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# Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems.

Laboratory handbook

CONTENTS

## 1. MODELLING SYSTEMS WITH

PLACE-TRANSITION PETRI NETS ..................................................... 11
2 and 3. MODELLING SYSTEMS
WITH TIMED PETRI NETS ................................................................... 19
4. MODELLING COLORED PETRI NETS USING CPN TOOLS ........... 35
5. THE EVALUATION OF THE MANUFACTURING
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE USING
THE TAYLOR ED 2000 PROGRAM .................................................. 45
6. THE MOVEMENT SIMULATION
OF THE VIRTUAL PROTOTYPE ......................................................... 57
7. FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEMS - THE WASHING MACHINE ............ 67
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................... 75

APPLICATION 1

NETS

## 1.1. The purpose

The application has the purpose of presenting the fundamental
notions related to the construction of models with Petri nets of PlaceTransition (PT) type.

## 1.2. Theoretical background

Definition
A Petri Net (PN) is a graphic model belonging the oriented graphs
type [8, 9], which uses two categories of pivotal points:
Places which model the conditions which are imposed for the
performance of a certain event (represented by circles);
Transitions which model the events which develop if certain
conditions are fulfilled (represented by horizontal lines or by
rectangles).
The places and transitions are connected through arcs. The arcs
are oriented, connecting a place to a transition or a transition to a place.
In figure 1.1. a PN is presented which consists of 7 places, 6
11

## transitions and 15 oriented arcs.

Notations:
places are noted with Pi , i= 1, I;
transitions are noted with Tj , j= 1, J;
the aggregate of places of a PN is noted with P;
the aggregate of transitions of a PN is noted with T;
For the example from figure 1.1 the aggregate of places is P = {
P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7 } and the aggregate of transitions is T= { T1, T2, T3,
T4, T5, T6 }.

P1

P1

T1

T1

P3

T3

P2

T2

P3

T6

P5

T3

P4

P2

T2

T6

P5

T4

P4
T4

P6

P6

T5

T5

P7

P7

(a)

(b)

12

## Regarding figure 1.1, it is stated that place P3 is an upstream or an

input place for transition T3 (the arc is oriented from P3 to T3). Place P5
is a downstream or an output place for transition T3. A transition
without input place is a source transition (generator). A transition
without an output place is a closed transition.

The marking
Another category used in the study of PN is the marking. Each
place contains a whole number (positive or null) of symbols (points)
which are called markings or tokens [9]. In figure 2.1.a is represented a
marked PN, and in figure 2.1.b an unmarked PN.
To each place, function of existence / inexistence of the point (of
the symbol in general), can be associated a marking. The marking of a
place Pi is noted with M(Pi) or mi. The proper markings for the places of
the net from figure 2.1.b. are: m2 = m4 = m5 = m7 = 0, m1 = m3 = 1, m6 =
2.The marking of the net is noted with M. For a PN with n places, this is
defined through vector M = (m1, m2, ..., mi, ..., mI). The marking of the net
from figure 2.1.b. is M = (1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 2, 0).
Note:
If m i {0,1}, i = 1, n , PN is part of the binary Petri nets category [8].
The marking defines, at a certain point, the state of the system
modeled with the help of the PN.

13

## Regarding transitions, a transition is executable only when each

place from upstream contains at least a marking. In this case it can be
stated that the transition is executable or validated.
A source transition is always validated.

## 3. The development of the paper

Application 1
The Petri net from figure 1.2. is taken in consideration, the
sequences of transitions {T1, T3} and {T2, T4} are found in the situation
of mutual exclusion, meaning that at a certain point one of the
sequences or the other will be executed.
The net must be modified so as sequence {T1, T3} should be
executed three times before sequence {T2, T4} is to be fired.
The net must be designed in the Visula Object Net++ environment.
P1

P4

P2

T1

T2

T5
P3

T6

P4

T3

T4

P6

P5

## Fig. 1.2. Petri net with sequences of transitions with

mutual exclusion [12]
14

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

Application 2
(a) The Petri nets from figure 1.3 are taken in consideration.
Which are the executable transitions as well as the markings
which result after their execution?
The nets must be designed in the Visula Object Net++
environment.
P1

P2

T1

P6

P5

P8

T3

T2

P3

P7

P4

P9

## Fig.1.3. Examples of Petri nets

(b) The net from figure 1.4 is taken in consideration. Arc P2T4 is an
inhibitor arc.
Which is the available markings graph ?
P1
T1

P2

T4

T3

T2
P3

15

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

Application 3
In the manufacturing system from figure 1.5 two types of pieces
are processed: p1 and p2.
Input pieces
pieces

Machine 1

Machine 2

Stock 1

Exit

Stock 2

## The pieces arrive in stock 1, are processed onto machine 1, enter

stock 2 and are then processed onto machine M2. After finishing the
processing onto machine 2, the pieces leave the system. Each machine
processes, at a certain moment, one piece. The entry order of the pieces
in the system is random, but the processing onto the two machines is
done respecting the alternation: p1, p2, p1, p2, p1,.
The model of the manufacturing system, designed with Petri nets,
is presented in figure 1.6. The meanings of the places and transitions
are given on the figure. Two types of components of the model can be
identified: the component which models the processing of the type p1
pieces and the component which models the processing of the type p2
pieces. The entry of the pieces in the system is modeled through the
source transitions T1 (type p1 pieces) and T6 (type p2 pieces).
The alternative processing of the two types of pieces onto
machine 2 is modeled with the help of places P5 and P6. Therefore, the
presence of a marking in place P5 and in place P1 validates transition T2
(the loading of machine 1 with a type p1 piece). In the same way the
presence of a marking in place P9 and in place P6 models the fulfillment
16

## of the loading conditions of machine 1 with a type p2 piece.

In the machine 2 case, places P7 and P8 allow the modeling of the
alternative processing of two types of pieces.
The marking from figure 1.6: M(P5)=M(P7)=1, models the
processing conditions of the first piece of type p1 onto machine 1 as
well as onto machine 2.The model described will be implemented on
the Visual Object Net++ program.
Prelucrarea
pieselor
tip p 1
Processing
type pde
1pieces

EntryIntrare
p1 p1
1 in 1
p1 in pstock

T1
P1

stocul 1

Incarcare p 1
onto
pe
masina
machine
1 1

Prelucrarea
pieselor
de pieces
tip p 2
Processing
type p
T6

P5

P6

P9

T2

T7

p1 onp1 pe
masina
machine
11

P2

P 10

Descarcare
p1
de
pe
masina
off machine 11

T3

1 in 1
p1 in pstock

P3

p1 onp1 pe
masina
machine
12
Evacuation
Evacuare p 1
p1

p 2 in
in stock 1
p2
stocul 1

Incarcare p 2
onto
pe masina 1
machine 1
p 2 pe
p2 on
masina 1

machine 1

stocul 2

onto
Incarcare p 1
machine
22
pe masina

Intrare
p2
Entry p2

T8

Descarcare p 2
de pe masina 1

p2 off
machine 1

P7

P8

P 11

T4

T9

P4

P 12

p 2 in
stocul
p2 in 2stock 1

Incarcarep2
p2
onto
pe masina 2
machine 2
p 2 pe
masina
p2 on 2

machine 2
T5

T10

Evacuare p 2

Evacuation
p2

Fig. 1.6. Model with PN of the manufacturing system from figure 1.5
17

## Determining the correlations between the model components and

the elements and from the real system which they model;

pieces;

type 2.

18

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

APPLICATIONS 2 AND 3

## The paper aims to highlight the modeling possibilities of the

systems (manufacturing systems) with timed Petri nets. Moreover, the
performance of the modeled systems through simulation will be
evaluated.

2. 2. Theoretical background

## A timed Petri net allows the description of a system whose

performance depends on time. This Petri net category is used for
evaluating the performance of a system.
There are two possibilities to model a temporization:
temporizations associated with places P-timed PN;
temporizations associated with transitions T-timed PN.
P- timed Petri nets
A P-timed Petri net is a doublet of type <R, Tempo>, [9], where:
R is a marked PN;
Tempo is an application on the aggregate P of places in the
aggregate of positive rational or null numbers, so as:
19

Tempo (Pi) = di

(2.1)

## The performance principle

If a marking is deposited in a Pi place, this marking will remain in
the Pi place during di, the marking being unavailable at this time. After
di has elapsed, the marking becomes available.
During t, the M marking is the sum of two types of markings:
Ma the available marking;
Mu - the unavailable marking.
Therefore:
M= Ma + Mu

(2.2)

## A transition is validated for the M marking, if it is validated for the

Ma marking.
If a marking is deposited in a Pi place, following a transition
executed during t, then this marking is unavailable during (t, t+ di).
T-timed Petri nets
A T-timed Petri net is a doublet of type <R, Tempo> [9], where:
R is a marked Petri net;
Tempo is an application of the aggregate of T transitions in the
aggregate of rational or null numbers, defined by the relation:
Tempo (Tj) = dj

20

(2.3)

## In case of T-timed PN, a marking may be in one of the following

stages:
reserved for the execution of transition Tj;
non-reserved.
In a random moment t, where marking M of the net is:
M= Mr + Mnr
where Mr is the reserved marking and Mnr is the non-reserved marking.
A transition is validated for marking M, if it is validated for
marking Mnr.
If t is the moment in which the firing of transition Tj i t + dj is
decided, the moment in which the transition has been actually
performed is considered to be:
t- the beginning of the transition;
t+ dj the end of the transition.
For T-timed PN, two ways of performance can be defined:
1. Performance at high speed once a transition is validated; the
necessary markings for its execution are reserved.
2. Performance at its own speed a marking deposited in a place
becomes reserved for the execution of a transition in downstream, after
a period of time which is different from zero.

21

## 3. The development of the application

Two manufacturing systems will be taken in consideration
which will be modeled with T-timed Petri nets and whose performance
parameters will be analyzed through simulation.
Application 1
A manufacturing system is taken in consideration consisting of the
working machines M1 and M2. The machines are served onto two
blades, each of them carrying a piece. The pieces gradually pass to
machines M1 and M2 (Fig. 2.1).
Machine M1 can process, at a certain moment, one piece and the
working period is TP1 = 20 [time units]. Machine M2 can process
simultaneously two pieces and the working period for a piece is TP2 =
The modeling of the system with the help of a T-timed PN will
have to take in consideration the following aspects:
The processing of the pieces on each of the two machines will be
modeled with the help of transitions to which temporizations will
be associated matching the respective processing time units.
Stock 1
Stoc 1

M1

Stock 2

M1

Stoc 2

TP 1time
= 20 units
unit. timp
TP1=20

M2

M2

TP 2 = 30time
unit. units
timp
TP2=30

PI / D
L/UP

22

## The relative condition to machine 1 processing one piece at a

given moment will be modeled with the help of counter
places, P4.
Machine M2 processing two pieces simultaneously, it results the
fact that in Stock 2 there will never be pieces, therefore it isnt
necessary to associate a place with it.
The transport, loading, etc. time units are set aside.
The model of the system with the T-timed Petri nets is presented
in figure 2.2.
P1 (STOCK
(STOC 1) 1)

T1
Incarcare M1)
M1)
P2

d2 = 20

(Unprocessed
(Piesa
neprelucrata
piece
pe
M1) on M1)
T2 (Processing on
M1)

T2 (Prelucrare pe M1)
P4

P3

(Piesa
prelucrata
(Processed
piece
pe
M1)
on M1)
T3
T3(Descarcare
M1;
incarcare
M2)M2)

P5

d3 = 30

P6

(Limitarea
Limiting
incarcarii
the M1
M1)

(Piesa
neprelucrata
(Unprocessed
piece on M2)
pe M2)
T4T4
( Prelucrare
pe M2)
(Processing
on M2)
(Piesa prelucrata
(Processed
piece on M2)
pe M2)

T5 ( Descarcare M2;
evacuation, introduction)
evacuare; introducere)

23

## In the case of this application the following things will be

observed:
1. The implementation of the model in the Visual Object Net++
environment;
2. The evolution diagrams of the number of markings from the
input places in the timed transitions will be highlighted.

## Application 2- Modeling with T-time Petri nets of the flexible

manufacturing cell CFF-2R-2002

## The flexible manufacturing cell CFF-2R-2002 has been designed

within the Faculty of Electronics hand in hand with the Faculty of
Management and Technological Engineering from the University of
Taking in consideration the cell as a complex system, the
subsystems which comprise it can be identified. These are:
1. Instruction subsystem;
2. L manipulation subsystem;
3. Processing subsystem;
4. Transfer subsystem;
5. Manipulation system II;
6. Storage subsystem.

## In figure 2.3 is presented the layout of the flexible manufacturing

cell, the main components of each subsystem being highlighted.

24

CP-20-UO
(3.1)

DL
(3.1)

SUBSISTEM DE
MANIPULATION
MANIPULARE
I

SUBSISTEM
PROCESSING
DE
SUBSYSTEM
PRELUCRARE

CNC600
(3.2)

SUBSISTEM DE

INSTRUCTION
COMANDA
SUBSYSTEM
(CONTROLER
(CONTROLLER
CELL)
CELULA)

PC
(3.4 )

SUBSYSTEM I

3
1
CP
(2.3 )

RV-M1
(2.1)

2
EC
(2.2 )

SUBSISTEM

TRANSFER
DE
SUBSYSTEM
TRANSFER

AID-V5-EN
(5.1)

SUBSISTEM
STORAGE
DE
SUBSYSTEM
DEPOZITARE

EC
(4.2 )

7
4
5

PC
(4.3 )

DTR
(4.1)

CNC
(4.2 )

SUBSISTEM DE
MANIPULATION
MANIPULARE
II

PC
(4.3 )

SUBSYSTEM II

## The instruction subsystem (1) is materialized by a PC computer

called Cell Controller (CC). This indirectly accesses, through the
interface

computers,

the

instruction

equipment

of

the

## manufacturing cell components (robot RV-M1, processing center,

transfer device, robot AID-V5-EN) [7].

## robot RV-M1 (MITSUBISHI) (ii.1) with five mobility degrees, of RRRRR

structure. The role of this robot within the CFF-2R-2002 is to ensure the
processing of a semi-product off the transfer device (TRD) and its
placing in the working device of the processing center CP-20-UO.
Moreover, after finishing the processing, robot RV-M1 unloads the piece
from the working device of the processing center and it deposits it in
25

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

the proper location from the transfer device TRD. The connection of the
robots controller (2.2) to the LAN net is performed through the PC
computer (2.3).

## UO (3.1), served by a type CNC600 equipment (3.2) which is connected

to the cell controller with the help of a (PC) computer (3.4). The
processing center carries a tool shop whose capacity is of 20 pieces. On
the table of the machine the working device WD (3.3) is situated, on
which the semi-product is oriented and fixed during the processing.

## (Transfer device TRD-4.4) on which there are eight positions in which

the semi-products, respectively the processed pieces are placed. The
transfer device has an indexed rotary flow (right-handed) with the
possibility of placing a certain position to robot RV-M1 for the
of the processing center. As well as in the case of the other components,
the connection of the instruction equipment of the transfer device to
the cell controller is done through a personal computer (4.3) connected
to the instruction equipment (4.2) of the rotary table.

## withdrawal of the semi-products from the shelf type of stock in

Cartesian coordinates, the reversing of the semi-products situated on
the transfer device for the processing of the second face, the deposition
of the processed pieces in the stock.
As component of this subsystem is the type AID-V5-EN robot in 6 axes
(5.1), the instruction equipment of type CNC (Computer Numerical
26

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

Control) robot (5.2) and the PC computer (5.3) which ensures the
interface with the cell controller.

## stock, in Cartesian coordinates, structured on four lines and eight

columns. This structure determines the existence of 32 cells in which
the semi-products and processed pieces can be deposited.
Modeling with Petri nets of the flexible manufacturing cell
The model with Petri nets of the flexible manufacturing cell
highlights the performance means of its components having in mind the
interactions which appear in the dynamics of the sequence course,
during the manufacturing process.
In figure 2.4 are present the pieces that will be manufacturing in cell.
A

Piece 1
A

Piece 5

Piece 2
A

Piece 6
B

Piece 7

Piece 3
A

Piece 8

Piece 4

27

## In the performance of the cell five groups of sequences can be

identified (Fig.2.5).
Processing of face A of each i piece, i = 1,8 ;
Reversing piece i;
Processing face B of each i piece;
Evacuation of piece i;
Selecting a piece for processing.

Fig. 2.5. Model with Petri net of the CFF-2R-2002 flexible manufacturing
cell

## Each place of the net models a condition which can be fulfilled or

not at a given moment. The transitions which model actions, events,
28

## can be executed when the conditions, modeled through places, are

fulfilled. The meanings of places, respectively of transitions are
presented in table 2.1.
The model allows the describing of the performance of the flexible
manufacturing cell on the condition of processing a number of eight
pieces, this being the capacity of the transfer device TRD.

Table 21. The meanings of the pivotal points of the Petri net which
models CFF-2R-2002

SERIAL

SYMBOL

TYPE

P1

Place

P2

Place

T1

Transition

P3

Place

P4

Place

P5

Place

T2

Transition

P6

Place

P7

Place

NO.

MEANING
RV-M1 is free
Piece POZ(i)/A is placed to
CP-20-UO
RV-M1 apprehends piece
POZ(i)/A
Piece POZ(i)/A is found in
the prehensile device of the
RV-M1 robot
Location POZ(i) in front of
robot RV-M1 is free
The WD of CP-20-UO is free
Piece POZ(i)/A is loaded on
the WD of CP-20-UO
Piece POZ(i)/A is fixed on
the WD of CP-20-UO
The DP of the RV-M1 robot
is free

FEATURS
m0(P1)=1
m0(P2)=0
d2=5 sec
m0(P3)=0
m0(P4)=0
m0(P5)=1
d2=10 sec
m0(P6)=0
m0(P7)=0
d3=TT1(P

10

T3

Transition

POZ(i)/A

OZ(i))*60
[sec]

29

SERIAL
NO.

SYMBOL

TYPE

MEANING

FEATURS
i = 1,8

11

P8

Place

12

T4

Transition

13

P9

Place

14

T5

Transition

15

P10

Place

16

T6

Transition

17

P11

Place

18

P12

Place

20

T7

Transition

21

P13

Place

22

P14

Place

23

T8

Transition

24

P15

Place

25

T9

Transition

26

P16

Place

27

T10

Transition

## The processed piece is in

the WD of CP-20-UO
POZ(i)/A from the WD of
CP-20-UO
Piece i/A is found on the DP
of RV-M1
RV-M1 deposits piece
POZ(i)/A in the location I of
the TRD
Piece POZ(i)/A is found in
location I of the TRD
The TRD places piece
POZ(i)/A to robot AID-V5EN
Piece POZ(i)/A is placed to
robot AID-V5-EN
Robot AID-V5-EN is free
Robot AID-V5-EN
apprehends piece POZ(i)/A
Piece POZ(i)/A is found in
DP of robot AID-V5-EN
Location POZ(i) from the
TRD is free
Robot AID-V5-EN reverses
piece POZ(i) ( piece
POZ(i)/A piece
POZ(i)/B)
Piece POZ(i)/B is found in
the DP of robot AID-V5-EN
Piece POZ(i)/B is deposited
in location i of the TRD
Piece POZ(i)/B is in location
i of the TRD
TRD places piece POZ(i)/B
on RV-M1
30

m0(P8)=0
d4=5 sec
m0(P9)=0
d5=11 sec
m0(P10)=0
d6=6 sec
m0(P11)=0
m0(P12)=1
d7=5 sec
m0(P13)=0
m0(P14)=0
d8=13 sec
m0(P15)=0
d9=5 sec
m0(P16)=0
d10=18 sec

SERIAL

SYMBOL

TYPE

28

P17

Place

29

P18

Place

30

T11

Transition

31

P19

Place

32

P20

Place

## Piece POZ(i)/B is found in

the prehensile device of
robot RV-M1

32

P21

Place

## Location POZ(i) in front of

the robot RV-M1 is free

33

T12

Transition

34

P22

Place

35

P23

Place

## Piece i/B is loaded in the

WD of the CP-20-UO
Piece POZ(i)/A is fixed in
the WD of al CP-20-UO
The DP of robot RV-M1 is
free

NO.

MEANING
RV-M1 is free
Piece POZ(i)/B is placed to
CP-20-UO
RV-M1 apprehends piece
POZ(i)/B
The WD of CP-20-UO is free

FEATURS
m0(P17)=0
m0(P18)=0
d11=5 sec
m0(P19)=0
m0(P20)=0
m0(P21)=0

d12=10 sec
m0(P19)=0
m0(P20)=0
d13=TT2(P

36

T13

Transition

POZ(i)/B

OZ(i)) *60
[sec]
i = 1,8

37

P24

Place

38

T14

Transition

39

P25

Place

40

T15

Transition

## Piece POZ(i)/B, processed,

is in the WD of the CP-20UO
POZ(i)/A from the WD of
the CP-20-UO
Piece i/B is found in the DP
of the RV-M1
RV-M1 deposits piece
POZ(i)/B in location POZ(i)
of the TRD
31

m0(P24)=0
d14=5 sec
m0(P25)=0
d15=11 sec

SERIAL
NO.

SYMBOL

TYPE

41

P26

Place

42

T16

Transition

43

P27

Place

44

P28

Place

45

T17

Place

46

P29

Place

47

T18

Transition

48

P30

Place

49

P31

Place

50

P32

Place

MEANING

## Piece POZ(i)/B is found in

the POZ(i) location of the
TD
The TRD places piece
POZ(i)/B to robot AID-V5EN
Piece POZ(i)/B is placed to
robot AID-V5-EN
Robot AID-V5-EN is free
Robot AID-V5-EN
apprehends piece POZ(i)/B
Piece POZ(i)/B is found in
the DP of robot AID-V5-EN
Robot AID-V5-EN deposits
piece POZ(i)
Finished pieces stock
Piece POZ(i) has been
processed and stored.
The locations in which the
un-processed pieces are
found.

51

T19

Transition

## The selection of the

following piece which will
be processed according to
the temporization
associated with the
transition

52

T20

Transition

32

FEATURS

m0(P26)=0

d16=6 sec
m0(P27)=0
m0(P28)=1
d17=5 sec
m0(P29)=0
d18=13 sec
m0(P30)=0
m0(P31)=0
m0(P32)=0
d19 [sec]
(according
to the rates
resulted
from the
Gannt
graphic
theorizing
program)

d20

## In the case of this application the following things will be

observed:
1. The implementation of the model in the Visual Object Net++
environment;
2. The cell performance will be simulated for a manufacturing
instruction of eight pieces for which the rates of the transition
temporizations T3, T13 and T19 are the ones from table 2.2.

## Table 2.2. Temporizations [sec] associated with transitions from the

model of Petri nets of the CFF-2R-2002 cell

Piece

T3

252

150

90

420

270

T13

174

114

150

90

T19

15

15

15

Transition

33

180

462

90

180

120

90

402

21

21

21

21

APPLICATION 4

## 4. MODELING COLORED PETRI NETS USING CPN TOOLS

4. 1. The purpose

## The application presents modeling possibilities of the flexible

manufacturing systems using colored Petri nets. The evaluation of the
performance of flexible manufacturing systems is made using the CPN
Tools modeling and simulation program with colored Petri nets.

4. 2. Theoretical background

## Colored Petri nets are used for modeling systems in which

interfere

issues

synchronization.

related
These

to:

parallelism,

issues

explicitly

resources
define

the

allocation,
flexible

manufacturing systems.
In general, in a Petri net, the information is carried by the places.
The presence of a marking (token) in a place can model, for example, a
free, available machine tool. The absence of the marking means the fact
that the machine tool is engaged.
More markings in a place can represent a stock of identical pieces. If the
diversity, the richness of the information associated with a place from a
PN is expected, a method must be adopted with the help of which
35

## markings found in the same place can be distinguished. This kind of

method is conferred by Colored Petri Nets (CPN).
Model with colored Petri nets
A flexible manufacturing system is taken in consideration, with
two working machines, machine 1 and machine 2. The pieces are
carried through blades: n1 for p1 and n2 for p2. The blades are
reintroduced in the system at the end of the processing of a piece.
Stock
ST
Stoc ST11

p1,p2,p1,p2,....

WM
ML1 1

Stock
ST
Stoc ST2 2

WM2

ML2

PI/ D

L/UP
Fig.4.1. Flexible manufacturing system

## The ordering within the system consists of the alternative

processing of the two types of pieces in the sequence: p1,p2,p1,p2,p1. It is
(it has an insignificant period of time).The colored Petri net which
models the system is presented in figure 4.2.
Colors C1 and C2 are associated with the blades on which the
pieces are found. That is, C1 for the type 1 blade corresponds to piece
p1 - and C2 for the type 2 pallets, which corresponds to piece p2. The
aggregate of colors C1, C2 is associated with all places and transitions.
Notations used:
STi, places which model the stock in front of machine i;
MFi, places which model the fact that machine i is free;
36

## MEi, places which model the fact that machine i is engaged;

Ti, transitions which model the loading of machine i;
Ti`, transitions which model the unloading of machine i;
In all cases i={1,2}.

## Fig. 4.2. Model with colored Petri net

Places ST1, ME1, ST2 and ME2 model the physical states of the
system.

37

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

Places ME1 and ME2 describe the fact that machine 1 and machine
2 are unique resources, each of them, in terms of piece 1, respectively
piece 2, these being split in more pieces.
In the model presented the succession function is also
encountered, defined like this:
Succ (C1) = C2

(4.1)

Succ (C2) = C1

(4.2)

## This determining the ordering of the two types of pieces in the

system in the succession: p1, p2, p1, p2,p1.
The initial marking has two components:

## Mo (ST1) = n1C1 + n2C2

(4.3)

meaning that in the input stock of machine ME1 there are no n1 pieces
and n2 pieces p2. As well as:

Mo (ME1) = Mo (ME2)=C1

(4.4)

the meaning of the relation is the one that each of the two machines are
waiting for a type p1 piece.

CPN Tools soft
38

## Modeling using simple Colored Petri Nets.

Initially, two colors are declared:
colset color=with C1|C2

(4.5)

-colset is the key word from Modeling Language with the help of
which the colors are declared. In the previous line a set of colors is
declared formed of two elements C1 and C2.
The arcs are the elements which connect a transition to a place.
The rate of arcs is defined as being the type of color which is carried:
No. i:color;

(4.6)

## In the design of the model 6 places (AF) and 4 transitions

(T1T4) have been used. Initially, place A will consist of two colors:
1C1++1`C2

(4.7)

## -operator ++ is also used as a concatenation operator between the

two colors and operator ` is used for stating the number of markings
from the respective color.
Places E,F is initiated with C1 (1C1) color.
Places E,F will be alternately loaded by colors C1,C2 due to the
specified conditions on the arcs which enter them.
if i=C1 then 1`C2 else 1`C1

(4.8)

## The meaning of this condition is the following: If number i of the

arc is C1 then the place in which the arc enters is loaded with marking
C2, otherwise C1 is the rate with which the place is loaded.
39

## In the first step of the simulation moment transition T1 is

executed, this being validated because places A and E are loaded with
markings C1. At the execution of transition T1 the C1 color markings
are withdrawn from places A and E and marking C1 is deposited in
place B (Fig. 4.3).

## At the execution of transition T2, marking C1 is withdrawn from

place B and deposited in place C and at the same time in place E
marking C2 will be deposited, due to the conditions specified on the arc
(Fig. 4.4).

40

41

## Modeling a manufacturing system with Complex Colored Petri nets.

The manufacturing system presented above is taken in
consideration. The model of system with Colored Petri nets using
complex colors is the one presented below in figure 4.6. In this model
the notations have the following meaning:

## transition T2 models the unloading of a machine.

Fig. 4.6. FMS model designed with complex colored Petri nets

In the design of the model the basic color (P1, M1) is used, which
defines piece p i (i={1,2}) is processed onto machine m j (j={1,2}). A
42

## marking of color (Pi,Mj) in place A signifies the existence of a type P1

piece in the input stock of machine j. A marking of the same color in
place C signifies the fact that machine j is available and is to process a
type Pi piece.
The initial marking of place A is:
3`(P1,M1)++3`(P2,M1)

(4.9)

## -the meaning of this marking is that in the input stock in front of

machine 1, 3 pieces P1 and 3 pieces P2 are waiting.
The initial marking of place B is:
1`(P1,M1)++1`(P1,M2)

(4.10)

## - machines 1 and 2 are available and are to process a P1 piece.

Conclusions
Colored Petri nets offer remarkable facilities for the evaluation of
the performance of flexible manufacturing systems. This thing is
possible through the introduction of color type markings and of
functions (conditions) as loadings of net arcs. The models designed this
way describe more accurately the real systems and the different stages
in which they can be found. Using complex colors significantly reduces
the design of the model.
The modeling and simulation programs with Petri nets become a
useful tool for the improvement of management activities through the
information that they offer to decisive agents.
Among these programs, CPN Tools is distinguished due to the
diversity of facilities which it offers and to the friendly features,
approachable to the user.
43

APLICATION 5

## 5. THE EVALUATION OF THE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM

PERFORMANCE USING THE TAYLOR ED 2000 PROGRAM

## The paper has as the purpose of modeling and simulation of the

performance of manufacturing systems with different structures, using
the Taylor ED 2000 program.

## The real performance of a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)

implies random entries in the system; the entries generate random
fluctuations in the filling of the processing stations and the appearance
of stay series.
A queueing networks series requires the set-up of an area and/or
the layout of equipments in which the components which are to be
processed are going to be stored. This thing implies a FMS design which
needs to have in mind the set-up of storage area.
In figure 5.1 the processing means within the FMS is presented
which is assimilated with a queue system.
The significant elements are:
45

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

The input flow in the system represents the way or the entry rule
of the components in the system. This rule can be expressed through
the fluctuation of the period of time between the two consecutive
entries or through the fluctuation of the entry rate in the time unit
(for example in an hour).
It will be taken in consideration the fact that the queue systems

are with random entries, meaning that the period of time between the
two consecutive entries or the entry rate on the time unit are random
variables. To a random variable is associated a probability density
(probability function).

## The entry flow is, in most cases, of Poisson type:

f(x) =

x
x!

; x = 0 ,1,2 ,...

where:
x the entry rate in the time unit (random variable);
46

(5.1)

## - the average rate of entries in the time unit.

Queue
The components which enter the system and find the processing
station engaged sit in line the proper queue then as the station
becomes free they can enter for processing.
Another basic feature of the series is its length, which can be
considered infinite or limited to a predetermined size (N).
The discipline of the queue, another of its features. This can be
determined by the priority rule which has been preset in order to
establish the processing sequence of the components in series.

## Working stations (servers)

These are the ones which satisfy the service required by the
customer (the processing piece). In the FMS case, the working stations
are the machine tools, and the service they perform is the processing of
the working objects.
When the processing period is a random variable, to it is
associated a probability density (probability function). In many cases,
the probability density of the service period (processing) is a negative
exponential function of type:
f ( t ) = e t

(5.2)

where:
t service period (random variable);

## - average rate of processed pieces in a time unit (for example in

an hour).
Another feature is the intensity of traffic in the system: = .
47

## The output flow within the system is important in the case of

FMS, because, in most cases, it is itself, an entry flow for other
stay systems.
Starting from this data, the following performance parameters are
generally evaluated:
The average rate of customers from the system noted with N;
The average remaining time of a customer in the system noted
with T.
In this purpose the formula of Little is used [2]:
N =T

(5.3)

or
T=

(5.4)

Application 1

## The manufacturing system from figure 5.2 is taken in

consideration. This consists of:
Supply installation SA;
Transfer system of conveyor Cv1 type, for the transport of semi-

products;
Industrial robot IR;
Working machine WM;

## Transfer system of conveyor Cv2 type, for the transport of

processed pieces;
48

WM
ML
OL

SA
IA

Cv1
RI

IR

Cv2

IE

EI

robot

## The capacity of the conveyors is of 10 semi-products (pieces);

The rotation speed of the robot is of 30 degrees/ second;
each are of 5 seconds;
The processing period on the working machine is of 10 seconds;
Issues to be resolved:
The model of the system described will be designed using the
Taylor ED 2000 program;
The performance of the system will be simulated for a period of 8
hours. In this period of time, 1152 semi-products will arrive in the
system due to the entry flow rate.
The change regarding the state of the working object will be also
modeled, its passing from the semi-product state, before processing,
to the processed piece state, after processing.
49

## The performance parameters of the system components resulted

following the simulation will be highlighted.

## The 2D model of the manufacturing system taken in

consideration is the one from figure 5.3. The channels connecting the
system components have also been highlighted. In figure 5.4 the 3D
model of the same system is presented.

## In order to model the change regarding the state of the working

object following the processing onto the working machine in the

50

## window which describes the specific parameters of the machine

(server) the following will be selected:

## The general results of the simulation are found in the following

report:
summary report

content
name current average

throughput

input output

stay time
average

Source1

0.397

695

694

16.439

Accumulating Co

8.888

694

685

368.858

Robot3

0.670

1370

1369

14.089

Server4

0.238

685

685

10.000

Accumulating Co

0.166

684

684

7.000

Sink6

0.000

684

684

0.000

Product

0.000

0.000

## Model start time

Wednesday, 17:28:35

## Model end time

Thursday, 01:28:35

End of report.

## It is determined that the system could not undertake all 1152

semi-products. Only 685 semi-products have been processed in the
system. 684 finished pieces have been carried off.
51

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

In figures 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8, are presented graphs representing
information regarding the performance of the system elements,
performance highlighted through simulation.
Therefore, the working machine has had a loading degree of 24%
(Fig. 5.5).
From figure 5.6, regarding the industrial robot, the following data
results:
The industrial robot has moved loaded 19% of the respective
time;
The industrial robot has moved without a working object 9% of
the respective time;
The industrial robot has apprehended (has loaded) 24% of the
time;
The industrial robot has unloaded 24% of the time;
The industrial robot was free 24% of the time.
Due to the fact that the entry flow could not be undertaken by the
other system components, conveyor 1 has been blocked (loaded at
maximum capacity) 95% of the time (Fig. 5.7). Regarding the length of
the semi-product series from conveyor 1, this is 90% of the time of 9
pieces (Fig. 5.8).
Performance parameters of the machine

52

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook

Performance parameters of the robot

Conveyor 1

53

## In order to process the entire flow of semi-products which enters

the system a supply of the system modules is submitted.

Application 2.
In the configuration resulted the system consists of two industrial
robots (IR1 and IR2) and two working machines (WM1 and WM2). The
layout of the system is presented in figure 5.9.
WM1

ML 1

OL

SA
IA

Cv1

RIIR
1

Cv2

IE

EI

RIIR
2

OL
ML 22
WM

Fig. 5.9. Manufacturing system with two working machines and two
industrial robots

## The solving of the following issues is aimed:

Modeling the system using the Taylor ED 2000 program;
The change regarding the state of the working object will be
modeled: its passing from the semi-product state, before
processing, to the processed piece state, after processing.
54

## The evaluation of the system performance through the simulation

of its performance in the following periods of time: 8 hours, 16
hours, 72 hours; 1 week.
Taking in consideration the possibility of failure of the working
machines and of the industrial robots;
The 2D model of the manufacturing system is presented in figure
5.10, the channels connecting the system components being also
highlighted. The 3D model is presented in figure 5.11.
55

APPLICATION 6

PROTOTYPE

## 6.1. The purpose

In this work will ma made the analysis of an assemblys
movement in the application Motion Simulation.
6.2. Theoretical notions
The virtual prototype simulation movement is a design tool used in
animation and motion analysis kinematic and dynamic models, to
determine the critical positions, forces, velocities and accelerations.
The virtual prototype simulation of motion is an application
software CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) used to model and analyze
the performance of moving parts in a mechanism located in the virtual
environment. Simulation of the movement is directed towards solving
problems from the rigid body mechanics (eg statics and dynamics).
Motion simulation reproduces a master set (original) previously
modeled and sets it in motion by means of simulations, without altering
the whole master (original). Once the optimal motion simulation,
assembly master can be updated to reflect the new optimal design.
57

## The simulation of the movement of a virtual prototype behavior

may provide a mechanism before its actual implementation. These
predictions are based on advanced math and physics and engineering
principles. Although these mathematical principles, physical and
engineering are currently applied in the software, results should always
be assessed to the puncture of engineering: if the result is expected and
if it is feasible.
The motion simulation can analyze the mechanism by examining
interference, distances traveled, speeds, accelerations, movement and
reactive forces, torsion moments, etc.. Motion simulation analysis results
generally indicate the need for design changes in track geometry
(elongation / shortening elements levers, cams shape modification,
adjustment multiplier reports, etc.), Or material piece (easier, harder,
etc.). Design modifications can then be applied given set of simulation
duplicate and reanalyzed. Once the optimal motion simulation is
determined, design changes can be incorporated into all master.
A mechanism is considered as a collection of kinematic elements
related by kinematic joints and other constraints to make a move.
Simulation of motion can be created by following steps:
- Step 1: Create kinematic elements
Kinematic elements are solid bodies or assemblies of rigid bodies
without relative movement between them. Are defined to represent the
moving parts in the mechanism.
- Step 2: Creating joints and kinematic constraints. Kinematic
couplings constrain movement of kinematic elements. In some cases,
you can create other elements of coercion, such as springs, dampers,
bearings (bushings) or contacts.
58

## - Step 3: Defining actuators (motion driver).

3. The development of the application
1. Open the file named Ansamblu3.prt from the gripping device
link directory. In the Assembly Navigator can be seen all constraints
applied under Constraints node (Fig. 6.1).

## 2. It is started the motion simulation application using Start

Motion Simulation (Fig. 6.2)

59

## 3. Creating a new simulation

In the Motion Navigator areas right clicks on the node
represented by a whole and choose New Simulation (only by the way).
In the Environment window select the type of analysis by option
Dynamics.

60

analysis

## 4. Defining a kinematic element

Creating kinematic elements can be done with the command link
which can be accessed as follows:
-

## The button on the toolbar at Motion, right click on the node

running the simulation of Motion Navigator, then choose
option New Link (Fig. 6.5.a);

## From the developing menu: Insert - Link (Fig. 6.5. b);

From the menu bar by enabling the Link button (Fig. 6.5.c).

(a)

(b)

(c)

## After the command is activated, the window Select Object we

already have an active region (highlighted in red). Select the
component to be defined as a kinematic element. The gripping device,
it is the rod (Fig. 6.6).

61

## 5. Creating kinematic joints

Creating kinematic joints is achieved by activating joint command.
This can be done as follows:
- The button on the toolbar at Motion, right click on the node
running the simulation of Motion Navigator, then choosing New Joint
(Fig. 6.7.a);
- Developong menu: Insert - Joint (Fig. 6.7. b);
- From the menu button by activating joint (Fig. 6.7.c).

62

(a)

(b)

(c)

## Fig. 6.7. Creating a kinematic joint

For the case study, the park's clothing following steps define the
joint rod is slider of cylinder (Fig. 6.8):
1. In the Joint window the kinematic coupling type is selected: Slider
(translational joint)
2. Select the kinematic element rod, activating option Select Link,
Joint window.
3. To specify the orientation and origin, with the active region
Specify Orientation.
4. Select an item based kinematic (Base Link). In this case study, the
kinematic element is Corp_cilindru.
If the kinematic elements are not in proper position
(disassembled), we can assemble the Snap Links ticking box, then
selecting active regions as in the first link.
63

## Fig. 6.8. Defining the kinematic joint

6. Creating a solution:
The Solution button is activated (or run right click and choose
New Solution motion_1 node )

64

## In the Solution window we have to choose Run Normal type

solution and the type of analysis Kinematics / Dynamics.
In the Time field is introduced value 1, and in Steps, 50 (we
consider mechanisms for one second during the 50 intermediate
steps).
Select the box Solve with OK and then activates the OK button to
confirm and to calculate the solution.
The above steps are repeated for all the kinematic and for all
couplings in the Appliance shaped grip.

65

## 6. Animation of the mechanism

The Animation button is activated. Press the Play button in the
Animation window, order to the trigger mechanism. If you want going
through step by step, click Step Forward and Step Backward buttons.

## For a continuous advance motion - Retrace back button is

pressed. Confirm with OK the Animation window.
The file is closed. (File Close All Parts).

66

APPLICATION 7

## 7. FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEMS - THE WASHING MACHINE

7.1. Introduction

## One of the important practical applications of fuzzy logic systems is

their use as process control systems. Using fuzzy logic systems as
controllers enjoy a solid theoretical basis, there are currently many
commercial applications incorporating a fuzzy control system.
When using a washing machine, the user typically selects the time of
washing the clothes depending on the amount and the type and degree
of their dirt. To automate the process of washing, the detection sensors
can be used for the volume of clothes, and the type and degree of dirt.
Based on these data, it will be chosen a washing time.
Unfortunately, we cannot define a precise mathematical relationship
between input quantities (the volume of clothing, type and degree of
dirt) and output size (washing time). Thus, the washing time is set
manually by the user, based on their experience and repeated attempts.
Making a washing machine with a self-determined washing time
involves the construction of two subsystems (Fig. 7.1):
- Sensor system - provides input signals of the washing machine, taken
from the outside (clothes from the machine)
- Control unit - based on information programming from the sensor
67

## system, will decide on the time of washing, as a control output. Because

you cannot formulate a precise mathematical relationship between
input and output control unit will use a fuzzy logic control system.

## Fig. 7.1. The fuzzy washing machine

7.2. Implementing the fuzzy control system
The implementation of control system based on fuzzy sets of the
type of cleaning involves the following steps:
A. Definition of input size into the automatic controller. The input
values are:
1. The Degree of Dirt of clothes: DD
2. Type of Dirt: TD
68

## B. Definition of linguistic terms associated with each input quantity

The linguistic terms associated to the linguistic input variable
Degree of Dirt are:
DD : LTDD = {s ,Md ,L}

(7.1)

## where: s-small: Md- Medium; L- Large.

The linguistic terms associated to the linguistic variable Type of
Dirt are:

(7.2)

## where: NG-Not Greasy, M- Medium, G- Greasy.

C. The determination of membership functions associated with each
linguistic term corresponding to the input quantities
In the case of variable input quantities associated to Degree of
dirt and Type of dirt, to all linguistic terms are corresponding
membership functions of triangular type. (Fig. 7.2.)

69

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems- laboratory handbook

D. Defining the output size of the decisional process. The output size is
the washing time. The linguistic variable is associated with the output
quantity of washing time.
The linguistic terms associated to the output size are:

## WT : LTWT = {Vs ,s ,Md ,L,VL}

(7.3)

where: Tsf-Very Short, TS- Short, TMd- Medium, TL- Long, TFLVery Long.
E. Determination of membership functions associated with each
linguistic term corresponding to the output size
In the case of output variable size associated to Washing time, to
the linguistic terms are corresponding triangular type membership
functions (Fig.7.3).

## F. Setting the method for connecting the various values of membership

functions
The multitude of linguistic variables and linguistic terms, which
were associated membership functions, characterize "vaguely" the
70

## Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems- laboratory handbook

strong values the input sizes, and output sizes respectively. The
connection is made by the MIN-MAX method, resulting 9 inference rules
of the form:
1. If (DD is s) and (TD is NG) then (WT is Vs)
2. If (DD is s) and (TD is Md) then (WT is s)
3. If (DD is s) and (TD is L) then (WT is Md)
4. If (DD is Md) and (TD is NG) then (WT is s)
5. If (DD is Md) and (TD is Md) then (WT is Md)
6. If (DD is Md) and (TD is L) then (WT is L)
7. If (DD is L) and (TD is NG) then (WT is Md)
8. If (DD is L) and (TD is Md) then (WT is L)
9. If (DD is L) and (TD is L) then (WT is VL)
The decisional system implemented in Matlab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox is
presented in figure 7.4.

## The dependence of the variable output of the input variables can

be highlighted also by the means of surface representation of variation
(Fig. 5).
71

## Fig. 7.5. Surface of variation of the Washing time variation in relation to

the degree of soiling and type of soiling

72

## An example of the fuzzy system's functioning for two strong

values of the inputs is shown in Figure 6, in which the rules are put in
evidence the inference rules. Thus, for the degree of soiling = 75 and for
the type of dirt = 90, type of washing = 170 minutes.

## It will be implemented the fuzzy system described in the Fuzzy

Toolbox of Matlab.
It will be determined the type of wash for different values of the
type of dirt and soil.

73

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[1]

## Abrudan, I., Sisteme flexibile de fabricaie. Concepte de proiectare

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[2]

## Adan, I.,Resing, J., Queuing Theory, Department of mathematics

and Computing Science, Eindhoven University of Technology,
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[3]

## Blaga, F., Modelarea cu Reele Petri a sistemelor de fabricaie care

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Blaga, F., Hule, V., Reele Petri colorate. Culori complexe. Funcii
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## industriale, Ed. Tehnic, Bucureti, 1988.

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## [10] Drath, R., Visual Object Net ++ , www.systemtechnik.tuilmenau.de/~drath/.

[11] Ghinea, M., .a., Matlab calcul numeric, grafic, aplicaii, Ed.
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[13] Leia ,T., . a., Sisteme cu evenimente discrete - modelare, analiz i
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folosind prototipul virtual, Ed. Qual Media, Cluj- Napoca, 2010
[16] Sanjay, K. Bose, Introduction to Queues and Queuing Theory, Dept.
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[17] Savii, G., Milenco, L., Modelare i simulare, Ed. Eurostampa,
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Taylor
Program,
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