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Animal Toxins
 are toxins resmbling bacterial toxins in its antigenic

properties that is found in the fluids of certain
animals.
 are well recognized for their toxicity. Poisoning is

through direct contact, bites or by consumption.
 are complex consisting of polypeptides, enzymes and

chemicals which can cause injury. At least 3
mechanisms are involved in pathophysiology of venom
poisoning.

o Direct injury is induced mostly by chemicals.  Polypeptides exert their effects through the action on ion channels and receptors on the cell membrane. enzymes and polypeptides. . The action of polypeptides on ion channels and receptor sites through signal transduction causes the release of mediators which usually results in neuromuscular effects.

release inflammatory and vasoactive mediators and activate the coagulation pathway at various levels. Enzymes can cause membrane lysis. . pore formation. cytoskeletal destruction.

 Proteolytic enzymes and phospholipase A2 are important causes of cellular injury and coagulopathy. Cardiovascular symptoms are therefore common. . vasoactive mediators and proinflammatory cytokines induced by enzymes can lead to haemodynamic alterations and cause organ injury. Indirectly.

swelling and redness. complement activation. increased vascular permeability and increased blood viscosity. acute phase proteins. Local reactions include pain. They can also trigger the inflammatory process with generation of adhesion molecules. . free radicals.

. Haemodynamic changes may result if the process is severe. In the severe form anaphylaxis with respiratory and cardiovascular symtoms may occur. Immunologic reaction usually results in the form of allergic response such as skin rashes and oedema.

 Haemodynamic. Symptoms develop rapidly. often within seconds or minutes. . They may include the following: Abdominal pain or cramping.  Anaphylaxis-is a life-threatening type of allergic reaction.is a medical term for the dynamic regulation of the blood flow in the brain.

poison in a highly in whole or part. biting or stinging .Animal Toxins : Venomous Animal Poisonous Animal  is capable of producing a  contains tissues that are. toxic developed gland or and there is no group of cells and can mechanism to deliver the deliver the toxin by poison.

peptides. amines. amino polysaccharides. enzymes. Variables affecting the action of Venoms – Route of administration – Absorption – Distribution – Passage across membranes – Accumulation – Metabolism & excretion . etc. steroids. lipids.Properties of Animal Toxins  Composition & Chemical properties – Proteins.

Reptiles • Venomous Species of Snakes – Elapidae – Hdrophiidae – Laticudidae – Viperidae – Crotalidae – Colubridae .

• Venomous Lizards – Gila Monster & Mexican beaded lizard .

& Mn2+ – Trace amounts of Zn. Co. & Ni  • Other components – Carbohydrates (glycoproteins) – Lipids – Biogenic amines – Free amino acids . K+.Snake Venoms  • Proteins & peptides • Inorganic ions – Na+. Mg. Fe. Ca2+.

Enzymes of Snake Venoms • Proteolytic enzymes • Lactate Dehydrogenase • Arginine ester hydrolase • Phosphomonoesterase • Thrombinlike enzyme • Phosphodiesterase • Acetylcholinesterase • Collagenase • RNase • Hyaluronidase • DNase • Phospholipase A2(A) • 5’-Nuclease • Phospholipase B • NAD-nucleotidase • L-Amino acid oxidase • Phospholipase C .

Toxicology of Crotalids • Direct tissue damage & necrosis • Alterations in Blood vessel resistance • Changes in RBCs and blood coagulation • Indirect effects on cardiac and pulmonary dynamics • Alterations of NS function • Changes in metabolism & respiration • Hypotension .shock .

Amphibian Toxins  Toad Toxins – Chemical composition • Biogenic amines – epinephrine. hypotension. hallucinations • Smooth muscle . norepinephrine. epinine. dopamine. indolealkylamines – Actions • Vasoconstriction.

– dart poisons – Atelopus sp.Frog Toxins  – Chemical composition : – Bicyclic & Steroid alkaloids – Phyllobatis sp. LD human = 200 ng . • Zetekitoxins AB & C – LD = 11μg/kg & 80 μg/kg • Tetrodotoxin & Batrachotoxin – LD mouse = 100ng.

Spiders – Widow Spiders – Latrodectus • Venom – Neurotoxic proteins (5-6) high content of isoleucine and leucine & low content of tyrosine – Proteolytic enzymes & hyaluronidase • Toxicity – Muscle pain. cramps. fasciculation – Joint pain – Headache & dizziness – edema .Venomous Arthropods • Arachnids .

hemoglobinuria. renal failure .Venomous Arthropods • Spiders (cont. • Brown recluse • Venom – Sphingomyelinase D Phospholipase – Protease Esterase – Collagenase Hyaluronidase – DNase & RNase Derma necrosis 33 & 37 • Toxicity – Vascular damage & tissue necrosis – Lethality – intravascular hemolysis. thrombocytopenia.) – Brown or Violin Spiders – Loxosceles sp.

. Wasps. Bees.Venomous Arthropods • Hymenoptera – Ants. Hornets – Lethality due to sensitization to the venom & anaphylactic reactions – Venom • Peptides & nonenzymatic proteins • Phospholipase A & B • Hyaluronidase • Histamine & 5-hydroxytryptamine.

A toxin that acts by lysing erythrocytes . . Venoms of this kind disrupt blood clotting and.MAIN ANIMAL TOXIN CLASSES: Hemotoxins. severely damage internal organs and other body tissues. in the process of destroying the blood's functionality.

steroids that produce severe arrythmia of heartbeat. scorpions) Digoxin-likeCardiotonic . (toads) .MAIN ANIMAL TOXIN CLASSES:  Cardio active Toxins: Cardiotoxins/cytotoxins.Act on membrane lipids/proteins of blood cells or heart cells.. (cobras.

basic peptides found in snake venoms. causing instantaneous paralysis to prevent pprey from escaping and eventually death due to diaparalysis. such as in that of certain rattlesnakes.MAIN ANIMAL TOXIN CLASSES: Myotoxins .are small. These peptides act very quickly. . This involves a non-enzymatic mechanism that leads to severe muscle necrosis.

and define the effect of neurotoxins as occurring at nerve tissue.has its effect at the motor end plate.is a toxin that acts specifically on nerve cells (neurons). . which is considered a neurotoxin.A toxin that interferes with nerve function. Some sources are more general. Bungarotoxin.MAIN ANIMAL TOXIN CLASSES:  Neurotoxins. . usually by interacting with membrane proteins such as ion channels.