details of tests, preparation of specimens and test results required for approval in each application
are given in 2-4-3/3 to 2-4-3/9, and 2-4-3/Figure 1 to 2-4-3/Figure 13. Where the position of
welding is referred to, the same is to be defined in the American Welding Society definitions.

3 Filler Metals 2-4-3/3


3.1 General (1997) 2-4-3/3.1
Filler metals are to be a type suitable to produce sound welds that have strength and toughness
comparable to the materials being welded. The Bureau maintains a separately issued list of
approved filler metals entitled, Approved Welding Consumables. This list indicates the grade
and general application for which such filler metals may be employed. It is intended that this list
will serve as a useful guide in the selection of suitable filler metals for various welding
applications.

3.3 Approval Basis 2-4-3/3.3


Filler metals will be approved and listed, subject to tests conducted at a manufacturers plant.
Upon satisfactory completion of tests, a certificate will be issued for general approval, indicating,
where applicable, the ABS Grade, operating characteristics and limits of application. Test
assemblies are to be prepared in the presence of the Surveyor and all tests are to be carried out in
the Surveyors presence and to the Surveyors satisfaction. Procedure and testing are to comply
with either of the following standards.
3.3.1 Bureau Standards 2-4-3/3.3.1
Approval of filler metals for welding vessels and other engineering structures will be granted
upon compliance with the Requirements for the Approval of Filler Metals, contained in
Part 2, Appendix 2.
3.3.2 Standards of Other Agencies 2-4-3/3.3.2
Filler metals will be considered for approval based upon tests conducted to standards
established by The American Welding Society or other recognized agencies.
3.3.3 Special Approval 2-4-3/3.3.3
Under circumstances where exact specifications have not been established, the Bureau will
consider approval on the basis of a filler metal manufacturers guaranteed requirements.
Qualified approvals will also be considered, with and without classifying as to grade, for

special applications with reliance upon procedure tests at a users plant.

5 Approval of Welding Procedures 2-4-3/5


5.1 Approved Filler Metals 2-4-3/5.1
The type of approved filler metals used on Bureau-classed weldments will depend upon the
specific application for which the filler metal is intended. Procedure tests may be required at the
discretion of the attending Surveyor to determine the shipyard or fabricators capability in the
application of the proposed filler metal to the base material. The extent of such tests may vary
depending upon the intended application, but generally are to follow those tests outlined in
2-4-3/5.7.

5.3 Surveyors Acceptance 2-4-3/5.3


The Surveyor may, at his discretion, accept a filler metal, welding procedure, or both, in a
shipyard or fabricators plant where it is established to the Surveyors satisfaction that they have
been effectively used for similar work under similar conditions.

5.5 New Procedures and Methods 2-4-3/5.5


Weld tests using procedures and materials similar to those intended for production welding may
be required to be prepared by each shipyard or fabricator when new or unusual methods, base
metals or filler metals are proposed. All tests are to be made in the presence of the Surveyor and
carried out to the Surveyors satisfaction.

5.7 Tests 2-4-3/5.7


Unless otherwise approved, the number of specimens is to be as indicated. The minimum test
results
required are stated with the following figures.
Test No. 1 (For butt welds) Reduced-section Tension Test (2-4-3/Figure 3 or 2-4-3/Figure 4).
Two specimens made in each position involved.
Test No. 2 (For butt welds) Guided Bend Test (2-4-3/Figure 5 and 2-4-3/Figure 6). For material
19 mm (0.75 in.) thick and under, two face-bend and two root-bend specimens for each position,
except that, at the option of the fabricator, four side bends may be substituted for material
thickness over 9.5 mm (3/8 in.). For material over 19 mm (0.75 in.) thick, four side-bend
specimens for each position involved. The bending jig and test requirements are indicated in
2-4-3/Figure 7.
Test No. 3 Fillet-weld Test (2-4-3/Figure 8). One specimen made in each position involved.

5.9 Special Tests 2-4-3/5.9


All weld-metal tension, Charpy V-notch impact, macro-etch or other relevant tests may be
required for certain applications, such as higher-strength steels, electroslag welding, one-side
welding, etc., and the results submitted for consideration. 2-4-3/Figure 13 defines the location of
Charpy V-notch impact tests when heat affected zone tests are required. A Charpy V-notch test is
to consist of three specimens per location.

5.11 Repair and Cladding of Stern Tube and Tail Shafts 2-4-3/5.11
Weld repairs and cladding on stern tube shafts and tail shafts are to be performed in an approved
facility. Approval of welding procedures for the repair or cladding of stern tube shafts and tail
shafts is to be in accordance with the ABS Guide for Repair and Cladding of Shafts.

7 Workmanship Tests 2-4-3/7


7.1 Hull Construction 2-4-3/7.1
The Surveyor may, when it is considered desirable, require welders to prepare specimens for
Filletweld Tests (Test No. 3) for the positions involved. Details of the specimen are shown in
2-4-3/Figure 8.

7.3 Boilers and Group I Pressure Vessels


-4-3/7.3

9 Radiographic or Ultrasonic Inspection 2-4-3/9


9.1 Hull Construction 2-4-3/9.1
Where radiographic or ultrasonic inspection is required, such testing should be carried out in
accordance with the Bureaus separately issued Rules for Nondestructive Inspection of Hull
Welds.

9.3 Boilers and Pressure Vessels 2-4-3/9.3

11 Welders 2-4-3/11
11.1 General Requirements 2-4-3/11.1
The Surveyor is to be satisfied that the welders are proficient in the type of work which they are
called upon to perform, either through requiring any or all of the tests outlined in the following
paragraphs or through due consideration of the system of employment, training, apprenticeship,
plant testing, inspection, etc., employed.

11.3 Qualification Tests 2-4-3/11.3


The tests, if required for qualification in the various positions for different materials and
thicknesses, are given in 2-4-3/Table 1. The tests are referred to by Nos. Q1 to Q4 inclusive for
which specimens are to be prepared in accordance with 2-4-3/Figure 9 to 2-4-3/Figure 12
respectively, and physically tested if the welder is qualified by this method. Alternatively, upon
the request of the employer, the welder may be qualified by use of radiography, except for gas
metal arc welding with the short circuit transfer technique for which bend tests are required. Test
assemblies for either physical testing or radiographic examination are to be prepared according to
material thickness and welding position, as indicated in 2-4-3/Table 1.

11.5 Tests Nos. Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4 2-4-3/11.5


Specimens for qualification Tests Nos. Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4 are to be bent in a bending jig having
the
profile shown in 2-4-3/Figure 7.

Safety Guidelines from MOM, Singapore

14 Welding and Cutting Operations


________________________________________________________
14.1 Cylinders containing combustible gases must not be kept in a room
where welding or cutting work is being done, except when in use.
14.2 Cylinders that contain or has contained oxygen or any flammable
gas or vapour must not be installed or placed within five metres of
any source of heat.
14.3 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) must not be taken and used on board
a ship undergoing repair or, in the case of a ship under construction
below the topmost completed deck unless all gas outlets have been
fitted with anti-leakage devices acceptable to the Chief Inspector.
14.4 Flashback arrestors must to be fitted at :
fuel gas and oxygen outlet;
pressure regulator outlet of each gas cylinder; and
14.5 All equipment and fittings used for carrying out hot-work (including
gas hoses, torches, blowpipes, pressure regulators, nozzles and
connectors) must be inspected and tested by a competent person or
the safety officer once in every 14 days to ensure that they are free

from defects and leaks.


14.6 All alternating current (AC) welding machines or welding sets must
be fitted with an effective low voltage shock prevention device.
14.7 All electrode holders, welding cables, cable connectors and other
arc-welding machine must be inspected by a competent person once
in every 30 days.