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Volume 8, Issue 27 Christmas/Epiphany 2014-15 A.D.
Volume 8, Issue 27
Christmas/Epiphany 2014-15 A.D.

The Holy Family

The Rest on the Flight into Egypt

Editorial: You are reading the 27th issue of the Koinonia. At this Christmas and Epiphany

Editorial:

You are reading the 27th issue of the Koinonia. At this Christmas and Epiphany tide, we would like to share snippets of Anglo Catholicism starting with an

article about the great Anglo Catholic poet T.S. Eliot written by Canon Patrick Comerford, a visit to the cradle of the Oxford Movement- Pusey House, Christ Church

Oxford and Journeying

members of the Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite Church, family and friends, I returned home. This is a testimonial to God’s mercy. Attractive Ordo Kalendars are available. Our sincere thanks to Brother Rodd Umlauf, and his sister, professional Photographer Jody Partin who granted us permission to use her photos in this edition of Ordo Kalendar. God bless them. Do think of Koinonia and HCCAR in your charitable giving for the greater glory of God! May the eternal mercy and love of God see us through in the year of our Lord 2015 too. Blessings of this Christmas and Epiphany Tide to you and all your loved ones. God’s grace filled New 2015 +Leo & Holly

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Bishop Leo Michael’s recollection of a trip to India that could have been his final journey. Thanks to God’s eternal mercy and the wonderful

Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary welcomes you!

Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary (HTAS) is owned and administrated by the Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite of the diocese of Holy Trinity and Great Plains. It’s location in Kansas City, mid- America makes travel easy to meet the campus schedule. It forms part of a long tradition of the Holy Catholic Church of Anglican Rite and continues this important work of evangelization of the Kingdom of Christ in the United States of America and beyond its mission territories. With the advancement of communications, Holy Trinity Angli- can Seminary will offer online and on campus training for its students. Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary firmly believes that Good Formation will ensure FRUITFUL Ministry. Keeping in mind the Great Commis- sion of the Lord, HTAS will train its candidates in strong Scriptural foundation, Sacramental worship in the Apostolic Tradition as enunci- ated in the conservative Anglican Tradition. With qualified faculty and commitment to the cause of priestly formation, Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary is set to impart the traditional Anglican orthodoxy even in the emerging social and pastoral challenges. The seminary will also offer courses for lay students as well. The Seminary primarily serves the Holy Catholic Church An- glican Rite while students belonging to other denominations are wel- come to participate in our program of study and reflection. The Holy Trinity Anglican Seminary will soon be accredited with a view to con- ferring the Bachelor’s Degree in Theology. Holy Catholic Church pays special attention to the forma- tion of her ministers. Church directives require that candidate to the priesthood undergo a minimum of three years devoted to an intense and specifically priestly formation. These directives are implemented at this seminary, with particular emphasis on the Anglican traditions of the Holy Catholic Church.

on the Anglican traditions of the Holy Catholic Church. Let us Make Time for God Join

Let us Make Time for God

of the Holy Catholic Church. Let us Make Time for God Join the Morning and Evening

Join the Morning and Evening Prayer call during this Lent. Wake up with God. You can join the prayer conference in the rhythm of daily morning and evening prayer. We have dedicated clergy and postulants faith- fully hosting the prayer call daily at 7:00 am and 7:00 pm central time. Ask your clergy for the phone number.

7:00 pm central time. Ask your clergy for the phone number. In the Koinonia masthead, the

In the Koinonia masthead, the circle with the cross in the center symbol- izes the paten and the diverse elements which form a whole. The Mosaic represents the great cloud of witnesses and the church tradition. The red in the letters represents the blood of Christ with the font comprised of indi- vidual pieces of letters that are not joined until the blood unifies them. Koi- nonia is the official publication of the Anglican Province of the Holy Cath- olic Church-Anglican Rite (HCCAR) aka Anglican Rite Catholic Church. It is published quarterly at St. James Anglican Church, 8107 S. Holmes Road, Kansas City, MO 64131. Phone: 816.361.7242 Fax: 816.361.2144. Editors: The Rt. Rev. Leo Michael & Holly Michael, Koinonia header: Phil Gilbreath; email: koinonia@holycatholicanglican.org or visit us on the web at: www.holycatholicanglican.org Cover picture: Painting of Pompeo Batoni The Rest on the Flight into Egypt, Houston Museum of Fine Arts, photo by Bishop Leo Michael.

The College of Bishops Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite The Rt. Rev. Leo J. Michael,
The College of Bishops Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite The Rt. Rev. Leo J. Michael,
The College of Bishops Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite The Rt. Rev. Leo J. Michael,
The College of Bishops Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite The Rt. Rev. Leo J. Michael,
The College of Bishops Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite The Rt. Rev. Leo J. Michael,
The College of Bishops Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite The Rt. Rev. Leo J. Michael,

The College of Bishops

Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite

The Rt. Rev. Leo J. Michael, Bishop Ordinary of the Diocese of Holy Trinity and Great Plains

Ordinary of the Diocese of Holy Trinity and Great Plains 8107 S. Holmes Rd, Kansas City,

8107 S. Holmes Rd, Kansas City, MO 64131, USA Ph: (816) 361-7242 Fax: 816 361-2144 Email: bpleo@holycatholicanglican.org

September 24, 2014 A.D. Feast of Our Lady of Walsingham

Agreement of Inter-communion Between The Anglican Diocese of Arizona And The Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite

of Arizona And The Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite We, the Bishops of the respective churches,

We, the Bishops of the respective churches, as a sign of recognition that we are in mutual spiri- tual kinship and support within the historic tradition of the One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church, do hereby sign this Agreement of Inter-communion between the Anglican Diocese of Arizona and the Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite. We agree to the following provisions:

1.

Each Communion recognizes the catholicity and independence of the other and maintains its

Each Communion agrees to admit members of the other Communion to participate in the

Inter-communion does require from either Communion the acceptance of all doctrinal opin-

own.

2.

sacraments.

3.

ion, sacramental devotion, or liturgical practice characteristic of the primitive catholic faith and

apostolic order as expounded by the ancient catholic bishops and doctors of the catholic church and hold all essential elements of the Christian Faith enunciated in the Affirmation of St. Louis.

This agreement becomes effective at once even though it needs be accepted by each body’s Con- vention/Synod when convening next.

The Rt. Rev. Leo J Michael The Rt. Rev. James R. McNeley The Rt. Rev. Kenneth H. Kinner The Rt. Rev. Edmund A.S. Jayaraj The Rt. Rev. Ronald L. Greeson The Rt. Rev. David G. McMannes

Journeying View of Lourdes Basilica taken from the Castle H olly and I planned an
Journeying View of Lourdes Basilica taken from the Castle
Journeying
View of Lourdes Basilica taken from the Castle

H olly and I planned an action packed journey abroad:

London to Lourdes, France then back to London,

then on to India for our tsunami relief follow-up.

On our first leg to London, we stayed with our priest friend Fr.

Britto, who had just returned from India. We spent our first eve- ning in London, on Walthamstow Abbey grounds. The bells of the Abbey pealed through the stillness of the quiet evening. The next day we made a dashing tour to the National Art Gal- lery, an amazing free collection of treasures. We were particularly enthralled by the religious art painted by the Masters. We headed to Piccadilly Circus, a busy square in the heart of London, where we took in the bustling activity, lights, statues, and interesting ar- chitecture. Fr. Britto drove us to Oxford so I could visit the Pusey House,

Britto drove us to Oxford so I could visit the Pusey House, the center of the

the center of the Oxford Movement. The kind Steward gave us a personal tour of the Pusey House, the Library, and the Archive. The chapel appeared small from out- side, but was huge inside. (See pictures in the articles Oxford Move- ment and Pusey House) We also visited St. Paul’s Book Center by Westminster Cathedral where Holly had arranged a book signing thanks to Fr. Francy Ko- chupaliath and Dr. Christopher Shell. A couple of Facebook friends stopped by to purchase her book, Crooked Lines. (below left). Hol- ly also caught up with a high school friend, a flight attendant who happened to be in London at the same time. We also enjoyed a pleasant walk along Thames to Tate Gallery to see William Blake’s poetry. The time came for our short flight to Lourdes, a little village in France, where the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared to Bernadette of Soubirou in 1859. At first, no one believed the teenager, including a parish priest and bishop. Yet the lady asked her to come and visit her at the Massabielle grotto eighteen times. Eager to make this part of our trip one of prayerful reflection, we finally reached the hotel--just a few minutes from Massabielle grotto. Fr. Luca and Elisa his wife drove fifteen hours from Italy, from the southern border of Austria across France to meet us. What a beautiful fellowship! Though my Italian was rusty and their English a little choppy, the four of us chatted and laughed and had a wonderful time. We visited the grotto often to pray and meditate. One evening,

The miraculous spring that appeared as directed by the B.V.M Italian TV was broadcasting the
The miraculous spring that appeared as directed by the B.V.M
The miraculous spring that appeared as directed by the B.V.M

Italian TV was broadcasting the rosary. We happened to be seated in the front row and Fr. Luca and Elisa’s friends saw us on their Italian TV. Fr. Luca, wearing his cassock, and with his finesse in Italian and French, helped several young people who approached him for counseling. Behind the Basilica, a hill led up to a mount with stations of the cross along the way. We prayed the stations of the cross ascending from the back of the church along a long steep walk. The descent led us to the grotto. The highlight of our visit was our celebration of the Holy Mass at the crypt. A friendly sacristan set up for the Mass after we intro- duced ourselves as Anglo Catholic and not Roman Catholic clergy. With thousands flocking to this holy site, we wanted to thank and remember all our dear members of our church and offer prayers. We had three Masses on the subsequent days. After Fr. Luca and Elisa left Lourdes in Big Blue (their car) we returned to the Shrine. This time I knelt exactly at the same spot that Saint Bernadette knelt beholding the Blessed Virgin.

Candlelight Procession at Lorudes
Candlelight Procession at Lorudes
the same spot that Saint Bernadette knelt beholding the Blessed Virgin. Candlelight Procession at Lorudes Koinonia
the same spot that Saint Bernadette knelt beholding the Blessed Virgin. Candlelight Procession at Lorudes Koinonia
I had a wonderful vision of our Lord! Beside the niche where the Blessed Virgin
I had a wonderful vision of our Lord!
Beside the niche where the Blessed Virgin stood, I saw the
countenance of the Lord: His mouth, nose, eyes, hair! His face! I
wondered if I was dreaming. I pointed it out to Holly and she wit-
nessed it, too. Below is the picture, but we saw it even more clearly
in person.
Then, on the 4th of November we alighted our plane and flew
off to Bangalore. After visiting with my dear mother for a couple of
days, we headed to Nagapattinam. Mr. Rethinam, the school head-
master whom we had met after the aftermath of Tsunami, was our
guide once again. Barely three months earlier he was hit by a van.
With his men, fruitfully employed he smiled and showed us how the pulley system worked.
With his men, fruitfully employed he smiled and showed us how the pulley system worked.

With his men, fruitfully employed he smiled and showed us how the pulley system worked. Many men in “heave-ho” fashion pushed a large wooden wheel in a circle, bringing large boats into the harbor. Arasi

Thrown of off his bicycle, strangers took him to the hospital. His survival was a miracle. We found him as we had known him, very happy and active. (below in the white shirt) We began our journey the same day we landed, knowing we had much to accomplish in one week. Our ministry began by visiting

to accomplish in one week. Our ministry began by visiting about fifty of the tsunami orphans
to accomplish in one week. Our ministry began by visiting about fifty of the tsunami orphans

about fifty of the tsunami orphans (now adults) at Mr. Rethinam’s residence. As they came and went, they shared their then and now stories. Some of them had received their CD and used it toward their marriage, childbirth, education, or employment expenses.

marriage, childbirth, education, or employment expenses. Several accepted the original CD’s deposited in their

Several accepted the original CD’s deposited in their names. Mr. Rethinam had maintained a meticulous file, following up with the kids and counseling them, even after they had moved from their previous addresses. Akkaraipettai, Keechankuppam – We met Balbu Dass ten years ago, in Father Xavier’s office. He had lost his business to the tsu- nami. Then, we provided funds so he could start his business and provide employment for fifty families. He hauled boats from sea with man-powered pulleys so that boats could be repaired. He had seven such stations and all was lost in the Tsunami. After our help, his men pulled hundreds of boats from underwater.

Mr. Rethinam led us on a search for a teenager whom Holly had interviewed ten years ago. With the newly built government Tsunami houses, families had relocated. How do you find a person without a proper address? In In- dia, the typical method is through acquaintances. We began our search for Tamil’s mother whose name was Selvi. We found many Selvis. We hit the tea shops (petti shops), the yellow pages of the neighborhood. After several streets and hours, we reached the home of Selvi, the mother of Arasi. The next day, Arasi met us at Mr. Rethinam’s house, now a young mother with two children. A gathering of the fifty boys and girls at Kalangarai (Light

now a young mother with two children. A gathering of the fifty boys and girls at
House) run by the Jesuit fathers was our grand finale. Though it was monsoon season,

House) run by the Jesuit fathers was our grand finale. Though it was monsoon season, and pouring down rain at time, the tsunami victims turned survivors arrived. Some rode hours on a bus or the back of a motorcycle. One young girl, five days away from giving birth, rode a bus for several hours. During the meeting and dinner, the dear departed were remembered in prayer. Each of the orphans were given the original bank documents. The Fever Visiting the once tsunami-ravished villages, and time spent in interviews and counseling, we hardly slept. At night, mosquitoes buzzed around our heads. One evening, I felt a drilling in my back that wasn’t like the other bites. For two evenings, I suffered with a 104 degree fever and visited the doctor on the next street. After many prescriptions and two shots of parecetemol (fever reducer), I was growing weaker and more tired. The next evening we traveled back Bangalore, a twelve-hour bus ride. The fever crept higher as the bus began to move. I can only imagine Holly’s plight, forcing pills and water in me to bring the fever down. At the break of dawn, we finally arrived in Bangalore.

down. At the break of dawn, we finally arrived in Bangalore. Holly asked my family for

Holly asked my family for the best hospital in town and after being admitted in the emergency room, the blood test proved posi- tive for Dengue fever. (This fever was the cause of my sister’s de- mise just a couple of years ago). We awaited our turn to be admitted into a room. And by then more of my family had arrived. Severely dehydrated, I was given I.V. fluids, but grew oblivious to my surroundings. My niece begged to stay with us, knowing that Aunty Holly was all alone, but we asked her to go home. Later that night, my blood pressure began to plummet with multiple organ failure and I was whisked off to the ICU. Dropping blood platelet count was the next critical phase of dengue fever. It’s certainly by the grace of God that I’m alive, else Holly would have had to bury me in Bangalore, India. Thanks to the mercy of God and intercessions of family and friends and especially the beloved clergy and members of the Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite, I am alive and well. Someone said, God is not done with you as yet. What could have been my journey to eternity, resulted in a miraculous recovery. I have dedicated to work for the Lord all the more and for the cure of His flock. Far left, Rog-

er Pierce (Holly’s Facebook friend’s husband) is in Bangalore and makes a surprise visit after Holly’s online plea for prayers.

Here is the fruit of our visit TSUNAMI 2004 - Still Wad- ing through Waves of Hope by Holly Michael. Our Church continues to touch the lives of a couple of hundred orphans. Your purchase of Holly’s book on Amazon.com provides a detailed then and now ac- count of our tsunami relief work.

of Holly’s book on Amazon.com provides a detailed then and now ac- count of our tsunami
OXFORD MOVEMENT The term ‘Oxford Movement’ is often used to de- scribe the whole of
OXFORD MOVEMENT
OXFORD
MOVEMENT

The term ‘Oxford Movement’ is often used to de- scribe the whole of what might be called the Catho- lic revival in the Church of England. More proper- ly it refers to the activities and ideas of an initially small group of people in the University of Oxford who argued against the increasing secularisation of the Church of England, and sought to recall it to its heritage of apostolic order, and to the catholic doctrines of the early church fathers. The success of this theological task was so great, one might ar- gue, that it is now difficult to distinguish between those who were given the name Tractarians (see below) and the wider Anglo-Catholic wing of the church which built on and developed their ideas.

Origins: In the early 1830s, at Oriel College in Oxford, a growing number of young and extremely able Fellows, informally grouped around the slightly older John Keble, were increasingly outspoken about the needs and shortcomings of the contemporary church. These were heady times in England. Catholic emancipation had come, and the forces surrounding the Reform Act of 1832 were

felt in all walks of life. The old status quo was being threatened, but many questions about church government and doctrine were left unanswered. There was a feeling that there was everything to play for. In Dean Church’s words, the leading figures of the Oxford movement were ‘men of large designs’. John Henry Newman dated the beginning of the Oxford Move- ment to Keble’s Assize Sermon of July 1833, on National Apostasy. The subject matter may seem remote: a protest against parliamen- tary legislation to reduce the absurdly large number of bishop- rics in the Church of Ireland. But the theme was crucial. Was the Church of England a department of the Hanoverian state, to be governed by the forces of secular politics, or was it an ordinance of God. Were its pastors priests of the Catholic Church (as the Prayer Book insisted) or ministers of a Calvinistic sect? Newman, Vicar of the University Church of St Mary the Vir- gin, Richard Hurrell Froude, a junior fellow of Oriel, and William Palmer, a fellow of Worcester, joined with Keble to launch a series of Tracts for the Times, developing these themes (hence the name Tractarians). During the following eight years, ninety such Tracts were published. Did Baptism bestow an indelible character on the soul? What does ‘consecration’ of the eucharistic elements signify? Was the Reformation and Elizabethan Settlement a release from papal bondage, a disaster imposed by a heretical state, or a so- phisticated via media between these two extremes? How were the ‘golden ages’ of the early Church Fathers and seventeenth century Anglican theology to be recovered? From the very beginning, the history of the Oxford Movement is a history of controversy. The jostlings of university politics which now might seem insignificant were in fact crucial to the future of the Church of England. The unsuccessful attempt of the Tractar- ians to prevent Renn Dickson Hampden (later Bishop of Here- ford), whose theology they viewed with suspicion, from becoming Regius professor of divinity is a case in point. The publication in 1838 of Froude’s Remains, is another. Froude went much further than anything hitherto in asserting the Church of England’s inher- ent Catholic heritage. Catholicism is not confined to the Roman communion, nor Orthodoxy to the eastern churches. Perhaps the greatest explosion occurred in response to Newman’s Tract Ninety, which appeared in 1841, and argued that there was nothing in the Thirty-nine Articles contrary to the Council of Trent. Edward Bouverie PuseyIn 1834, another young fellow of Oriel, Edward Bouverie Pusey threw in his lot with the Tractarians, con- tributing a characteristically learned tract on Baptism. Keble had retired from Oxford in the early 1820s. The weight of leadership of the Oxford Movement had largely been borne by Newman, the Vicar of the University Church, but in the wake of the furore which accompanied Tract Ninety he increasingly withdrew to his semi- monastic establishment at Littlemore. Pusey was inevitably seen as the emerging figurehead of the movement in Oxford. In 1843 he preached a sermon before the University entitled ‘The Holy Eucharist a comfort to the penitent’. Much of the ser- mon appealed to the Fathers and to the Caroline divines but in an increasingly politicised situation it was too much for the Evan- gelicals - including Philip Wynter, the Vice Chancellor - to toler- ate. Despite Pusey’s exhaustive explanations and massive public

Wynter, the Vice Chancellor - to toler- ate. Despite Pusey’s exhaustive explanations and massive public Koinonia
support, he was suspended from preaching for two years. No sooner had Pusey served his
support, he was suspended from preaching for two years. No sooner had Pusey served his

support, he was suspended from preaching for two years. No sooner had Pusey served his suspension than he was thrust into an even more prominent position. Newman was received into the Roman Communion in October 1845. Pusey was the only one to whom his bereft followers could turn. Richard Church’s celebrated history of the Oxford Move- ment ends in 1845, the year of Newman’s conversion. Certainly by this time the Tractarian disputes were a thoroughly national phenomenon. Encouraged by Tractarian theology there was a great revival of interest in liturgy and church architecture, stem- ming not least from the Cambridge Camden Society, which had been formed in 1839. Among its leaders was John Mason Neale, for whom the society was not simply artistic and antiquarian, but very much theological. Its journal, the Ecclesiolo- gist, which first appeared in 1841, argued for the impor- tance of symbol and deco- ration in the mysteries of worship and championed the ideas of a young Roman Catholic architect, Augus- tus Welby Northmore Pu- gin, who saw Gothic as the only proper style of Church architecture, reflecting as it did the continual religious priorities of striving for heaven through prayer, sac- rament and the Christian virtues. The progress made by the ‘Puseyites’, as they were often called, continued to go hand in hand with con- troversy. Newman’s conver- sion was as notorious as any of his tracts. With the Gorham Judgement (which saw a Judicial Committee of the Privy Council overturn a bishop’s decision not to institute to a parish a priest who held an unorthodox doctrine of baptism), many left the Church of Eng- land, convinced that it was bound by an Erastian state, among them Archdeacon Henry, later Cardinal, Manning. In the 1850s Archeacon Dennison, of Taunton, was unsuccessfully prosecuted for teaching the Catholic doctrine of the Real Pres- ence. At the same time there were increasing vocations to the religious life. On Trinity Sunday 1841, Pusey heard the first pro- fession of a nun in the Church of England for three centuries, Mother Marian Hughes. Pusey, along with Neale and such other

great names as Richard Meux Benson, Priscilla Lydia Sellon and Thomas Thelluson Carter, was a driving force behind this revival. The strong doctrinal theology preached by the Tractarians had by now found its expression in contexts very far removed from the Universities. From the very first, the call to holiness - individual and corporate - had been at the heart of the Tractarians’ teach- ing. It was inevitable that their attentions would turn to the social and evangelistic problems of the industrial working class. Young men who had sat at Pusey’s feet found themselves called to work in new and demanding slum parishes. The ritual innovations of they were accused were entirely rooted in the desperate pastoral needs they encountered. Miss Sellons’s Devonport Sisters of Mercy worked with the clergy of St Peter’s Plymouth in the cholera epi- demics of the late 1840s, and petitioned the par- ish priest, Fr George Rundle Prynne, for a celebration of the eu- charist each morning to strengthen them for their work. So began the first daily mass in the Church of England since the Reformation. Similarly the clergy of St Saviour’s, Leeds (a parish Pusey had endowed), laid what medicines they had on the altar at each morn- ing’s communion, be- fore carrying them out to the many dozens of their parishioners who would die of cholera that very day. These slum churches and their priests are far too many to men- tion, but their audac- ity and their piety are to be marvelled at. The Church of England, at this time, looked upon ritual as a wicked ap- ing of a Papist Church. Vestments were horrific to most, and yet in plac- es such as the mission church of St George’s in the East, thuribles were swung, genuflecting was encouraged, the sign of the cross was made frequently, devotion to the blessed sacrament was taken for granted. Confessions were heard, holy anointing was practised. Here a group of priests, led by Fr Charles Lowder, were carrying through their interpretation of the Tractarian message. The poor must be brought the ministry of Christ, in the celebration of the

of the Tractarian message. The poor must be brought the ministry of Christ, in the celebration
Movement proper had long ceased to be. Though he did not see the end of
Movement proper had long ceased to be. Though he did not see the end of
Movement proper had long ceased to be. Though he did not see the end of

Movement proper had long ceased to be. Though he did not see the end of dissent and dispute, Pusey (who died in 1882) lived to witness the theology of a Catholic Church of England carried into all areas of the land. The rediscovered emphases on apostolic suc- cession and the Catholicity of the church, on priesthood, on sacra- ment and sacrifice, on prayer, holiness and the beauty of worship, are the Tractarians’ gifts to their successors. A glance round the contemporary Church of England, still vastly divergent but nev- ertheless teeming with colourful decorations, revised liturgies, an- cient hymns, and thousands of processions, aumbries, altars, ora- tories and retreat houses, reminds us just how dramatically the life of the English Church was renewed by the Catholic vision of those Oxford ‘men of large designs’. The Oxford movement ( text the courtesy of Puseyhouse.org) Images Bishop Leo and Holly Michael

Visit to Oxford and Canterbury by Night

Every time we visit England we gratefully remember how the faith was sown, defended, lost at times, rebounced. It very much resonates with our unchanged faith in the changing times. So we visited Oxford and took part in the Evensong, visited the pub where C.S. Lewis and J.R.R. Tolkien (See their signatures)met and finally took a tour of Canterbury Cathedral from the outside, as we had seen it before and was closed at night. (See pictures below)

seen it before and was closed at night. (See pictures below) sacraments and the preaching of

sacraments and the preaching of the gospel. Beauty and holiness were to go into the midst of squalor and depression, as a witness to the Catholic faith in Jesus Christ, the incarnate God, present and active in his world. And, perhaps most significantly, the sick and dying were to receive this sacramental presence as far as was possible. Deathbed confessions, the oil of unction, even, occasionally, communion from the reserved sacra- ment became the priests’ weapons against, for example, the appall- ing East London cholera epidemic of 1866.

The ritualists gave rise to a long and bitter battle, in which priests were imprisoned, many more dismissed, parish riots took place, rent-a-mob crowds were brought in, and bishops issued edicts from palaces to areas into which they would not dare set foot. Priests such as Alexander Heriot Mackonochie were perse- cuted and prosecuted zealously and repeatedly for practices which are now not just acceptable but actually the norm in the Church of England - using lighted altar candles, for example. Eventually even a bishop - Edward King of Lincoln - found himself in court defend- ing his practice of the Catholic faith. To tell the rest of the story would be to write the whole history of the modern Church of England. But by this time, the Oxford

Canterbury Cathedral by Night Above, the pub where C. S. Lewis and Tolkien met and
Canterbury Cathedral by Night Above, the pub where C. S. Lewis and Tolkien met and
Canterbury Cathedral by Night
Canterbury Cathedral by Night
Canterbury Cathedral by Night Above, the pub where C. S. Lewis and Tolkien met and wrote
Above, the pub where C. S. Lewis and Tolkien met and wrote where Holly is
Above, the pub where C. S. Lewis and Tolkien met and wrote
where Holly is sitting. Above right their witnessing to their
visit to the pub.
Half a century after his death, T. S. Eliot remains the greatest Anglo-Catholic poet by
Half a century after his death, T. S. Eliot remains the greatest Anglo-Catholic poet by
Half a century after his death,
T. S. Eliot remains the greatest
Anglo-Catholic poet
by Patrick Comerford

T he American-born English poet, playwright and literary critic, Thomas Stearns Eliot (1888-1965), is perhaps the most important poet in the Eng-

lish language of the 20th century. He is one of the greatest examples of how Anglican spirituality is expressed in poetry and drama, and he died half a

century ago, on 4 January 1965.

Many readers know T.S.Eliot for Old Possum’s Book of Practical Cats (1939), the inspiration for Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical Cats (1981). But he was first recognised as a poet 100 years ago with the poem ‘The Love Song of J Alfred Prufrock’ (1915). It was followed by some of the best-known poems, including ‘The Waste Land’ (1922), ‘The Hollow Men’ (1925), ‘Ash Wednes- day’ (1930), and the four poems in his Four Quartets (1943). Eliot was born in St Louis, Missouri, the youngest child in a prominent Unitarian and academic family. He studied philosophy at Harvard (1906-1909) and at the Sorbonne (1910–1911) before returning to Harvard (1911-1914). He then moved to Merton Col- lege, Oxford, but left after a year, remarking: “Oxford is very pretty, but I don’t like to be dead.” By 1916, he had completed a PhD in phi- losophy for Harvard, but he never returned for his viva voce exam. Meanwhile, in 1915 he had been introduced to Vivienne Haigh-Wood. Their tragic marriage was a catalyst for ‘The Waste Land,’ and inspired the movie Tom and Viv (1994). Eliot held several teaching posts, including one at Highgate School where his pupils included John Betjeman. By 1917, he was working at Lloyd’s Bank.

John Betjeman. By 1917, he was working at Lloyd’s Bank. Conversion to Anglicanism In 1922, the

Conversion to Anglicanism In 1922, the same year as the Irish writer James Joyce published Ulysses, Eliot published ‘The Waste Land.’ The poem in- cludes well-known phrases such as “April is the cruellest month,” and “I will show you fear in a handful of dust.” Eliot’s major poem of the late 1920s, The Hollow

and “I will show you fear in a handful of dust.” Eliot’s major poem of the
Men (1925), was written in the context of post-war Europe. It is deeply indebted to
Men (1925), was written in the context of post-war Europe. It is deeply indebted to

Men (1925), was written in the context of post-war Europe. It is deeply indebted to Dante and wrestles with the difficulty of hope and religious conversion, and with Eliot’s failed marriage. It con- cludes with some of Eliot’s best-known lines:

This is the way the world ends This is the way the world ends This is the way the world ends Not with a bang but a whimper. Recent studies now see in ‘The Waste Land’ poem a de- scription of Eliot’s pilgrimage from the Unitarianism of his child- hood to his life-lasting Anglo-Catholicism. In 1925, he joined the publishers Faber and Gw- yer, later Faber and Faber, and spent the rest of his career there. His major poem that year, ‘The Hollow Men,’ is in- debted to Dante and wrestles with the difficulty of hope and religious conversion, and with his failed marriage. On 29 June 1927, Eliot was baptised in Holy Trin- ity Church, Finstock, outside Witney, by the Revd William Force Stead, a fellow American, a poet and the chaplain of Worcester

a fellow American, a poet and the chaplain of Worcester College, Oxford. Stead had encouraged him

College, Oxford. Stead had encouraged him to read the poems of George Herbert and John Donne and the sermons of Lancelot An- drewes. A day later, he brought Eliot to be confirmed by Bishop Thomas Banks Strong of Oxford in his private chapel. In his recent study of Eliot’s theological opinions and contributions, Professor Barry Spurr of the University of Sydney argues that Eliot’s conversion to Anglo-Catholicism in 1927 was the culmination of his intellectual, cultural, artistic and spiri- tual development. He also how the doctrinal, devotional and social principles of Anglo-Catholicism influenced Eliot’s life, thinking and writing, including his poetry, drama and prose. Soon after his baptism, Eliot also became a British citi- zen, and he served as a churchwarden at Saint Stephen’s Church, Gloucester Road, London. He would describe himself as a “clas- sicist in literature, royalist in politics, and Anglo-Catholic in reli- gion.”

What did Eliot’s conversion to Anglicanism mean socially in 1927? Virginia Woolf said of his conversion that “a corpse would seem to me to be more credible.” EM For- ster claimed that Eliot had “no trace of religious emotion. He has not got it; what he seeks is not revelation, but stability.”

Eliot’s conversion may have been shocking at the time, if not revolutionary. But the response of his contemporaries, whatever it may have been, was not going to turn him: “No one ever attempt- ed to convert me; and, looking back on my pre-Christian state of mind, I do not think that such a campaign would have prospered.” His conversion to Anglicanism was encouraged through reading the prayers and sermons of Lancelot Andrewes (1555-1626), Bishop of Winchester. His poem, ‘Journey of the Magi’ (1927), the first of the Ariel Poems and written shortly after his baptism, begins with a quotation from a sermon on the Epiphany by Andrewes in

1622:

“It was no summer progress. A cold coming they had of it at this time of the year, just the worst time of the year to take a journey, and specially a long journey in. The ways deep, the weather sharp, the days short, the sun farthest off, in solstitio brumali, ‘the very dead of winter’.” Eliot opens his Journey of the Magi with similar words:

A cold coming we had of it, Just the worst time of the year For a journey, and such a long journey:

The ways deep and the weather sharp, The very dead of winter. In his essay, For Lancelot Andrewes: an Essay on Style and Order (1928), published the following year, Eliot argued that An- drewes’s sermons “rank with the finest English prose of their time, of any time.” Eliot spoke of his indebtedness to the bishop’s writ- ings: he is “the first great preacher of the English Catholic Church,” he had “the voice of a man who had a formed visible church be- hind him, who spoke with the old authority and the new culture.” For Eliot, “The intellectual achievement and the prose style of Hooker and Andrewes came to complete the structure of the English Church as the philosophy of the thirteenth century crowns the Catholic Church … the achievement of Hooker and Andrewes was to make the English Church more worthy of intel- lectual assent. No religion can survive the judgment of history un-

assent. No religion can survive the judgment of history un- less the best minds of its

less the best minds of its time have collaborated in its construc- tion; if the Church of Elizabeth is worthy of the age of Shakespeare and Jonson, that is because of the work of Hooker and Andrewes.

Annie Dunne and the impressive Catholic services to which she took him.” Ash Wednesday …
Annie Dunne and the impressive Catholic services to which she took him.” Ash Wednesday …
Annie Dunne and the impressive Catholic services to which she took him.” Ash Wednesday …

Annie Dunne and the impressive Catholic services to which she took him.” Ash Wednesday … a conversion poem ‘Ash Wednesday’ was published in its complete form in

1930, three years after his conversion to Anglicanism in 1927 and

it appears in his Selected Poems before his other first Christian

works, the ‘Ariel Poems,’– ‘Journey of the Magi’ (1927), ‘A Song for Simeon’ (1928) ‘Animula’ (1929) ‘Marina’ (1930) and the much later ‘The Cultivation of Christmas Trees’ (1956). The complete ‘Ash Wednesday’ was first published in April 1930 in a small book with a limited edition of 600 signed copies, followed by two print runs of 2,000 each in Britain and the US.

The title, of course, refers to ‘Ash Wednesday,’ the first of the forty days of Lent, and the poem deals with the struggle that ensues when one who has lacked faith in the past strives to move towards God. It is a richly but ambiguously allusive poem and deals with the aspiration to move from spiritual barrenness to hope for human salvation. The poem is concerned with personal salvation in an age of uncertainty, where the weariness of giving up to a creed weighs heavily on the speaker:

(Why should the agéd eagle stretch its wings?) “Why should I mourn The vanished power of the usual reign? Eliot’s journey to Christianity was along a long and winding path. Yet this poem, which is not so much about God as

a prayer to God, displays a great spiritual maturity in a relatively new convert.

a great spiritual maturity in a relatively new convert. “The writings of both Hooker and Andrewes

“The writings of both Hooker and Andrewes illustrate that deter- mination to stick to essentials, that awareness of the needs of the time, the desire for clarity and precision on matters of importance, and the indifference to matters indifferent, which was the general policy of Elizabeth … Andrewes is the first great preacher of the English Catholic Church.” He was influenced too by Nicholas Ferrar’s life at Little Gidding, and by the works of Richard Hooker and Jeremy Taylor. ‘Ash Wednesday’ (1930), Eliot’s first long poem after be- coming an Anglican, has been described as his conversion poem. But he regarded the Four Quartets as his masterpiece, and the col- lection earned him his Nobel Prize for Literature in 1948. It com- prises four poems: ‘Burnt Norton’ (1936), ‘East Coker’ (1940), ‘The Dry Salvages’ (1941) and ‘Little Gidding’ (1942). Childhood nurse from Co Cork Many biographers suggest Eliot’s conversion to Angli- canism may have been helped by his childhood experiences in the company of his Irish nurse, Annie Dunne from Co Cork. He wrote in 1930: “The earliest personal influence I remember, besides that of my parents, was … Annie Dunne, to whom I was greatly at- tached.”

She took the young Eliot with her “to the little Catholic church which stood on the corner of Locust Street and Jefferson Avenue when she went to make her devotions,” and also took him to Mass in Gloucester, Massachusetts. Writing in the Criterion in 1927 shortly after his baptism, Eliot recalled that when he was a six-year-old, Annie had discussed with him about the ways of proving the existence of God. She gave him a glimpse of a liturgical Christianity that was very different from his Unitarian background. James E Miller suggests that the seeds for his conversion to Anglo-Catholicism “had been sown by

‘Ash Wednesday’ constitutes the greatest leap in Eliot’s verse and life and the greatest pause
‘Ash Wednesday’ constitutes the greatest leap in Eliot’s verse and life and the greatest pause
‘Ash Wednesday’ constitutes the greatest leap in Eliot’s verse and life and the greatest pause

‘Ash Wednesday’ constitutes the greatest leap in Eliot’s verse and

life and the greatest pause in his poetic writings before the hiatus between his plays and The Four Quartets. In ‘Ash Wednesday,’ his poetic persona has somehow found the courage, through spiritual exhaustion, to seek faith. That faith demands complete submission, including the admis- sion that faith must ultimately come from without because what

is within has been exhausted. If ‘The Hollow Men’ (1925) admits

powerlessness over damnation, ‘Ash Wednesday’ admits power- lessness as a prelude to, or a requirement for, salvation. Yet if ‘Ash Wednesday’ is about penitence, it is also about repentance. The opening lines, from Shakespeare’s Sonnet XXIX,

use the verb “turn” three times. “Turn” echoes the Greek word for repentance, μετάνοια (metanoia), literally “changing one’s mind”

– as the prophets called on Israel to “turn back, turn from your

wicked ways.” ‘Ash Wednesday’ forms a personal liturgy. It is a song of death and hoped-for rebirth, a song of hope while doubting hope,

a song of faith while seeking faith, a song of love for one who has known little love, a prayer for mercy that acknowledges mercy as undeserved. A poet’s reputation Eliot’s reputation has been plagued by accusations that he

held anti-Semitic and anti-Irish views. In a study of Eliot’s impact on Anglican theology, Professor Barry Spurr deals convincingly with the accusations of anti-Semitism. But it is difficult to imag- ine that someone who was so close to his Irish nurse in childhood could hold negative opinions of Irish people. In ‘The Waste Land,’ Eliot quotes from Wagner’s Tristan und Isolde and his reference to the Irish princess. The couple are sailing from Ireland to Cornwall, and a sailor sings a song with lines that translate:

The wind blows fresh To the Homeland My Irish Girl Where are you lingering? Sweeney is a baffling person who, in the words of TH Thompson, “runs in and out [of Eliot’s] poems like a naughty boy, with bad manners and rude behaviour.” He is the main character in three poems written in 1917-1919 – ‘Sweeney Among the Night- ingales,’ ‘Sweeney Erect’ and ‘Mr Eliot’s Sunday Morning Service’

– and appears in the fragments of ‘Sweeney Agonistes,’ and in ‘The Fire Storm’ in ‘The Waste Land.’

There is little consensus on what Sweeney represents, and

it ranges from a stereotypically drunken, Irish Catholic brute to an

appealingly unsophisticated “natural man.” Another Irish figure created by Eliot is Sir Henry Harcourt-Reilly, the psychia- trist in The Cocktail Party who merrily sings a refrain of the bawdy song, ‘The One Eyed Riley.’ The character’s part- blindness may have been part- ly inspired by James Joyce’s sight problems. Four Irish friends Perhaps the best way to evaluate Eliot’s attitude to Irish people is to look at his friend- ship with four key Irish contemporary literary figures: the writers WB Yeats, James Joyce and Louis MacNeice and the Jesuit Martin D’Arcy.

Through his contacts with Bertrand Russell and Ezra Pound, Eliot mixed with a group including the aging Irish poet William Butler Yeats. At first, Eliot expresses distaste for Yeats, and even mocked Yeats’s membership of the Theosophical Society. Later, following his attendance at the first performance of Yeats’s one-act play, At the Hawk’s Well, in 1916 and after the publication of ‘The Wild Swans at Coole’ in 1919, Eliot softened his opinion of Yeats’s poetry,. In his review of Joyce’s Ulysses in 1923, Eliot favourably mentions Yeats. But it was not until 1935, in the Criterion, that Eliot publicly praised Yeats, when he called him “the greatest poet of his time.” Eliot continued to praise Yeats, who was born into a prominent (Anglican) Church if Ireland family; however, in a lec- ture in Dublin in 1936, Eliot regretted that Yeats “came to poetry from a Protestant background.” After the death of Yeats, Eliot was invited to give the first annual Yeats lecture to the Friends of the Irish Academy in 1940. Eliot and Joyce first met at the Hotel de l’Elysee in Paris on 15 August 1920. They dined in Joyce’s favourite restaurant, and Joyce extended his hospitality several times. Their friendship blos- somed after ‘The Waste Land’ and Ulysses were published around the same time in 1922.

blos- somed after ‘The Waste Land’ and Ulysses were published around the same time in 1922.
In 1923, when Eliot reviewed Ulysses , he said: “It is a book to which
In 1923, when Eliot reviewed Ulysses , he said: “It is a book to which

In 1923, when Eliot reviewed Ulysses, he said: “It is a book to which we are all indebted and from which none of us can es- cape.” It marked a major shift in literature, he said. “It is, I seriously believe, a step toward making the modern world possible for art.” Eliot would look to Joyce for support when he separated from his wife, and Eliot continued to visit Joyce whenever he was in Paris. In his Dublin lectures in 1936, Eliot said Joyce “seems to me the most universal, the most Irish and the most Catholic writer in English of his generation … What is most truly Irish … is most truly Catholic.” Meanwhile, from 1932, Louis MacNeice (1907-1963) was sending poems to Eliot at Faber and Faber. MacNeice was the son of an Anglican bishop, John Frederick MacNeice (1866- 1942), Church of Ireland Bishop of Cashel, Emly, Waterford and Lismore (1931-1934) and until his death Bishop of Down, Con- nor and Dromore (1934-1942). Eliot did not feel these poems by MacNeice were worth publishing in a single volume, but he used several of them in his journal The Criterion. In 1934, MacNeice sent Eliot the long poems that were published as the book Poems (1935). In 1939, Eliot helped to plan MacNeice’s tour of the US, arranging engagements in Princeton, Harvard and Wellesley. The developed a firm friendship, and when MacNeice died in 1963, Eliot wrote in The Times of his grief and shock at “his unexpected death” just as Faber was about to publish a new volume of his verse. He said MacNeice was “a poet of genius,” who “had the Irishman’s unfailing ear for the music of verse, and he never published a line that is not good reading.” Lifelong friendships Eliot also had a lifelong friendship with the Jesuit philoso- pher, Father Martin Cyril D’Arcy (1888-1976), whose literary circle also include Evelyn Waugh, Dorothy L Sayers and WH Auden and whose parents were born in Ireland. It was perhaps at D’Arcy’s suggestion that the Irish Jesuits invited Eliot to Dublin for the first time in January 1936. During that visit, Eliot lectured in Uni- versity College Dublin, attend- ed a lecture by Father Roland Burke-Savage, the Jesuit editor of Studies, and twice addressed the English Literary Society at UCD in Earlsfort Terrace. Later, D’Arcy’s major work, The Mind and Heart of Love, was published by Eliot at Faber and Faber in 1945. Later life When he was offered the Charles Eliot Norton Professor- ship at Harvard (1932-1933), he left his wife Vivienne in England. On his return, he filed for divorce, and she spent the rest of her life in a psychiatric hospital until her death in 1947. Eliot’s plays included Murder in the Cathedral (1935)

Eliot’s plays included Murder in the Cathedral (1935) and The Cocktail Par- ty (1949). In 1958,
Eliot’s plays included Murder in the Cathedral (1935) and The Cocktail Par- ty (1949). In 1958,

and The Cocktail Par- ty (1949). In 1958, Archbishop Geoffrey Fisher of Canterbury appointed Eliot to a commission that produced The Re- vised Psalter (1963). CS Lewis, once a harsh critic of Eliot, was also a member of the commission, and during their time on that commission their antagonism turned to true friendship. In 1957, at the age of 68, Eliot secretly married his second wife, Esmé Valerie Fletcher. He died in Lon- don on 4 January 1965. His ashes were buried at Saint Michael’s Church, East Coker, the Somerset village from which his ancestors had emigrated.

the Somerset village from which his ancestors had emigrated. A commemorative plaque in the church quotes

A

commemorative plaque

in

the church quotes from

‘East Coker’:

In my beginning is my end

In my end is my beginning.

(Revd Canon Professor) Patrick Comerford is Lecturer in Anglicanism, Liturgy and Church History, the Church of Ireland Theological Institute, an Adjunct As- sistant Professor, Trinity College Dublin, and a canon of Christ Church Cathedral,

Dublin. He is a regular contributor to Koinonia

www.patrickcomerford.com

Captions for pictures in sequence

1, The poet T.S.Eliot in a portrait by Gerald Kelly

2, T.S.Eliot is the greatest poet in English in the 20th century

3, The Cocktail Party: T.S.Eliot (centre) with the poets Louis MacNeice, Ted Hughes, WH Auden and Stephen Spender at a Faber and Faber cocktail party in the 1960s

4, Merton College, Oxford …Eliot left after a year

5, Merton College, Oxford … Eliot said later: “Oxford is very pretty, but I don’t like to be dead”

6, No 24 Russell Square, London, where T.S.Eliot worked for Faber and Faber, is now part of the School of Oriental and African Studies in London

7, A plaque at 24 Russell Square, recalling T.S.Eliot’s working days

8, The tomb of Lancelot Andrewes in Southwark Cathedral

sermons were critical in T.S.Eliot’s conversion to Anglicanism and had an abiding influence on his writings (Photograph: Patrick Comerford)

9, Father Martin D’Arcy, a Jesuit with Irish parents, may have secured T.S.Eliot’s invitation to Dublin

his prayers and

10, ‘Now the light falls

I said to my soul, be still, and wait without hope’

the stairs to my rooms in Sidney

(T.S.Eliot, ‘East Coker’) … dusk turns to darkness at Minister Pool in Lichfield

11, ‘At the first turning of the second stair’ Sussex College, Cambridge, in 2012

12, A statue of Virginia Woolf in Bloomsbury, London … she said of Eliot’s conversion that “a corpse would seem to me to be more credible.”

Bishop Edward Pusey E dward Bouverie Pusey was born on August 22, 1800 at the
Bishop Edward Pusey E dward Bouverie Pusey was born on August 22, 1800 at the
Bishop Edward Pusey
Bishop Edward Pusey

E dward Bouverie Pusey was born on August 22, 1800 at the other Pusey House, his father's family seat at Pusey, not far from Oxford. His father was Philip Bouverie (d. 1828), a younger son of Jacob Bouverie,

1st Viscount Folkestone, and took the name of Pusey on succeed- ing to the manorial estates at that place. After Eton and Christ Church, Pusey was elected in 1824 to a fellowship at Oriel, becom- ing a member of a common room which already contained some of the ablest of his contemporaries, and including among them John Henry Newman and John Keble. Between 1825 and 1827, he studied Oriental languages and Ger- man theology at the University of Göttingen. His first work, pub- lished in 1828, as an answer to Hugh James Rose's Cambridge lec- tures on rationalist tendencies in German theology, showed a good deal of sympathy with the German "pietists", who had striven to deliver Protestantism from its decadence; this sympathy was mis- understood, and Pusey was himself accused of holding rationalist views. The misunderstanding of his position led to the publication in 1830 of a second part of Pusey's Historical Enquiry, in which he denied the charge of rationalism. In the years which immedi- ately followed, his thoughts turned in another direction. The revolt

against individualism had begun, and he was attracted to its stan- dard. By the end of 1833 he showed a disposition to make common

cause with those who had already begun to issue the Tracts for the

Times. But "he was not

and 1836, when he published his tract on baptism and started the Library of the Fathers" (John Henry Newman, Apologia pro Vita Sua). In 1828 the Prime Minister - the Duke of Wellington - had

fully

associated in the movement till 1835

appointed Pusey to the Regius Chair in Hebrew. As a Canon of Christ Church and a Doctor of Divinity he added an element of increased disctinction to the fledgling movement in Oxford. PUSEY became a close student of the fathers and of that school of Anglican divines who had continued, or revived, in the 17th century the main traditions of pre-Reformation teaching. A ser- mon which he preached before the university in 1843, The Holy Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent, so startled the authorities by the re-statement of doctrines which, though well known to eccle- siastical antiquaries, had faded from the common view, that by the exercise of an authority which, however legitimate, was almost obsolete, he was suspended for two years from preaching. The im- mediate effect of his suspension was the sale of 18,000 copies of the condemned sermon; its permanent effect was to make Pusey for the next quarter of a century one of the most influential figures in the Anglican Church. The Vice-Chancellor's document of suspen- sion is preserved with pride at Pusey House, where it occupies a place of honour. The movement to which he had been a later adherent, came to bear his name: it was popularly known as Puseyism (pre-1845 it was sometimes called Newmania) and its adherents as Puseyites. His activity, both public and private, as leader of the movement was enormous. He was not only on the stage but also behind the scenes of every important controversy, whether theological or aca- demical. In the Gorham controversy of 1850, in the question of Oxford reform in 1854, in the prosecution of some of the writers of Essays and Reviews, especially of Benjamin Jowett, in 1863, in the question as to the reform of the marriage laws from 1849 to the end of his life, in the Farrar controversy as to the meaning of ever- lasting punishment in 1877, Pusey was always busy with articles, letters, treatises and sermons.

always busy with articles, letters, treatises and sermons. The occasions on which, in his turn, he

The occasions on which, in his turn, he preached before his university were all memorable; and some of the sermons were

Bishop Edward Pusey’s tomb at Christ Church, Oxford to the study of which he was
Bishop Edward Pusey’s tomb at Christ Church, Oxford to the study of which he was
Bishop Edward Pusey’s tomb at Christ Church, Oxford
Bishop Edward Pusey’s tomb at Christ Church, Oxford

to the study of which he was the professor; and the Eirenicon, in which he endeavoured to find a basis of union between the Church of England and the Church of Rome. PUSEY is chiefly remembered as the eponymous representative of the earlier phase of a movement which carried with it no small part of the religious life of England in the latter half of the 19th cen- tury. His own chief characteristic was an almost unbounded capac- ity for taking pains. His chief influence was that of a preacher and a spiritual adviser. As a preacher he lacked all the graces of oratory, but compelled attention by his searching and practical earnestness. His correspondence as a spiritual adviser was enormous; his de- served reputation for piety and for solidity of character made him the chosen confessor to whom large numbers of men and women unburdened their doubts and their sins. In private life Pusey's habits were simple almost to austerity. Though fierce with his opponents, he was gentle to those who knew him, and his munificent charities gave him a warm place in the hearts of many to whom he was personally unknown. He financed the building of St Saviour's Church, Leeds, and was instrumental in the foundation of Ascot Priory. In his domestic life he had some se- vere trials; his wife died, after eleven years of married life, in 1839; only one of his daughters survived into adulthood, and his only son, who was a scholar like-minded with himself, who had shared many of his literary labours, and who had edited an excellent edi- tion of St Cyril's commentary on the minor prophets, died in 1880, after many years of suffering. From that time Pusey was seen by only a few people. His strength gradually declined, and he left Ox- ford to be cared for by the community of nuns he had founded at Ascot, where he died on the 16th September 1882. He was buried at Christ Church in the cathedral of which he had been for fifty- four years a canon, his body being placed in the vault which al- ready held the bodies of his wife and daughters. In his memory his friends purchased his library, and bought for it a house in Oxford, which they endowed with sufficient funds to maintain three librar- ians, who were charged with the duty of perpetuating the memory of the principles which he taught, the maintenance of the Catholic Faith, and the preaching of the Gospel. Their work continues today.

(Text www.puseyhouse.org.uk Photos; Bishop Leo and Holly Michael.Thanks to Alex. Farquhar, the Steward.of the Pusey House and Fr. Britto Belevendran who drove us to Oxford.)

manifestoes which mark distinct stages in the history of the High Church party of which he was the leader. The practice of confession in the Church of England practically dates from his two sermons on The Entire Absolution of the Penitent, in 1846, in which the revival of high sacramental doctrine is complemented by the ad- vocacy of a revival of the penitential system which medieval theo- logians had appended to it. The sermon on The Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist, in 1853, first formulated the doctrine round which almost all the subsequent theology of his followers revolved, and which revolutionized the practices of Anglican worship. Of his larger works the most important are his two books on the Eucharist - The Doctrine of the Real Presence (1855) and The Real Presence the Doctrine of the English Church (1857); Daniel the Prophet in which he endeavours to maintain the traditional date of that book; The Minor Prophets, with Commentary, his chief contribution

maintain the traditional date of that book; The Minor Prophets, with Commentary, his chief contribution Koinonia

The Reason We Say 'Merry Christmas' By Richard Maffeo

I n the thirty-eight years I've attended Christmas morning services, I don't remember thinking much about the nativity

crèche. After all, I'd seen the Infant, His parents and shepherds hundreds of times in churches, on front lawns and be-

neath Christmas trees. They blended long ago into the season's background. But a several Christmases ago, as my wife

and I knelt at an altar, waiting to receive Holy Communion, the plaster figurines in front of us caught my attention. And

I knew why. My gaze had shifted for a moment to the crucifix behind the pulpit. It loomed thirty feet above the altar and suddenly brought the Christmas crèche into a new and sobering perspective. Two thousand years ago, few people in Bethlehem recognized the importance of the stable where Joseph and Mary snuggled their newborn son. It's not hard to understand why others missed its significance. It wasn't the kind of place you'd expect to find anyone of importance. The stable was not like the pretty pictures printed on Christmas cards. The grueling journey to Bethlehem left Joseph and Mary tired and hungry. They longed to find a place to bathe and for a warm bed. Instead, they arrived in a city of strangers, and Joseph raced in vain from inn to inn, desperately seeking a comfortable place for his wife to lie down. You know the story. They couldn't find a room in the local inn, so they settled themselves for the night in a darkened corner of a stable, to the smell of ma- nure and rotting straw. But in that stable, Almighty God took the form of a helpless Child and stepped into humanity to reconcile you and me to Himself. The miraculous birth in that dirty place heralded a cataclysmic transformation in the relationship between us and Himself. No one in that little town of Bethlehem knew it, but humanity's destiny revolved around that manger -- and Calvary's cross looming in its shadow. Three decades later, beneath that cross, the manger was a distant memory in Mary's heart. The Child-grown-to-be-a-Man now hung on a splintered, bloodstained crossbeam. It looked nothing like the smooth and polished cross towering above the altar in front of me. On Calvary's cross, Jesus' back laid ripped open by Roman whips. Blood from the roughly woven crown of thorns caked on His fore- head. Nails holding him to the wood sent waves of searing pain across His hands and feet. Thirst ravaged his throat. His strength slowly slipped away as he struggled to breathe. Meanwhile, soldiers jeered, religious leaders mocked, and his friends and family wept. No one on that hillside knew it, but as Jesus suffered and then died on that cross, God launched the second of His three- phased plan to rescue us from the even more horrible destiny our sins had guaranteed us. The crèche is about the Savior's birth; the cross, about His death. The crèche cradled God's incarnation; the cross tortured Him. The crèche is about God's Son born into our world; the cross, about Him paying sin's judgment and dying in our place. But without the third phase -- the empty tomb -- the crèche and the cross would be meaningless. Without the empty tomb, no one would have hope for life beyond this one. No one would have assurance that we have a heavenly Father who loves us, grieves with us, yearns for an intimate relationship with us. The crèche, the cross, and the empty tomb brought God's plan of reconciliation and redemption to completion. Because of that Divine Triad, Christians can know with absolute certainty that their sins can forgiven. The crèche, the cross and the empty tomb is God's irrevocable declaration that those who believe with obedient faith the Baby of the crèche became the Man on the cross and resurrected Savior, we have God's promise of eternal life (see John 3:16). As I received Holy Communion that morning, I prayed I would never again see the crèche simply as a reminder of a long-ago Bethlehem birth. I hoped -- and continue to hope to this very day -- it will always remind me that God really does love the world so much that He gave His Son to die in our place. I hope it always reminds me that His birth, death, and resurrection is the reason we say, "Merry Christmas!"

Publication of the Anglican Province of the Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite St James Anglican
Publication of the Anglican Province of the
Holy Catholic Church Anglican Rite
St
James Anglican Church
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