You are on page 1of 4

Change process and the factors that facilitate it

Prime Ministers Rozgar Yojana (P.M.R.Y): The PMRY has been designed to provide employment to more
than a million People by setting up of 7 lakhs micro enterprises by the educated unemployed youth. It relates
to the setting up of the self-employment ventures through industry, service and business routes. The scheme
also seeks to associate reputed non-governmental organizations in implementation PMRY scheme especially in
the selection, training of entrepreneurs and preparation of project profiles.

Change
Factors that facilitate change
Providing technical skills to educated setting up of micro enterprises
unemployed youth
creating more job opportunities
Decrease in unemployment
government giving subsidy
Decrease in income inequality

Indira Awaas Yojana (IAY): The broad purpose of the scheme is to provide financial assistance to some of
the weakest sections of society for them to upgrade or construct a house of respectable quality for their
personal living. The vision of the government is to replace all temporary (kutchcha) houses from Indian villages
by 2017.

Change
Factors that facilitate change
increase in housing and sanitation government is giving the financial support to the

levels of below poverty line population


increase in income level

poor
providing subsidies and cash-assistance to people in
villages to construct their houses

Integrated child development scheme (ICDS): Government of India sponsored programme, is India's
primary social welfare scheme to tackle malnutrition and health problems in children below 6 years of age and
their mothers. The main beneficiaries of the programme were aimed to be the children below 6 years of age,
pregnant and lactating mothers, and adolescent girls. The gender promotion of the girl child by trying to bring
her at par with the male child is a key component of the scheme.

Change
Factors that facilitate change
raise in health and nutrition levels of government is giving the financial support to the

poor children below 6 years of age


reduce in child mortality rate and
female infanticide
providing education and nutritional
food to mothers of young and at
pregnancy period
increase in immunization of children
and mothers

poor
World Bank has assisted with the financial and
technical support for the programme
UNICEF has provided essential supplies for the
ICDS scheme since 1975.

Mid-Day Meals scheme (MDMS): The main objective of this scheme is to eradicate extreme poverty and
hunger among children particularly economically disadvantaged so as to improve their nutritional & health
status. Under this scheme, school children are provided with free mid-day meals. The children in primary
classes have been covered under this scheme.

Change
Factors that facilitate change
raise in health and nutrition levels of government is giving the financial support to

children of age group 5 to 15 years


reduce in mortality rate, morbidity and
malnutrition
increasing education level, motivation for
further education and reducing dropouts
reduce gender gap in education

the primary schools to set up this scheme


World Bank has assisted with the financial and
technical support for the programme
Both central and state governments are giving
support to this scheme.

Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA): It is an Indian law that
aims to guarantee the 'right to work' and ensure livelihood security in rural areas by providing at least 100
days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer
to do unskilled manual work.

Change
Factors that facilitate change
providing unemployment allowance if
Increase in employment opportunities
employment isn't provided
Decrease in income inequality
Raised the negotiating power of making it a legal act
agricultural labor, resulting in higher
agricultural wages, improved economic
outcomes leading to reduction in distress
migration.

government giving support to agriculture

Key performance indicators for poverty reduction


A performance indicator or key performance indicator (KPI) is a type of performance measurement. A policy or
project may use KPIs to evaluate its success, or to evaluate the success of a particular activity in which it is engaged.
Some of the key performance indicators are:

Life expectancy ratio: It is one of the health indicators. It is defined as the expected (in the statistical sense)
number of years of life remaining at a given age.
Income inequality: It is measured by gini coefficient. It is one of the income indicators. Income inequality is
the difference between individuals or populations in the distribution of their income.
Unemployment rate: The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is
calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in
the labor force.

Child mortality: It is also known as under-5 mortality, refers to the death of infants and children under the
age of five. Deaths occur due to malnutrition and lack of proper living facilities.
Literacy rate: Literacy is the ability to read and write one's own name and further for knowledge and interest,

write coherently, and think critically about the written word. The inability to do so is called illiteracy or
analphabetism. It is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of literate individuals by all
individuals.
Per capita income: It also known as income per person, is the mean income of the people in an economic unit
such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate (such
as GDP or Gross national income) and dividing it by the total population.
Gross Enrollment Ratio: It is a statistical measure used in the education sector and by the UN in its Education
Index to determine the number of students enrolled in school at several different grade levels. Gross Primary
School Enrollment Ratio considers children usually between the age of 6 - 11. Gross Secondary School
Enrollment Ratio considers children usually between the age of 12 - 17. Gross Tertiary Education Enrollment
Ratio considers the number of young people in the five-year age group following the secondary school leaving
age that is usually 18.
The above indicators are some of the key performance indicators of poverty. Some of them have positive
relation and some have negative relation with poverty.
indicator

measures

Relation with poverty rate

Life expectancy rate

Expected number of years of life


remaining at a given age.

negative

Gini coefficient

Income inequality

positive

Unemployment rate

the number of unemployed


individuals divided by all
individuals
the death of infants and children
under the age of five

positive

the number of literate individuals


divided by all individuals.
income per person

negative

the number of students enrolled in


school

negative

Child mortality
Literacy rate
Per capita income
Gross enrollment ratio

positive

negative

Techniques used for reducing resistance:Government should provide awareness about ownership rights along with their rights on natural resources
while bringing in land reforms. This helps in promoting their access to natural resources. While providing job

opportunities government programs should focus on improving the skillset of rural poor simultaneously
showing its advantages in the creation of self-employment. Planning and implementation of the rural
development programmers must enable greater self-help by the people and their participation in programmes
through panchayat raj institutions, cooperatives and other self-managed institutions. This will mark a
reduction in the dependence on the present development administration for delivery. State intervention will
have to continue on an expanded scale so as to protect the poor and vulnerable sections from some of the
burdens of structural adjustment. We should develop flexibility in the programmes by giving more autonomy
to the local bodies and Panchayats to plan according to the needs and resources available at the local area
level. We should create a system to encourage efficient persons by providing motivation, including financial
incentives and better promotion system. The government should succeed in creating an environment of
mutual trust between the public and the Government. They should prove that the existing rules and
procedures were devised mainly to protect the interest of rural poor. If it is necessary the government should
be ready to change the existing rules to protect the interests of rural poor maintaining equality and social
justice.