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Volume 7 Issue 2

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Japan Forum , Volume 7 Issue 2 1995

Official journal of the British Association for Japanese Studies

Increasing to 4 issues in 2010

ISSN: 1469-932X (electronic) 0955-5803 (paper)

Publication Frequency: 3 issues per year
Subjects: Asia Pacific Studies; Asian Studies; Japanese Culture & Society; Japanese Economics;
Japanese History; Japanese Politics; Japanese Studies;
Publisher: Routledge
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John W. M. Chapman General Editor
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The individual and the repressive state

The past through telescopic sights - reading the prison-life-story

of Kaneko Fumiko
Hlne Bowen-Raddeker[2009-11-18 19:32:30]

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Japan Forum
Pages 155 169
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The Liberal Democratic Party's quest for local policy-making

party organisation: The case of the Kanagawa forum 21
Lam Peng-er
Pages 171 187
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In search of the chaotic unconscious: A study of scandal

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Pages 189 205
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Japan and Azad Hind

Forgotten soldiers: Indian students in Japan in World War II

Grant K. Goodman
Pages 207 216
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Freedom under Britain or freedom under Japan: the radio battle

for India, December 1941-September 1945
Jane Robbins
Pages 217 224
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Poland and Japan as covert allies

Japan in Poland's secret neighbourhood war

J. W. M. Chapman
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Polish-Japanese co-operation during World War II

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Pages 285 316
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Chamberlain, rodrigues, and the morphology of Japanese

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Japan in the twentieth century

Janet Hunter[2009-11-18 19:32:30]

Japan Forum
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Stephen Turnbull; Marie Conte-Helm; T. B. M. Screech; Sarah F. MetzgerCourt; Paul St. John Mackintosh; Lawrie Breen; Paul Waley; Paul
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FAQs in: English . Franais . Espaol . ??(?????)
2009 Informa plc[2009-11-18 19:32:30]

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Japanese-Finnish Cooperation in WW II

Japanese-Finnish Cooperation in WW II
Posted By: Elephtheriou George <>
Date: Thursday, 9 August 2001, at 8:55 a.m.
Konnichi wa minasama,
I must tell you that tonight we hade a very enjoyable evening with our good friend Higuchi san. Among Asahi
Super Drys and Tori no karaage, Ika no fry, eda mame etc at an Ueno's isakaya he said that Japanese visited
Finland and wanted to know how they could start their planes at such low temperatures. Finish first warmed
the oil, then poured it inside the engine.
This method the Japanese copied. Our friend mentioned his source but as it usually happens to people of my
age, I forgot it.
So, does anyone know more about this trip of Japanese to Finland?
Posted By: Hiroyuki Takeuchi
Date: Sunday, 12 August 2001, at 12:04 a.m.
In Response To: Japanese in Finland (?!?!) (Elephtheriou George)
The IJA was highly interested in cold weather operation since it's main opponent was thought to be the Soviets.
All IJA fighters except for Ki100 underwent ski undercarriage tests, and cold weather cowlings were developed
for such types as Ki48.
I don't know when this "visit" took place, but it won't be surprising if the Japanese and the Fins whom both
fought the Soviets in 1939 sought to exchange information.
The Fins imported the Type 38 Infantry Rifle, Type 31 75mm gun, Type 38 150mm howitzer, 12cm naval gun,
and bamboo poles for ski stocks (used by Finnish ski units) from
Posted By: Andrew Obluski <>
Date: Tuesday, 14 August 2001, at 8:52 a.m.
The Imperial Japanese Army cooperated with the Finnish Armed Forces during World War II. They focused of
course on the exchange of intelligence data concerning the Soviet Union. Shortly before the withdrawal of
Finland from the Axis side, the Finnish [working together with some Estonian officers] sigint intelligence unit
[very successful team] was shifted to neutral Sweden. This relocation was arranged and financed by Japanese
Military Attach in Stockholm Gen. Makoto ONODERA and Japanese Military Attach in Helsinki Gen.
Posted By: Sigint <>
Date: Monday, 20 August 2001, at 5:37 a.m.
In fact the Sigint personnel transfer was called as the operation Stella Polaris. Some books have been written of
that (in fact some documents may be still classified)--- but as to my knowledge they are written in Finnish.
What comes to the FAF - Finnish Air force coop with Japanese it might be better to ask some pros at the
Best regards Juha[2009-11-18 19:36:00]

Japanese-Finnish Cooperation in WW II

Posted By: David_Aiken <>

Date: Monday, 20 August 2001, at 7:39 p.m.
Aloha All,
Carl-Fredrik Geust posted the following at the Finnish Aviation site recommended by "Sigint" message:
In one of the two volumes of "Luftwaffe in Finland" there is at least one photo of a Ju-52 transporting a
Japanese military delegation in Finland. (I have not got the book at hands right now, so I cannot give the exact
The mentioned Finnish-Japanese sigint coop is mentioned in some detail in the memoirs of the wife of the
Japanese military attach to Stockholm, Mrs. Onodera. This book was translated some years ago to German
(and extensively referred to in the history of the Finnish sigint "Suomen radiotiedustelu"). This book has
however also been translated into Swedish: Yuiriko Onodera: Mina r vid stersjn, Probus Frlag, Stockholm
1993 (ISBN 91-87184-22-2) and is highly recommended,
Posted By: Andrew Obluski <>
Date: Monday, 20 August 2001, at 11:54 a.m.
The beginnings of Finnish-Japanese military cooperation date to the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. The
Japanese military attach in Stockholm Gen Motojiro Akashi initiated then contacts with Finnish independence
movement leaders. Akashi, very clever officer wrote later his memoirs Rakka Ryusui which were translated
into English.
As the Soviet threat was rising dangerously Tokyo named in 1938 Gen Toshio Nishimura [adopted son of
former Prime Minister Gen Giichi Tanaka] its military attach in Helsinki for Finland and Sweden. After
Russian aggression on Finland in 1939-1940 Nishimura moved to Stockholm and organized attache bureau
there. He was soon replaced by Gen Makoto Onodera in Sweden and Gen Hiroshi Onouchi in Finland. Onouchi
worked there until the end of 1944 and enjoyed very good relations with the Finns.
J.W.M. Chapman Japan in Polands Secret Neighbourhood War [Japan Forum No 2/1995] writes [p. 260]
Until the Soviet-Finnish peace in the autumn of 1944, Onodera had been heavily involved in collaborating with
the Finnish General Staff in the penetration of the USSR by agents. The Japanese mission was forced out of
Finland, but Onodera pulled off a remarkable coup by obtaining several million yen from Tokyo to induce the
whole of the deception section of the Finnish General Staff to move to Sweden to continue its work, which was
generally regarded as highly effective in reading Soviet coded signals. [note 131] The opportunity appears to
have arisen as a result of the fact that the Russians were intent on ensuring that the apparatus elaborately
created with German funds and support to monitor the USSR since the 1930s in conjunction with the Finns,
Estonians, Lithuanians, Latvians and, to a much lesser extent, the Swedes would be smashed. However, because
Onodera had the funds and a long-established set of contacts since his years in Riga and because the Swedes
quietly indicated their support for maintenance of these networks, the proposal went ahead and contributed
significantly to Onodera's standing in Tokyo's eyes. [note 132].
[note 103] The covert elements among the members of the bureau of the Japanese military attach in Berlin had
been heavily involved since 1920 in support of sabotage and subversion operations directed against the USSR.
This had been Oshimas main employment as assistant military attach in Berlin and Vienna in the early 1910s,
but according to Professor Miyagi, who interviewed Oshima in old age, he deliberately avoided talking about
these aspects of his career because of the damage it might do as a defendant at the Tokyo Tribunal. Colonel
Usui Shigeki [JAAF officer; CO of 98 Sentai (Ki-21 bombers); KIA 23 Dec 1941 during the first Rangoon major
air strike] undertook these tasks under Oshima in the mid--1930s and was credited by Schellenberg as
collaborating with the Security Service to plant information about an anti-Stalinist conspiracy among the Soviet
military which had a direct impact on the subsequent purges that seriously weakened Soviet defences from 1937
to 1941.
In 1942, the Japanese Army provided secure bases for Abwehr-funded sabotage operations against Siberia and
there was collaboration between Colonel Lahousen (Abwehr II) and Colonel Yamamoto Bin over the infiltration
of agents into the Caucasus. See Abwehr II L/A Nr. 990/42 Gkdos of 1 May -1942 about discussions on[2009-11-18 19:36:00]

Japanese-Finnish Cooperation in WW II

cooperation involving the Caucasus, India, Iran, Iraq and the USA. Colonel Onouchi, the Japanese military
attach in Helsinki, was collaborating with the Finnish General Staff in mounting agent penetration in Carelia
and employing Finnish and Estonian agents inside the USSR Soviet code material collected in Manchuria by the
Japanese and Poles ware exchanged by Onouchis assistant, Hirose Eiichi, with the Estonian organisation,
originally supplied with funds and intercept equipment by the Germans, under Erkki Pale, working for Colonel
Hallamaa and the Finnish General Staff. Much of this information was already being routed to Onodera, but he
paid Pale 300,000 kroner in September 1944 to take his group to Stockholm when Finland sued for peace.
An example of Finnish radio monitoring of Soviet forces activity may be seen in Onouchi (Helsinki) Tel. No.
217 of 9 June 1943 and it is also interesting to note Helsinki Tel. No. 229 of 17 June 1943 in which it was noted
that it is very hard to read American and British diplomatic systems so that it would make sense to derive
information about Anglo-American policy by monitoring the codes of small countries with less difficult
systems. See NAW/RG 457/SRA 331-S & 163 and J. Cederberg & G. Elgemyr, Operation Stella Polaris, in W.
Agrell & B. Huldt [eds.] Clio Goes Spying; Lunds Studies in International History, Vol. 17, 1983, pp. 120149.
[note 131] Authors interview with General Onodera. The transfer, codenamed Operation Pole Star, was
facilitated by the good relations that had existed until November 1944 with Colonel Onouchi, who returned
home. Onodera had had long-term contacts also with Colonel Hallamaa, the head of the decrypt section of the
Finnish General Staff, as well as with General Paasonen, the head of intelligence and the Estonian volunteers,
headed by Colonel Richard Maasing, who had collaborated with the Finns and the Germans. The move was also
known to the Swedes and the transfer was conducted with their tacit support. Paasonen had been at the St. Cyr
Military Academy in France with General de Gaulle and both he and Hallamaa moved to France at the end of
the war. Cf. n. 103 above.
There appears to have been an intelligence connection between the Finns and the French for some time past and
there were also connections between the Swedes and the Comte de Fleurieu, named as head of Anglo-American
intelligence in Sweden by Himmler at the end of 1942. The Germans and their friends in Stockholm seem
always to have been wary of the French military and were quite frequently seeking to check up both on Swedish
diplomats in France and on French diplomats on leave from Sweden. It is perhaps significant that General
Onodera was interrogated only by the French in 1946 before he left Naples for Japan.
Stella Polaris Sources
Chapman J.W.M., Japanese Intelligence 19181945. A Suitable Case for Treatment in Christopher Andrew and
Jeremy Noakes [eds.] Intelligence and International Relations 19001945; Exeter University of Exeter 1987 [145
190 p.]
Chapman J.W.M., Japan in Polands Secret Neighbourhood War; Japan Forum No 2/1995 [225 283 p.]
Maekela Jukka, Im Rucken des Feindes. Der finnische Nachrichtendienst im Krieg [In the Rear of the Enemy.
The Finnish Intelligence in the War], Frauenfeld Huber Verlag 1967
Cederburg Joergen & Goeran Elgemyr, Operation Stella PolarisNordic Intelligence Cooperation in the
Closing Stages of the Second World War in Wilhelm Agrell & Bo Huldt [eds.] Clio Goes Spying. Eight Essays
on the History of Intelligence; Malmoe, Sweden Scandinavian University Books 1983 [120 149 p.]
Kahn David, Finlands Codebreaking in World War II in Hayden Peake and Samuel Halpern [eds.] In the
Name of Intelligence. Essays in Honor of Walter Pforzheimer; Washington, DC NIBC 1994 [329 347 p.]
C.G. McKay, Debris from Stella Polaris. A Footnote to the CIANSA Account of Venona; Intelligence and
National Security Summer 1999 [198 201 p.]
C.G. McKay, From Information to Intrigue. Studies in Secret Service based on Swedish Experience 19391945;
London Frank Cass 1993
I can just add that all these Japanese officers [Akashi, Nishimura, Onodera and Onouchi] also cooperated with
Polish Intelligence with excellent results.
Posted By: Hannu Mononen <>
Date: Sunday, 26 August 2001, at 8:24 a.m.
For a string of discussion about the operation Stella Polaris, see the website[2009-11-18 19:36:00]

Japanese-Finnish Cooperation in WW II

With best greetings,

Hannu Mononen
Return to General Message Board[2009-11-18 19:36:00]