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Compressible Flow

Introduction

z

of state is important

Ideal gas equation of statesimple yet

representative of actual gases at pressures and

temperatures of interest

Energy equation is important, due to the significant

variation of temperature.

P = RT

For ideal gas, internal energy u=u(T)

du

u

constant pressure specific heat:

c = ( ) =

du = c dT u2 u1 =

T2

T1

c dT

u2 u1 = c (T2 T1 )

dT

Enthalpy h=h(T)

h=u+

= u (T ) + RT = h(T )

dh = c p dT h2 h1 =

h

dh

cp = ( ) p =

dT

T

T2

T1 c p dT

h2 h1 = c p (T2 T1 )

or

dh du

=

+ R c p c = R

dT dT

k=

cp

c

Rk

R

cp =

and c =

k 1

k 1

Entropy

1st Tds equation

Tds = du + pd (1/ )

Qh = u +

dh = du + pd (1/ ) +

Tds = dh

dp

dp

du p

dT

R

ds =

d (1 / )

+ d (1 / ) = c

+

T

T

T

(1 / )

c p dT R

dh (1 / )

=

dp

dp =

T

T

T

p

For constant c p , cv :

s2 s1 = c ln

T2

+ R ln( 1 )

T1

2

T2

p2

= c p ln R ln( )

T1

p1

ds = 0

or c ln(

or s2 s1 = 0

isentropic flow

T2

T

p

) + R ln( 1 ) = c p ln( 2 ) R ln( 2 ) = 0

2

T1

T1

p1

R

ln( 2 ) = R ln( 2 )

1

k 1 T1

k

T2 k 1

( )

T1

=(

T1

=(

Isentropic

process path,

Pvk = const

2 k

)

1

T

p

T

p

kR

ln( 2 ) = R ln( 2 ) ( 2 ) k 1 = ( 2 )k

k 1 T1

p1

T1

p1

k

T

( 2 ) k 1

isothermal compression

Pv = const

2 k

p

p

) = ( 2 ) k = const, for isentropic flow

1

p1

(11.25)

Ma =

V

, V --local flow velocity, c--speed of sound

c

move through air.

Consider 1-D of infinitesimally thin weak pressure pulse

moving at the speed of sound through a fluid at rest.

fluid at rest

-conservation

of mass

Ac = ( + ) A(c V )

c = c V + c V

V = c

-linear momentum conservation

c cA + (c V )( + )(c V ) A = pA ( p + p ) A

Q ( + )(c V ) A = cA

(continuity)

c cA + ( c V ) cA = pA

V Ac = pA V = p / c

Q V = c

c =

p

c

(continuity)

c2 =

p

p

c=

Isentropic

process path

instead of momentum equation

V 2

p

+

g z = (loss) --from (5.103)

p (c V ) 2 c 2

p

= 0 V =

2

2

c

p

= c V

= V = c (from continuity: V = c )

or

c2 =

P

c=

volume is adiabatic, then the flow is isentropic.

In the limit p p 0

c =

(11.34)

p = c k

p

p

p

k 1

k 1

= k k

= k = RTk c =

= ck

RTk

p

dp

Ev =

=

d /

c =

Ev /

Ev

(11.36)

- effect of compressibility on CDof a sphere

Can you explain physically?

point source

r = (t t wave )c

where t present time, twave time wave emitted

1. Incompressible flow Ma 0.3

unrestricted, linear symmetrical and instantaneous

pressure communication.

2. Compressible subsonic flow 0.3 < Ma < 1.0

unrestricted, but noticeably asymmetrical pressure

communication

3. Compressible supersonic flow Ma 1

formation of Mach wave, pressure communication

restricted to zone of action

4. transonic flow

0.9 Ma 1.2

5. hypersonic flow Ma 5

Example 11.4 Mach cone

(modern aircraft)

(space shuttle)

from Gas Dynamics Lab, The Penn. State

University, 2004

from M. Van Dyke, An Album of Fluid Motion

(Can you estimate the airplane speed?)

Ma=0.978

- no heat transfer and frictionless

11.4.1 Effect of variation in flow cross-section area

- conservation of mass

m& = AV = const.

- Conservation of momentum for a inviscid and steady flow

0

1

2

dp + d (V ) + dz = 0

2

dp

dV

=

V

V 2

Since m& = AV = c, ln + ln A + ln V = c

d dA dV

differentiation

+

+

=0

A V

dV d dA

dp

=

+

(=

)

2

V

A

(11.44)

dA

dp d

dp

d V 2

=

=

(1

)

2

2

V

dp

A V

dp

V2

=

(1

)

2

dp / d

V

(11.45)

p

V

=

Since c =

,

and

Ma

dp

dA

2

(1 Ma ) =

2

A

V

(11.47)

dp

dA

1

dV

=

=

2

2

A 1 Ma

V

V

(11.48)

diverging duct

dp

dA

1

dV

=

=

2

2

A 1 Ma

V

V

converging duct

d

dA dA

1

+

=

A

A 1 Ma 2

dA Ma 2

=

A 1 Ma 2

(11.49)

(11.49): For subsonic flow, density and area changes are in the

same direction; for supersonic flow, density and area

changes are in the opposite direction.

dA

A

= (1 Ma 2 )

dV

V

dA

W hen M a = 1

= 0 The area associated with Ma=1 is either

a minimum or a maximum.

dV

From (11.48):

impossible

a converging-diverging duct at the minimum area location.

For supersonic flow converging diverging diffuser

throat

subsonic

throat

supersonic

subsonic

develops in the diverging duct as long as sonic flow

is reached at the throat?

P-induced flow

P-driven flow

throat

P0

Vavg

Vavg

Pe

no matter how low the back pressure Pe is?

- For an isentropic flow

p0

p

= constant = k

k

0

- streamwise equation of motion for steady, frictionless flow

V2

+ d ( ) = 0, dz neglected

dp

p 10 / k

dp

V2

+ d(

)= 0

1/ k

2

p

p0

1/ k

1/ k

( p0 / 0 )

Q k = k = p

0

k 1

k 1

2

k p01/ k

V

[ p0 k p k ]

=0

2

k 1 0

k p0 p V 2

[ ]

=0

2

k 1 0

p0

= RT0 ,

= RT

kR

V2

V2

kR

[T0 T ]

= 0 or c p (T0 T )

= 0 (Q c p =

)

k 1

k 1

2

2

V2

h0 (h + ) = 0

2

kRT0 kRT V 2

=

+

k 1 k 1 2

k 1 2

kRT0 = kRT +

V

2

T0

k 1 V 2

k 1

Ma 2

= 1+

= 1+

T

2 kRT

2

T

1

=

T0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

(kRT = c 2 )

(11.56)

With

= RT

p 0 T

=

p0 T0

p

p0

0

p0 1k

=( )

Q k = k

0

p p 1k

T

( ) =

p0 p0

T0

p k k1 T

( )

=

p0

T0

p

T k k1

=( )

p0

T0

k

p

1

k 1

]

=[

p0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

1

]

=[

2

0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

1

k 1

T

1

=

T0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

(11.59)

using isentropic relation

(11.60)

(11.56)

k

p

1

] k 1

=[

2

p0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

1

1

] k 1

=[

2

0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

T

1

=

T0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

Isentropic flow of an ideal gas with

k = 1.4.

V2

c pT0 = c pT +

2

Figure 11.7

The (T s) diagram relating

stagnation and static states.

Figure 11.8

The T s diagram for Venturi

meter flow.

effect the flow in the converging portion of the duct.

-At Ma=1 the information about pressure can not move

upstream

-Consider the choked flow where at the throat Ma=1,

the state is called critical state

p

p0

subsoinc

0.528

supersoinc

Critical State:

Set Ma=1 in (11.56), (11.59), (11.60)

p*

2 k k1

=(

)

p0

k +1

For k=1.4

p*

= 0.528

p 0 k =1.4

*

T*

T*

2

=

= 0.833 or Tk*=1.4 = 0.833T0 = 0.833Tatm

T0 k + 1

T0 k =1.4

*

* p* T0

2 kk1 k + 1

2 k11

) (

)=(

)

= *

=(

= 0.643

k +1

k +1

0 T p0

2

0 k =1.4

Example 11.5

p0 = 101 kPa

0 = 1.23 kg/m3

T0 = 288 K

Find m& = (a)80 kPa, (b)40 kPa.

(a) pa > p* the throat is not choked

k

p

80

1

] k 1 Ma th = 0.587

=

=[

2

p0 101 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

1

1

3

3

k 1

=[

=

kg

m

=

kg

m

]

1.23

/

1.04

/

0

0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

T

1

=

T0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

T = 269 K

V = Ma * kRT

V = 193 m/s

m& = VA = 0.0201 kg/s

(b) pb=40 kPa < p*=53.3 the flow is choked at the throat Ma = 1

1

1

3

k 1

=[

=

=

]

0.634

0.78

kg/m

0

0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

1

T

=

T0 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2

T = 240 K

V = 310 m/s

V = Ma * kRT

m& = VA = 0.0242 kg/s

Isentropic flow of an ideal gas with

k = 1.4. (Graph provided by Dr.

Bruce A. Reichert.)

Ratio A/A*

AV = * A*V *

A * V *

or

=

*

V

A

*

A

* =

kRT *

1 *

=

kRT Ma Ma 0

T * / T0

T / T0

1

1

+

1

2 k 11

k +1

2

k

1

2

=

(

) [1 +

Ma 2 ] k 1 [

]

Ma k + 1

2

1 1 + [( k 1) 2]Ma 2

k +1

A

1 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma 2 2( k 1)

*=

[

]

A

Ma 1 + [(k 1) 2]

The variation of area ratio with Mach

number for isentropic flow of an ideal

gas (k = 1.4, linear coordinate scales).

atmospheric condition, A=0.1+x2

A

1

2

A = r2 r = ( ) = (

0.1 + x 2

1

2

At throat, x = 0 A* = 0.1

A 0.1 + x 2

p

T

=

, using (11.71) Ma ,

*

A

p0 T0

0.1

d

c

0.98

b

d

0.04

atmospheric condition, A=0.1+x2

For the flow to be chocked

At throat, x = 0 A* = 0.1

A 0.1 + x 2

p

T

=

,

using

(11.71)

Ma

,

A*

p0 T0

0.1

a

c

0.98

b

d

0.04

The Ma at throat is 0.48

p T A

Ma = 0.48 ,

, *

p0 T0 A

A 0.1

= * =1.4

*

A A

A* = 0.07

c

b

subsonic-subsonic

subsonic-supersonic(choked)

subsonic-subsonic(choked)

supersonic-supersonic(choked)

infinite number of isentropic subsonic to subsonic (not choked)

and isentropic supersonic to supersonic (not choked) flow

solutions exist.

2. For choked condition, the flow solutions are each unique.

p pext p , isentropic flow is not possible

overexpanded

underexpanded

Oblique shock wave (3-D)

V11.6 Supersonic nozzle flow

isentropic

isentropic

Entropy generation

Gas Dynamics

z

thus the fluid enthalpy and temperature are constant.

p0

pb

z

z

Rayleigh flow constant area duct flow with heat

transfer but without friction

with friction (Fanno flow)

z

with friction

Energy equation:

V22 V12

m& [ h2 h1 +

+ g ( z 2 z1 )] = Q& + W&

2

V2

h+

= h0 , h h0 = c p (T T0 )

2

V2

T+

= T0 = const

(stagnation

2c p

temp.= const)

( V ) 2

( V ) 2 T 2

T+

= T0 T +

= T0 , where V = const

2

2

2

2c p

2c p p / R

(11.75)

1

Tds = dh ( )dp

dT

dp

R

T

p

T

p

s2 s1 = c p ln 2 R ln 2

T1

p1

ds = c p

s s1 = c p ln

T

p

(11.76)

R ln

T1

p1

From (11.75) and (11.76), the Fanno line for variation of p-T-s

can be obtained.

Ex 11.11

Friction (Fanno Flow)

z

area duct with the following properties:

T0=284K

T1=286K

p1=99kPa(abs)

For Fanno flow, determine corresponding value of fluid temperature and

entropy change for various values of downstream pressures and plot the

related Fanno line.

Example 11.11

To plot the Fanno line we use Eq. (75) and (76)

T+

(V) 2 T 2

2

2c P ( p / R )

= T0 = constan t

T

p

s s1 = cP ln R ln

T1

p1

k = 1.4

(11.11.2)

R = 286.9J / kg K

(1)+(69)

(11.11.1)

Rk

(11.11.3)

cp =

= ... = 1004J / kg K

k 1

p

p

V =

Ma RTk = 1V1 = 1 Ma1 RT1k (11.11.4)

RT

RT1

Example 11.11

T1 286K

=

= 0.993

To 288K

0.993

T

1

=

To 1 + k1 Ma2

2

(11.11.4)

99103 Pa0.2(339m / s)

V =

= 81.8kg /(m2 s)

(289.6J / kg K )(286K )

For p= 48 kPa

(11.11.1)

(11.11.2)

( V )2 T 2

T+

= ... = 288K T = 278.7 K

2

2

2cP ( p / R )

T

p

s s1 = cP ln R ln = ... = 181.7 J /(kg K )

T1

p1

(56)

Example 11.11

For p=48kPa T=278.7K s-s1=181.7J/(kgK)

For p=41kPa T=275.6K s-s1=215.7J/(kgK)

For p=34kPa T=270.6K s-s1=251.0J/(kgK)

Tds equation

dp

dp

Tds = dh

= dh RT

p

For an ideal gas,

dp

p

d dT

)

= cP dT RT (

+

T

V = const, or

Continuity:

Tds = cP dT RT

Q dh = cP dT ;

dp d dT

=

+

p = RT or

p

T

dV

V

dT

dV dT

) = cP dT RT (

+ )

T

V

T

ds cP

1 dV 1

= - R(+ )

dT T

V dT T

Tds = cP dT RT (

Energy eq.:

cP

V2

VdV

dV

= T0 = const dT =

=

T+

2c p

cp

dT

V

cp 1

ds c p

- R( 2 + )

=

dT T

T

V

(11.82)

cp

cp 1

cp

ds

For

=0

= R ( 2 + ) c p R = c = RT 2

dT

T

T

V

V

V = (c p / c ) RTa = kRTa

So, the Mach number at state a is 1.

ds

< 0, V < kRTa subsonic

dT

ds

> 0, V > kRTa supersonic

dT

subsonic

supersonic

Ma=1

supersonic

point a is the critical temperature T*.

subsonic flow

(acceleration)

supersonic flow

(deceleration)

Normal shock

behavior

relationship that represents the linear momentum law with the

set of equations already derived.

p1 A1 p2 A2 Rx = m(V2 V1 )

Rx

p1 p2

= V (V2 V1 ), ( Q A1 = A2 = A and m& = AV = C )

A

-Therefore, for the semi-infinitesimal control volumes

dp

w Ddx

A

= VdV

8 w

D2

with f =

, A=

2

V

4

V 2 dx

dp f

= VdV

2D

dp f V 2 dx d (V 2 )

+

+

=0

or

p p 2 D p 2

dp f V 2 dx d (V 2 )

+

+

=0

p p 2 D p 2

(11.88)

2

2

1

d

(

V

)

d

(Ma

) fk

2 dx

(1 + kMa 2 )

Ma

+

=0

2

2

2

2

D

V

Ma

or

(1 Ma 2 )d (Ma 2 )

= f

dx

D

(11.96)

Ma* =1

Ma

(1 Ma 2 )d (Ma 2 )

=

2

4

1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma kMa

l*

dx

f

D

2

*

2

1

Ma

f

l

l

1

k + 1 [(k + 1) 2]Ma

+

ln

=

2

2

k Ma

2k

D

1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

(11.98)

since for any two section in the Fanno flow,

f l* l

D

) f (l * l ) =

1

f

(l 1 l

D

).

as summarized below.

Note: These equations correlate ratio of properties associated

with different positions (a certain position and the choke position),

between which friction loss exists.

2

*

2

l

1

Ma

l

f

1

[(k + 1) 2]Ma

k +1

ln

+

=

(11.98)

2

2

2k

1

+

[(

1)

2]Ma

k Ma

k

D

(k + 1) 2

T

=

,

2

*

1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

T

(11.101)

1

[(k + 1) 2]Ma

V

=

,

2

V * 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

2

V

=

,

*

*

at the same position,

isentropic relations in terms

of Ma or Fig. D1 can be used.

(11.103)

(11.105)

2

T

1

(k + 1) 2

p

=

=

,

2

*

*

*

Ma 1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

T

p

same position

(11.107)

different positions

p0

p0 p p *

1 2

2

=

=

1 + [(k 1) 2]Ma

p0 * p p * p0 * Ma k + 1

k +1

2( k 1)

(11.109)

correlate ratio of

properties associated with

different positions (a

certain position and the

choke position), between

which friction loss exists.

Fanno flow of an ideal gas with

k = 1.4.

p0

p0 *

p

p*

Given p0 = 101 kPa, T0 = 288 K

-For maximum flow rate, the flow must be choked at the exit.

f l* l 1

f (l 2 l 1 ) 0.02 2

=

=

= 0.4

D

D

0.1

p0,1

T1

V1

p1

Fig. D2 Ma1 = 0.63 * = 1.1, * = 0.66,

= 1.7,

= 1.16

*

*

T

V

p

p0

T

p1

1

Fig. D1 with Ma1 = 0.63 1 = 0.93,

= 0.76,

= 0.83

T0

p0,1

0,1

Since T0 =C =288 K

Or, perhaps more logical,

T*

2

T1 = 0.93 T0 = 0.93 288

=

= 0.8333 T * = T0 (0.8333) = 240 T2

T0 k + 1

= 268 K

V * = RT *k = 310m/s ( V2 ) V1 = 0.66 V * = 205m/s V1 = Ma1 kRT1

= 207m/s

*

p p1

1

p2 =

p0,1 =

0.76 101 = 45kPa

p1 p0,1

1.7

1

= 87kPa

1.16

Pd = 45kPa

1m

f l* l 1

D

) = 0.02 1 = 0.2,

0.1

p1

V1

=

1.5,

= 0.73,

*

*

p

V

p1

= 0.72, 1 = 0.79

0,1

p0

p * p1

1

p2 = p =

p01 =

0.72 101 = 48.5kPa ( > pd = 45kPa)

p1 p01

1.5

*

m& = 1 AV

1 1 = 1.73 kg/s

-For the same upstream stagnation state and downstream pressure,

Example 11.14 Unchoked Fanno flow

transfer (Rayleigh flow)

p1 A1 + mV1 = p2 A2 + mV2 + Rx

Momentum:

or

p0 = p +

V )

(

p+

V 2

2

= const

V )

(

p+

RT

0 (frictionless flow)

= const

Continuity:

V = C

Tds eq.: s s1 = c p ln

T

p

Rl n

(11.76)

T1

p1

construct a Rayleigh line with reference

conditions.

(11.111)

downstream p2 (or T2), with entrance conditions T0, T1, p1

-Assume p2 (or T2), then from (11.111) T2 (or p2) can be obtained.

-From (11.76), s2 can be obtained.

( V )

p+

RT

= const

T

p

s s1 = C p ln Rln

T1

p1

(11.111)

(11.76)

-At point a on the Rayleigh line,

-After some derivation, we have

1

ds c p V

= +

dT T T [ (T / V ) (V / R) ]

ds

= 0,

dT

ds c p V

1

= +

dT T T [ (T / V ) (V / R )]

For

kR T V

+V = 0

k 1 V R

2

kRT kV 2 ( k 1)V

+

=0

k 1 k 1

k 1

V 2 = kRT

Va = kRTa Ma a = 1

ds

=0

dT

(11.115)

Derivation of ds/dT

dp = VdV

dP

= VdV

Tds = dh

dp

= c p dT + VdV

or

ds c p V dV

= +

dT T T dT

cp V

1

= +

T T (T / V V / R )

V = C

d

dV

=

V

p = RT

dp d .dT

=

+

p

T

VdV

dV dT

=

+

RT

V

T

V

1 1 dT

= +

RT

V T dV

T V dT

=

V R dV

At point b, dT / ds = 0

ds c p V

1

= +

dT T T [ (T / V ) (V / R ) ]

dT

1

1

=

=

=0

ds c p V

1

ds

+ [ (T / V ) (V / R) ]

dT

T T

cp V

1

+

T T [ (T / V ) (V / R )]

T V

= V 2 = RT V = RT

V R

V

RT

1

=

Ma b = b =

c

k

kRT

V 2 2 V1 2

m& h 2 h1 +

+ g ( z 2 z 1 ) = Q n e t + W sh e ftn e t

2

dh + VdV = q,

dh = c p dT =

kR

dT

k 1

c p dT + VdV = q

dT VdV q

+

=

T

c pT c pT

dV

V

V dT

q

V2

+

=

T dV kRT / ( k 1) c pT

1

2

dV q V dT ( k 1) V

q

=

+

=

V

c pT T dV

kRT

c pT

V

T

T V

2

k

1

Ma

V

R

V2

q

2

2

2 1

=

+ ( k 1) Ma =

1 kMa + ( k 1) Ma

1

c pT RT

c pT

1

c pT 1 Ma 2

(11.121)

-linear momentum

p + V 2 = pa + aVa 2

p V 2

or

+

= 1 + a Va 2

pa

pa

pa

2

kV

Va 2 =

Va 2 = a = k , since Va = kRTa

pa

a RTa

kRTa

a 2

p V 2

+

= 1 + Va = 1 + k

pa

pa

pa

p

pa

V 2

1 +

= 1+ k,

p

p

1+ k

=

pa 1 + kMa 2

where V = Ma kRT

(11.123)

a V

T

T

p

T

=

= Ma

=

Ma

Ta

Ta pa

Ta

Va

(1 + k ) Ma

T

p a

T p

=

= Ma =

2

Ta pa

Ta pa

k

1

Ma

+

(1 + k ) Ma

a V

T

=

= Ma

= Ma

2

Ta

k

1

Ma

+

Va

p

1+ k

=

Q

2

pa 1 + kMa

(11.129)

T0 T0 T Ta

=

T0,a T Ta T0,a

(1 + k ) Ma

1

= 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma

2

+

+

k

k

1

Ma

1

(

1)

/

2

2 ( k + 1) Ma 2 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2

1 + kMa 2

(11.131)

p

1+ k

=

pa 1 + kMa 2

(11.123)

T (1 + k ) Ma

=

2

Ta 1 + kMa

(1 + k ) Ma

a V

=

= Ma

2

1

k

Ma

Va

+

(11.128)

(11.129)

1 + k ) 2

(

p0

p0 p pa

2

k

1

[(

1)

/

2]Ma

=

=

+

p0,a

p pa p0,a

1 + kMa 2 k + 1

T0 T0 T Ta

=

=

T0,a T Ta T0,a

2 ( k + 1) Ma 2 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2

1 + kMa

2

k 1

(11.133)

)

(11.131)

a V

,

Va

Rayleigh flow of an idea gas with

k = 1.4. (Graph provided by Dr.

Bruce A. Reichert.)

(Example 11.16)

-Normal shock waves involves:

deceleration from supersonic to subsonic

a pressure rise

an increase of entropy

Fluid Mechanics, 2006)

FIGURE 1230

flow

V11.7 Blast waves

in a Laval nozzle. The Mach number

in the nozzle just upstream (to the

left) ofthe shock wave is about 1.3.

Boundary layers distort the shape of

the normal shock near the walls and

lead to flow separation beneath the

shock.

z infinitesimal thin control volume surrounding the

shock wave: friction and heat transfer negligible, A=C

V = const

continuity:

linear momentumfriction negligible:same as Rayleigh line

p + V = const or

2

energy:

V )

(

p+

RT

= const

with z = 0, q = 0

V2

h+

= h0 = const

2

For an ideal gas,

( V ) T 2

2

T+

2c p p / R

T

p

Tds relationship: s s1 = c p ln Rln

T1

p1

Q: The irreversibility in shock wave is not from friction or heat transfer.

What is it from?

Since shock wave flows have the same energy eq. for Fanno flows

and same momentum eq. for Rayleigh flows, thus for a given V,

gas (R, k), and conditions at the inlet of the normal shock (Tx, px, sx),

the conditions downstream of the shock (state y) will be on both a

Fanno line and a Rayleigh line that pass through the inlet state

Mom., mass,

(state x).

Total energy,

- For Rayleigh line,

mass, Tds eqs.

p y p y pa

=

px pa px

py

px

1+ k

1+ k

,

Q

=

=

pa 1 + kMa y 2 pa 1 + kMa x 2

1 + kMa 2x

=

p x 1 + kMa 2y

py

Tds eqs.

(11.140)

1

*

py py p

2

1

(k + 1) / 2

p

= *

and * =

Ma 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2

px p px

p

1/ 2

p y Ma x 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2x

px Ma y 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2y

(11.148)

mass, Tds eqs.

1/ 2

p y 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2x

=

2

px 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma y

Ma x 1 + kMa 2x

=

Ma y 1 + kMa 2y

2

Ma

x + [2 /( k 1)]

Ma 2y =

[2k /(k 1)]Ma 2x 1

1 + kMa 2x

2k

k 1

2

=

=

Ma

x

px 1 + kMa 2y k + 1

k +1

(11.149)

py

(11.150)

Tx

(k + 1) / 2

(k + 1) / 2

=

=

and

T * 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2y

T * 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2x

Ty

Ty T * 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2x

= *

=

Tx T Tx 1 + [(k 1) / 2]Ma 2y

Ty

(11.144)

(11.149) into (11.144)

=

(11.151)

{(k + 1) 2 /[2(k 1)]}Ma 2x

Tx

Ty

If Max is known, property ratios across the shock can be known:

2

Ma

x + [2 /( k 1)]

Ma 2y =

[2k /(k 1)]Ma 2x 1

(11.149)

2k

k 1

2

Ma x

=

px k + 1

k +1

(11.150)

=

{(k + 1) 2 /[2(k 1)]}Ma 2x

Tx

(11.151)

py

Ty

y Vx

(k + 1)Ma 2x

=

=

x Vy (k 1)Ma 2x + 2

k +1

k 1

2 k 1

[

Ma x ] [1 +

Ma 2x ] k 1

2

= 2

1

2k

k

1

[

Ma 2x

] k 1

k +1

k +1

k

p0, y

p0, x

(11.154)

k

(11.156)

Normal shock flow of an idea

gas with k = 1.4. (Graph

provided by Dr. Bruce A.

Reichert.)

For Ma x

p0, y

py

px

and

p0, y

p0, x

py

px

p0, x

0.5

10

0.06

1

29

2.5

Ma x

1

1

Ma y

can cause flow separation. Therefore, shock-boundary layer

interactions are of great concern to designers of high speed flow

device.

Given: p0, y = 4114 kPa, T0 = 555K, px = 82 kPa

k +1

2 k 1

[

Ma

x]

p0, y p0, y p0, x

2

=

=

Rayleigh Pitot tube formula

1

px

p0, x px

k 1 k 1

2k

[

Ma 2x

]

k +1

k +1

414kPa

=

=5

82kPa

k

Fig. D1 Ma x = 1.9

Vx = Ma x cx = Ma x kRTx

T0, x = T0, y ,

Tx

= 0.59 Tx = 327K

T0, x

Vx = 678 m/s

Note: Incompressible calculation for pitot tube would give the wrong result.

pIII

p

(a)

=? for shock at x = 0.3 m

= ? for normal shock at exit, (b)

p0

p0

x=-0.5

x=0.5

0.98

2.8

0.04

-shock at x=0.5m

From Ex 11.8: Ma x = 2.8 and

Fig. D4 Ma x = 2.8(at exit):

py

p0, x

p0, y

p0, x

px

= 0.04 at x = 0.5m

p0, x

py

px

= 9,

p0, y

p0, x

= 0.38

p y px

p

=

= 9 0.04 = 0.36 = III

px p0, x

p0, x

= 0.38 considerable energy loss

-shock at x=0.3m

px

From Ex 11.8: Ma x = 2.14,

= 0.1

p0, x

Fig. D4 with Ma x = 2.14 across the shock

py

px

= 5.2, Ma y = 0.56,

p0, y

p0, x

= 0.66

Ay

= 1.24 (Here, A * is used as dummy)

Also, Fig. D4

A*

A2 0.1 + (0.5) 2

=

= 1.842

2

Ay 0.1 + (0.3)

Ay A2

A2

=

= 1.24 1.842 = 2.28

A * A * Ay

A2

A* =

= 0.15

2.28

A2

= 2.28, Fig. D1 (isentropic) Ma 2 = 0.26,

A*

p2

= 0.95

p0, y

p2

p2 p0, y

=

= 0.95 0.66 = 0.63

p0, x p0, y p0, x

Note:

p0, y

p0, x

p0, y

p0, x

Isentropic flow of an ideal gas with

k = 1.4. (Graph provided by Dr.

Bruce A. Reichert.)

Supersonic

- Flow acceleration across a Mach wave

Vt1 = Vt2

Vn2 > Vn1

V2 > V1

An Album of Fluid

Motion

The schlieren visualization of flow (supersonic to subsonic) through a row of

compressor airfoils. (Photograph provided by Dr. Hans Starken, Germany.)

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