Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems.
Laboratory handbook
CONTENTS
1. MODELLING SYSTEMS WITH
PLACETRANSITION PETRI NETS ..................................................... 11
2 and 3. MODELLING SYSTEMS
WITH TIMED PETRI NETS ................................................................... 19
4. MODELLING COLORED PETRI NETS USING CPN TOOLS ........... 35
5. THE EVALUATION OF THE MANUFACTURING
SYSTEM PERFORMANCE USING
THE TAYLOR ED 2000 PROGRAM .................................................. 45
6. THE MOVEMENT SIMULATION
OF THE VIRTUAL PROTOTYPE ......................................................... 57
7. FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEMS  THE WASHING MACHINE ............ 67
BIBLIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................... 75
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
APPLICATION 1
1. MODELING SYSTEMS WITH PLACETRANSITION PETRI
NETS
1.1. The purpose
The application has the purpose of presenting the fundamental
notions related to the construction of models with Petri nets of PlaceTransition (PT) type.
1.2. Theoretical background
Definition
A Petri Net (PN) is a graphic model belonging the oriented graphs
type [8, 9], which uses two categories of pivotal points:
Places which model the conditions which are imposed for the
performance of a certain event (represented by circles);
Transitions which model the events which develop if certain
conditions are fulfilled (represented by horizontal lines or by
rectangles).
The places and transitions are connected through arcs. The arcs
are oriented, connecting a place to a transition or a transition to a place.
In figure 1.1. a PN is presented which consists of 7 places, 6
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
transitions and 15 oriented arcs.
Notations:
places are noted with Pi , i= 1, I;
transitions are noted with Tj , j= 1, J;
the aggregate of places of a PN is noted with P;
the aggregate of transitions of a PN is noted with T;
For the example from figure 1.1 the aggregate of places is P = {
P1, P2, P3, P4, P5, P6, P7 } and the aggregate of transitions is T= { T1, T2, T3,
T4, T5, T6 }.
P1
P1
T1
T1
P3
T3
P2
T2
P3
T6
P5
T3
P4
P2
T2
T6
P5
T4
P4
T4
P6
P6
T5
T5
P7
P7
(a)
(b)
Fig. 1.1. Petri Net: a) unmarked; b) marked
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Regarding figure 1.1, it is stated that place P3 is an upstream or an
input place for transition T3 (the arc is oriented from P3 to T3). Place P5
is a downstream or an output place for transition T3. A transition
without input place is a source transition (generator). A transition
without an output place is a closed transition.
The marking
Another category used in the study of PN is the marking. Each
place contains a whole number (positive or null) of symbols (points)
which are called markings or tokens [9]. In figure 2.1.a is represented a
marked PN, and in figure 2.1.b an unmarked PN.
To each place, function of existence / inexistence of the point (of
the symbol in general), can be associated a marking. The marking of a
place Pi is noted with M(Pi) or mi. The proper markings for the places of
the net from figure 2.1.b. are: m2 = m4 = m5 = m7 = 0, m1 = m3 = 1, m6 =
2.The marking of the net is noted with M. For a PN with n places, this is
defined through vector M = (m1, m2, ..., mi, ..., mI). The marking of the net
from figure 2.1.b. is M = (1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 2, 0).
Note:
If m i {0,1}, i = 1, n , PN is part of the binary Petri nets category [8].
The marking defines, at a certain point, the state of the system
modeled with the help of the PN.
The firing of a transition
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Regarding transitions, a transition is executable only when each
place from upstream contains at least a marking. In this case it can be
stated that the transition is executable or validated.
A source transition is always validated.
3. The development of the paper
Application 1
The Petri net from figure 1.2. is taken in consideration, the
sequences of transitions {T1, T3} and {T2, T4} are found in the situation
of mutual exclusion, meaning that at a certain point one of the
sequences or the other will be executed.
The net must be modified so as sequence {T1, T3} should be
executed three times before sequence {T2, T4} is to be fired.
The net must be designed in the Visula Object Net++ environment.
P1
P4
P2
T1
T2
T5
P3
T6
P4
T3
T4
P6
P5
Fig. 1.2. Petri net with sequences of transitions with
mutual exclusion [12]
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Application 2
(a) The Petri nets from figure 1.3 are taken in consideration.
Which are the executable transitions as well as the markings
which result after their execution?
The nets must be designed in the Visula Object Net++
environment.
P1
P2
T1
P6
P5
P8
T3
T2
P3
P7
P4
P9
Fig.1.3. Examples of Petri nets
(b) The net from figure 1.4 is taken in consideration. Arc P2T4 is an
inhibitor arc.
Which is the available markings graph ?
P1
T1
P2
T4
T3
T2
P3
Fig.1.4. Petri net with inhibitor arc
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Application 3
In the manufacturing system from figure 1.5 two types of pieces
are processed: p1 and p2.
Input pieces
pieces
Machine 1
Machine 2
Stock 1
Exit
Stock 2
Fig. 1.5. Manufacturing system
The pieces arrive in stock 1, are processed onto machine 1, enter
stock 2 and are then processed onto machine M2. After finishing the
processing onto machine 2, the pieces leave the system. Each machine
processes, at a certain moment, one piece. The entry order of the pieces
in the system is random, but the processing onto the two machines is
done respecting the alternation: p1, p2, p1, p2, p1,.
The model of the manufacturing system, designed with Petri nets,
is presented in figure 1.6. The meanings of the places and transitions
are given on the figure. Two types of components of the model can be
identified: the component which models the processing of the type p1
pieces and the component which models the processing of the type p2
pieces. The entry of the pieces in the system is modeled through the
source transitions T1 (type p1 pieces) and T6 (type p2 pieces).
The alternative processing of the two types of pieces onto
machine 2 is modeled with the help of places P5 and P6. Therefore, the
presence of a marking in place P5 and in place P1 validates transition T2
(the loading of machine 1 with a type p1 piece). In the same way the
presence of a marking in place P9 and in place P6 models the fulfillment
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
of the loading conditions of machine 1 with a type p2 piece.
In the machine 2 case, places P7 and P8 allow the modeling of the
alternative processing of two types of pieces.
The marking from figure 1.6: M(P5)=M(P7)=1, models the
processing conditions of the first piece of type p1 onto machine 1 as
well as onto machine 2.The model described will be implemented on
the Visual Object Net++ program.
Prelucrarea
pieselor
tip p 1
Processing
type pde
1pieces
EntryIntrare
p1 p1
1 in 1
p1 in pstock
T1
P1
stocul 1
Loading p1
Incarcare p 1
onto
pe
masina
machine
1 1
Prelucrarea
pieselor
de pieces
tip p 2
Processing
type p
T6
P5
P6
P9
T2
T7
p1 onp1 pe
masina
machine
11
P2
P 10
Descarcare
p1
Unloading p1
de
pe
masina
off machine 11
T3
1 in 1
p1 in pstock
P3
p1 onp1 pe
masina
machine
12
Evacuation
Evacuare p 1
p1
p 2 in
in stock 1
p2
stocul 1
Loading p2
Incarcare p 2
onto
pe masina 1
machine 1
p 2 pe
p2 on
masina 1
machine 1
stocul 2
Loading p1
onto
Incarcare p 1
machine
22
pe masina
Intrare
p2
Entry p2
T8
Descarcare p 2
Unloading
de pe masina 1
p2 off
machine 1
P7
P8
P 11
T4
T9
P4
P 12
p 2 in
stocul
p2 in 2stock 1
Loading
Incarcarep2
p2
onto
pe masina 2
machine 2
p 2 pe
masina
p2 on 2
machine 2
T5
T10
Evacuare p 2
Evacuation
p2
Fig. 1.6. Model with PN of the manufacturing system from figure 1.5
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
The following things will be observed:
Determining the correlations between the model components and
the elements and from the real system which they model;
Determining the initial conditions modeled through the initial
marking, which is to respect the processing order of the two types of
pieces;
Respecting the alternation of the two types of pieces during the
processing of a stock of 10 pieces of type 1, respectively 10 pieces of
type 2.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
APPLICATIONS 2 AND 3
2. MODELING SYSTEMS WITH TIMED PETRI NETS
2.1. The purpose
The paper aims to highlight the modeling possibilities of the
systems (manufacturing systems) with timed Petri nets. Moreover, the
performance of the modeled systems through simulation will be
evaluated.
2. 2. Theoretical background
A timed Petri net allows the description of a system whose
performance depends on time. This Petri net category is used for
evaluating the performance of a system.
There are two possibilities to model a temporization:
temporizations associated with places Ptimed PN;
temporizations associated with transitions Ttimed PN.
P timed Petri nets
A Ptimed Petri net is a doublet of type <R, Tempo>, [9], where:
R is a marked PN;
Tempo is an application on the aggregate P of places in the
aggregate of positive rational or null numbers, so as:
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Tempo (Pi) = di
(2.1)
where di is the temporization associated with place Pi.
The performance principle
If a marking is deposited in a Pi place, this marking will remain in
the Pi place during di, the marking being unavailable at this time. After
di has elapsed, the marking becomes available.
During t, the M marking is the sum of two types of markings:
Ma the available marking;
Mu  the unavailable marking.
Therefore:
M= Ma + Mu
(2.2)
A transition is validated for the M marking, if it is validated for the
Ma marking.
If a marking is deposited in a Pi place, following a transition
executed during t, then this marking is unavailable during (t, t+ di).
Ttimed Petri nets
A Ttimed Petri net is a doublet of type <R, Tempo> [9], where:
R is a marked Petri net;
Tempo is an application of the aggregate of T transitions in the
aggregate of rational or null numbers, defined by the relation:
Tempo (Tj) = dj
where dj is the temporization associated with transition Tj.
20
(2.3)
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
In case of Ttimed PN, a marking may be in one of the following
stages:
reserved for the execution of transition Tj;
nonreserved.
In a random moment t, where marking M of the net is:
M= Mr + Mnr
where Mr is the reserved marking and Mnr is the nonreserved marking.
A transition is validated for marking M, if it is validated for
marking Mnr.
If t is the moment in which the firing of transition Tj i t + dj is
decided, the moment in which the transition has been actually
performed is considered to be:
t the beginning of the transition;
t+ dj the end of the transition.
For Ttimed PN, two ways of performance can be defined:
1. Performance at high speed once a transition is validated; the
necessary markings for its execution are reserved.
2. Performance at its own speed a marking deposited in a place
becomes reserved for the execution of a transition in downstream, after
a period of time which is different from zero.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
3. The development of the application
Two manufacturing systems will be taken in consideration
which will be modeled with Ttimed Petri nets and whose performance
parameters will be analyzed through simulation.
Application 1
A manufacturing system is taken in consideration consisting of the
working machines M1 and M2. The machines are served onto two
blades, each of them carrying a piece. The pieces gradually pass to
machines M1 and M2 (Fig. 2.1).
Machine M1 can process, at a certain moment, one piece and the
working period is TP1 = 20 [time units]. Machine M2 can process
simultaneously two pieces and the working period for a piece is TP2 =
30 [time units]. The loading, unloading on/off the blades of the semiproducts/ processed pieces is done in a loading/unloading point L/UP.
The modeling of the system with the help of a Ttimed PN will
have to take in consideration the following aspects:
The processing of the pieces on each of the two machines will be
modeled with the help of transitions to which temporizations will
be associated matching the respective processing time units.
Stock 1
Stoc 1
M1
Stock 2
M1
Stoc 2
TP 1time
= 20 units
unit. timp
TP1=20
M2
M2
TP 2 = 30time
unit. units
timp
TP2=30
PI / D
L/UP
Fig.2.1. Manufacturing system
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
The relative condition to machine 1 processing one piece at a
given moment will be modeled with the help of counter
places, P4.
Machine M2 processing two pieces simultaneously, it results the
fact that in Stock 2 there will never be pieces, therefore it isnt
necessary to associate a place with it.
The transport, loading, etc. time units are set aside.
The model of the system with the Ttimed Petri nets is presented
in figure 2.2.
P1 (STOCK
(STOC 1) 1)
T1
Incarcare M1)
M1)
T1( (Loading
P2
d2 = 20
(Unprocessed
(Piesa
neprelucrata
piece
pe
M1) on M1)
T2 (Processing on
M1)
T2 (Prelucrare pe M1)
P4
P3
(Piesa
prelucrata
(Processed
piece
pe
M1)
on M1)
T3
T3(Descarcare
(UnloadingM1;
M1;
incarcare
loading
M2)M2)
P5
d3 = 30
P6
(Limitarea
Limiting
incarcarii
the M1
M1)
loading)
(Piesa
neprelucrata
(Unprocessed
piece on M2)
pe M2)
T4T4
( Prelucrare
pe M2)
(Processing
on M2)
(Piesa prelucrata
(Processed
piece on M2)
pe M2)
T5 (Unloading M2;
T5 ( Descarcare M2;
evacuation, introduction)
evacuare; introducere)
Fig. 2.2. Ttimed Petri net
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
In the case of this application the following things will be
observed:
1. The implementation of the model in the Visual Object Net++
environment;
2. The evolution diagrams of the number of markings from the
input places in the timed transitions will be highlighted.
Application 2 Modeling with Ttime Petri nets of the flexible
manufacturing cell CFF2R2002
The flexible manufacturing cell CFF2R2002 has been designed
within the Faculty of Electronics hand in hand with the Faculty of
Management and Technological Engineering from the University of
Oradea.
Taking in consideration the cell as a complex system, the
subsystems which comprise it can be identified. These are:
1. Instruction subsystem;
2. L manipulation subsystem;
3. Processing subsystem;
4. Transfer subsystem;
5. Manipulation system II;
6. Storage subsystem.
In figure 2.3 is presented the layout of the flexible manufacturing
cell, the main components of each subsystem being highlighted.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
CP20UO
(3.1)
DL
(3.1)
SUBSISTEM DE
MANIPULATION
MANIPULARE
I
SUBSISTEM
PROCESSING
DE
SUBSYSTEM
PRELUCRARE
CNC600
(3.2)
SUBSISTEM DE
INSTRUCTION
COMANDA
SUBSYSTEM
(CONTROLER
(CONTROLLER
CELL)
CELULA)
PC
(3.4 )
SUBSYSTEM I
3
1
CP
(2.3 )
RVM1
(2.1)
2
EC
(2.2 )
SUBSISTEM
TRANSFER
DE
SUBSYSTEM
TRANSFER
AIDV5EN
(5.1)
SUBSISTEM
STORAGE
DE
SUBSYSTEM
DEPOZITARE
EC
(4.2 )
7
4
5
PC
(4.3 )
DTR
(4.1)
CNC
(4.2 )
SUBSISTEM DE
MANIPULATION
MANIPULARE
II
PC
(4.3 )
SUBSYSTEM II
Fig.2.3. The layout of the CFF2R2002 flexible manufacturing cell.
The instruction subsystem (1) is materialized by a PC computer
called Cell Controller (CC). This indirectly accesses, through the
interface
computers,
the
instruction
equipment
of
the
manufacturing cell components (robot RVM1, processing center,
transfer device, robot AIDV5EN) [7].
The manipulation subsystem I (2) has as component the industrial
robot RVM1 (MITSUBISHI) (ii.1) with five mobility degrees, of RRRRR
structure. The role of this robot within the CFF2R2002 is to ensure the
processing of a semiproduct off the transfer device (TRD) and its
placing in the working device of the processing center CP20UO.
Moreover, after finishing the processing, robot RVM1 unloads the piece
from the working device of the processing center and it deposits it in
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
the proper location from the transfer device TRD. The connection of the
robots controller (2.2) to the LAN net is performed through the PC
computer (2.3).
The processing subsystem consists of the processing center CP20
UO (3.1), served by a type CNC600 equipment (3.2) which is connected
to the cell controller with the help of a (PC) computer (3.4). The
processing center carries a tool shop whose capacity is of 20 pieces. On
the table of the machine the working device WD (3.3) is situated, on
which the semiproduct is oriented and fixed during the processing.
The transfer subsystem (4) has as component a rotary table
(Transfer device TRD4.4) on which there are eight positions in which
the semiproducts, respectively the processed pieces are placed. The
transfer device has an indexed rotary flow (righthanded) with the
possibility of placing a certain position to robot RVM1 for the
loading/unloading of a semiproduct/piece in/from the working device
of the processing center. As well as in the case of the other components,
the connection of the instruction equipment of the transfer device to
the cell controller is done through a personal computer (4.3) connected
to the instruction equipment (4.2) of the rotary table.
The manipulation subsystem II (v) has the following functions: the
withdrawal of the semiproducts from the shelf type of stock in
Cartesian coordinates, the reversing of the semiproducts situated on
the transfer device for the processing of the second face, the deposition
of the processed pieces in the stock.
As component of this subsystem is the type AIDV5EN robot in 6 axes
(5.1), the instruction equipment of type CNC (Computer Numerical
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Control) robot (5.2) and the PC computer (5.3) which ensures the
interface with the cell controller.
The deposition subsystem (6) consists of a high shelf type of
stock, in Cartesian coordinates, structured on four lines and eight
columns. This structure determines the existence of 32 cells in which
the semiproducts and processed pieces can be deposited.
Modeling with Petri nets of the flexible manufacturing cell
The model with Petri nets of the flexible manufacturing cell
highlights the performance means of its components having in mind the
interactions which appear in the dynamics of the sequence course,
during the manufacturing process.
In figure 2.4 are present the pieces that will be manufacturing in cell.
A
Piece 1
A
Piece 5
Piece 2
A
Piece 6
B
Piece 7
Piece 3
A
Piece 8
Piece 4
Fig. 2.4. The pieces that will be manufacturing
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
In the performance of the cell five groups of sequences can be
identified (Fig.2.5).
Processing of face A of each i piece, i = 1,8 ;
Reversing piece i;
Processing face B of each i piece;
Evacuation of piece i;
Selecting a piece for processing.
Fig. 2.5. Model with Petri net of the CFF2R2002 flexible manufacturing
cell
Each place of the net models a condition which can be fulfilled or
not at a given moment. The transitions which model actions, events,
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
can be executed when the conditions, modeled through places, are
fulfilled. The meanings of places, respectively of transitions are
presented in table 2.1.
The model allows the describing of the performance of the flexible
manufacturing cell on the condition of processing a number of eight
pieces, this being the capacity of the transfer device TRD.
Table 21. The meanings of the pivotal points of the Petri net which
models CFF2R2002
SERIAL
SYMBOL
TYPE
P1
Place
P2
Place
T1
Transition
P3
Place
P4
Place
P5
Place
T2
Transition
P6
Place
P7
Place
NO.
MEANING
RVM1 is free
Piece POZ(i)/A is placed to
robot RVM1 for loading on
CP20UO
RVM1 apprehends piece
POZ(i)/A
Piece POZ(i)/A is found in
the prehensile device of the
RVM1 robot
Location POZ(i) in front of
robot RVM1 is free
The WD of CP20UO is free
Piece POZ(i)/A is loaded on
the WD of CP20UO
Piece POZ(i)/A is fixed on
the WD of CP20UO
The DP of the RVM1 robot
is free
FEATURS
m0(P1)=1
m0(P2)=0
d2=5 sec
m0(P3)=0
m0(P4)=0
m0(P5)=1
d2=10 sec
m0(P6)=0
m0(P7)=0
d3=TT1(P
10
T3
Transition
CP20UO processes piece
POZ(i)/A
OZ(i))*60
[sec]
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
SERIAL
NO.
SYMBOL
TYPE
MEANING
FEATURS
i = 1,8
11
P8
Place
12
T4
Transition
13
P9
Place
14
T5
Transition
15
P10
Place
16
T6
Transition
17
P11
Place
18
P12
Place
20
T7
Transition
21
P13
Place
22
P14
Place
23
T8
Transition
24
P15
Place
25
T9
Transition
26
P16
Place
27
T10
Transition
The processed piece is in
the WD of CP20UO
RVM1 unloads piece
POZ(i)/A from the WD of
CP20UO
Piece i/A is found on the DP
of RVM1
RVM1 deposits piece
POZ(i)/A in the location I of
the TRD
Piece POZ(i)/A is found in
location I of the TRD
The TRD places piece
POZ(i)/A to robot AIDV5EN
Piece POZ(i)/A is placed to
robot AIDV5EN
Robot AIDV5EN is free
Robot AIDV5EN
apprehends piece POZ(i)/A
Piece POZ(i)/A is found in
DP of robot AIDV5EN
Location POZ(i) from the
TRD is free
Robot AIDV5EN reverses
piece POZ(i) ( piece
POZ(i)/A piece
POZ(i)/B)
Piece POZ(i)/B is found in
the DP of robot AIDV5EN
Piece POZ(i)/B is deposited
in location i of the TRD
Piece POZ(i)/B is in location
i of the TRD
TRD places piece POZ(i)/B
on RVM1
30
m0(P8)=0
d4=5 sec
m0(P9)=0
d5=11 sec
m0(P10)=0
d6=6 sec
m0(P11)=0
m0(P12)=1
d7=5 sec
m0(P13)=0
m0(P14)=0
d8=13 sec
m0(P15)=0
d9=5 sec
m0(P16)=0
d10=18 sec
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
SERIAL
SYMBOL
TYPE
28
P17
Place
29
P18
Place
30
T11
Transition
31
P19
Place
32
P20
Place
Piece POZ(i)/B is found in
the prehensile device of
robot RVM1
32
P21
Place
Location POZ(i) in front of
the robot RVM1 is free
33
T12
Transition
34
P22
Place
35
P23
Place
Piece i/B is loaded in the
WD of the CP20UO
Piece POZ(i)/A is fixed in
the WD of al CP20UO
The DP of robot RVM1 is
free
NO.
MEANING
RVM1 is free
Piece POZ(i)/B is placed to
robot RVM1 for loading on
CP20UO
RVM1 apprehends piece
POZ(i)/B
The WD of CP20UO is free
FEATURS
m0(P17)=0
m0(P18)=0
d11=5 sec
m0(P19)=0
m0(P20)=0
m0(P21)=0
d12=10 sec
m0(P19)=0
m0(P20)=0
d13=TT2(P
36
T13
Transition
CP20UO processes piece
POZ(i)/B
OZ(i)) *60
[sec]
i = 1,8
37
P24
Place
38
T14
Transition
39
P25
Place
40
T15
Transition
Piece POZ(i)/B, processed,
is in the WD of the CP20UO
RVM1 unloads piece
POZ(i)/A from the WD of
the CP20UO
Piece i/B is found in the DP
of the RVM1
RVM1 deposits piece
POZ(i)/B in location POZ(i)
of the TRD
31
m0(P24)=0
d14=5 sec
m0(P25)=0
d15=11 sec
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
SERIAL
NO.
SYMBOL
TYPE
41
P26
Place
42
T16
Transition
43
P27
Place
44
P28
Place
45
T17
Place
46
P29
Place
47
T18
Transition
48
P30
Place
49
P31
Place
50
P32
Place
MEANING
Piece POZ(i)/B is found in
the POZ(i) location of the
TD
The TRD places piece
POZ(i)/B to robot AIDV5EN
Piece POZ(i)/B is placed to
robot AIDV5EN
Robot AIDV5EN is free
Robot AIDV5EN
apprehends piece POZ(i)/B
Piece POZ(i)/B is found in
the DP of robot AIDV5EN
Robot AIDV5EN deposits
piece POZ(i)
Finished pieces stock
Piece POZ(i) has been
processed and stored.
The locations in which the
unprocessed pieces are
found.
51
T19
Transition
The selection of the
following piece which will
be processed according to
the temporization
associated with the
transition
52
T20
Transition
Reinitializing the net
32
FEATURS
m0(P26)=0
d16=6 sec
m0(P27)=0
m0(P28)=1
d17=5 sec
m0(P29)=0
d18=13 sec
m0(P30)=0
m0(P31)=0
m0(P32)=0
d19 [sec]
(according
to the rates
resulted
from the
Gannt
graphic
theorizing
program)
d20
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
In the case of this application the following things will be
observed:
1. The implementation of the model in the Visual Object Net++
environment;
2. The cell performance will be simulated for a manufacturing
instruction of eight pieces for which the rates of the transition
temporizations T3, T13 and T19 are the ones from table 2.2.
Table 2.2. Temporizations [sec] associated with transitions from the
model of Petri nets of the CFF2R2002 cell
Piece
T3
252
150
90
420
270
T13
174
114
150
90
T19
15
15
15
Transition
33
180
462
90
180
120
90
402
21
21
21
21
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
APPLICATION 4
4. MODELING COLORED PETRI NETS USING CPN TOOLS
4. 1. The purpose
The application presents modeling possibilities of the flexible
manufacturing systems using colored Petri nets. The evaluation of the
performance of flexible manufacturing systems is made using the CPN
Tools modeling and simulation program with colored Petri nets.
4. 2. Theoretical background
Colored Petri nets are used for modeling systems in which
interfere
issues
synchronization.
related
These
to:
parallelism,
issues
explicitly
resources
define
the
allocation,
flexible
manufacturing systems.
In general, in a Petri net, the information is carried by the places.
The presence of a marking (token) in a place can model, for example, a
free, available machine tool. The absence of the marking means the fact
that the machine tool is engaged.
More markings in a place can represent a stock of identical pieces. If the
diversity, the richness of the information associated with a place from a
PN is expected, a method must be adopted with the help of which
35
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
markings found in the same place can be distinguished. This kind of
method is conferred by Colored Petri Nets (CPN).
Model with colored Petri nets
A flexible manufacturing system is taken in consideration, with
two working machines, machine 1 and machine 2. The pieces are
carried through blades: n1 for p1 and n2 for p2. The blades are
reintroduced in the system at the end of the processing of a piece.
Stock
ST
Stoc ST11
p1,p2,p1,p2,....
WM
ML1 1
Stock
ST
Stoc ST2 2
WM2
ML2
PI/ D
L/UP
Fig.4.1. Flexible manufacturing system
The ordering within the system consists of the alternative
processing of the two types of pieces in the sequence: p1,p2,p1,p2,p1. It is
implied that the loading/unloading of the blades is made immediately
(it has an insignificant period of time).The colored Petri net which
models the system is presented in figure 4.2.
Colors C1 and C2 are associated with the blades on which the
pieces are found. That is, C1 for the type 1 blade corresponds to piece
p1  and C2 for the type 2 pallets, which corresponds to piece p2. The
aggregate of colors C1, C2 is associated with all places and transitions.
Notations used:
STi, places which model the stock in front of machine i;
MFi, places which model the fact that machine i is free;
36
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
MEi, places which model the fact that machine i is engaged;
Ti, transitions which model the loading of machine i;
Ti`, transitions which model the unloading of machine i;
In all cases i={1,2}.
Fig. 4.2. Model with colored Petri net
Places ST1, ME1, ST2 and ME2 model the physical states of the
system.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Places ME1 and ME2 describe the fact that machine 1 and machine
2 are unique resources, each of them, in terms of piece 1, respectively
piece 2, these being split in more pieces.
In the model presented the succession function is also
encountered, defined like this:
Succ (C1) = C2
(4.1)
Succ (C2) = C1
(4.2)
This determining the ordering of the two types of pieces in the
system in the succession: p1, p2, p1, p2,p1.
The initial marking has two components:
Mo (ST1) = n1C1 + n2C2
(4.3)
meaning that in the input stock of machine ME1 there are no n1 pieces
and n2 pieces p2. As well as:
Mo (ME1) = Mo (ME2)=C1
(4.4)
the meaning of the relation is the one that each of the two machines are
waiting for a type p1 piece.
4.3. The development of the application
This application presented at point 2, is implemented using the
CPN Tools soft
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Modeling using simple Colored Petri Nets.
Initially, two colors are declared:
colset color=with C1C2
(4.5)
colset is the key word from Modeling Language with the help of
which the colors are declared. In the previous line a set of colors is
declared formed of two elements C1 and C2.
The arcs are the elements which connect a transition to a place.
The rate of arcs is defined as being the type of color which is carried:
No. i:color;
(4.6)
In the design of the model 6 places (AF) and 4 transitions
(T1T4) have been used. Initially, place A will consist of two colors:
1C1++1`C2
(4.7)
operator ++ is also used as a concatenation operator between the
two colors and operator ` is used for stating the number of markings
from the respective color.
Places E,F is initiated with C1 (1C1) color.
Places E,F will be alternately loaded by colors C1,C2 due to the
specified conditions on the arcs which enter them.
if i=C1 then 1`C2 else 1`C1
(4.8)
The meaning of this condition is the following: If number i of the
arc is C1 then the place in which the arc enters is loaded with marking
C2, otherwise C1 is the rate with which the place is loaded.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
In the first step of the simulation moment transition T1 is
executed, this being validated because places A and E are loaded with
markings C1. At the execution of transition T1 the C1 color markings
are withdrawn from places A and E and marking C1 is deposited in
place B (Fig. 4.3).
Fig. 4.3 FMS model designed in CPN Tools Initialization stage
At the execution of transition T2, marking C1 is withdrawn from
place B and deposited in place C and at the same time in place E
marking C2 will be deposited, due to the conditions specified on the arc
(Fig. 4.4).
40
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Fig. 4.4.FMS model designed in CPN Tools T2 transition execution
The resulted marking is presented in figure 4.5.
Fig. 4.5. FMS model designed in CPN Tools T3 transition execution
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Modeling a manufacturing system with Complex Colored Petri nets.
The manufacturing system presented above is taken in
consideration. The model of system with Colored Petri nets using
complex colors is the one presented below in figure 4.6. In this model
the notations have the following meaning:
place A models the stock in front of each machine;
place B models an engaged machine;
place C models a free machine;
transition T1 models the loading of a machine;
transition T2 models the unloading of a machine.
Fig. 4.6. FMS model designed with complex colored Petri nets
In the design of the model the basic color (P1, M1) is used, which
defines piece p i (i={1,2}) is processed onto machine m j (j={1,2}). A
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
marking of color (Pi,Mj) in place A signifies the existence of a type P1
piece in the input stock of machine j. A marking of the same color in
place C signifies the fact that machine j is available and is to process a
type Pi piece.
The initial marking of place A is:
3`(P1,M1)++3`(P2,M1)
(4.9)
the meaning of this marking is that in the input stock in front of
machine 1, 3 pieces P1 and 3 pieces P2 are waiting.
The initial marking of place B is:
1`(P1,M1)++1`(P1,M2)
(4.10)
 machines 1 and 2 are available and are to process a P1 piece.
Conclusions
Colored Petri nets offer remarkable facilities for the evaluation of
the performance of flexible manufacturing systems. This thing is
possible through the introduction of color type markings and of
functions (conditions) as loadings of net arcs. The models designed this
way describe more accurately the real systems and the different stages
in which they can be found. Using complex colors significantly reduces
the design of the model.
The modeling and simulation programs with Petri nets become a
useful tool for the improvement of management activities through the
information that they offer to decisive agents.
Among these programs, CPN Tools is distinguished due to the
diversity of facilities which it offers and to the friendly features,
approachable to the user.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
APLICATION 5
5. THE EVALUATION OF THE MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
PERFORMANCE USING THE TAYLOR ED 2000 PROGRAM
5.1. The purpose
The paper has as the purpose of modeling and simulation of the
performance of manufacturing systems with different structures, using
the Taylor ED 2000 program.
5.2. Theoretical background
The real performance of a Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS)
implies random entries in the system; the entries generate random
fluctuations in the filling of the processing stations and the appearance
of stay series.
A queueing networks series requires the setup of an area and/or
the layout of equipments in which the components which are to be
processed are going to be stored. This thing implies a FMS design which
needs to have in mind the setup of storage area.
In figure 5.1 the processing means within the FMS is presented
which is assimilated with a queue system.
The significant elements are:
45
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
The input flow in the system represents the way or the entry rule
of the components in the system. This rule can be expressed through
the fluctuation of the period of time between the two consecutive
entries or through the fluctuation of the entry rate in the time unit
(for example in an hour).
It will be taken in consideration the fact that the queue systems
are with random entries, meaning that the period of time between the
two consecutive entries or the entry rate on the time unit are random
variables. To a random variable is associated a probability density
(probability function).
Fig. 5.1. FMS assimilated with a queueing system
The entry flow is, in most cases, of Poisson type:
f(x) =
x
x!
; x = 0 ,1,2 ,...
where:
x the entry rate in the time unit (random variable);
46
(5.1)
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
 the average rate of entries in the time unit.
Queue
The components which enter the system and find the processing
station engaged sit in line the proper queue then as the station
becomes free they can enter for processing.
Another basic feature of the series is its length, which can be
considered infinite or limited to a predetermined size (N).
The discipline of the queue, another of its features. This can be
determined by the priority rule which has been preset in order to
establish the processing sequence of the components in series.
Working stations (servers)
These are the ones which satisfy the service required by the
customer (the processing piece). In the FMS case, the working stations
are the machine tools, and the service they perform is the processing of
the working objects.
When the processing period is a random variable, to it is
associated a probability density (probability function). In many cases,
the probability density of the service period (processing) is a negative
exponential function of type:
f ( t ) = e t
(5.2)
where:
t service period (random variable);
 average rate of processed pieces in a time unit (for example in
an hour).
Another feature is the intensity of traffic in the system: = .
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
The output flow within the system is important in the case of
FMS, because, in most cases, it is itself, an entry flow for other
stay systems.
Starting from this data, the following performance parameters are
generally evaluated:
The average rate of customers from the system noted with N;
The average remaining time of a customer in the system noted
with T.
In this purpose the formula of Little is used [2]:
N =T
(5.3)
or
T=
(5.4)
5.3. The development of the application
Application 1
The manufacturing system from figure 5.2 is taken in
consideration. This consists of:
Supply installation SA;
Transfer system of conveyor Cv1 type, for the transport of semi
products;
Industrial robot IR;
Working machine WM;
Transfer system of conveyor Cv2 type, for the transport of
processed pieces;
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Evacuation installation EI.
The main functional features of the system are the following:
The period of time between two consecutive entries is 25 seconds;
WM
ML
OL
SA
IA
Cv1
RI
IR
Cv2
IE
EI
Fig. 5.2. Manufacturing system with a working machine and an industrial
robot
The capacity of the conveyors is of 10 semiproducts (pieces);
The rotation speed of the robot is of 30 degrees/ second;
The loading/unloading time units proper to the industrial robot,
each are of 5 seconds;
The processing period on the working machine is of 10 seconds;
Issues to be resolved:
The model of the system described will be designed using the
Taylor ED 2000 program;
The performance of the system will be simulated for a period of 8
hours. In this period of time, 1152 semiproducts will arrive in the
system due to the entry flow rate.
The change regarding the state of the working object will be also
modeled, its passing from the semiproduct state, before processing,
to the processed piece state, after processing.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
The performance parameters of the system components resulted
following the simulation will be highlighted.
Fig. 5.3. 2D model of the system from figure 5.2
The 2D model of the manufacturing system taken in
consideration is the one from figure 5.3. The channels connecting the
system components have also been highlighted. In figure 5.4 the 3D
model of the same system is presented.
Fig. 5.4. 3D model of the system from figure 4.2
In order to model the change regarding the state of the working
object following the processing onto the working machine in the
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
window which describes the specific parameters of the machine
(server) the following will be selected:
Trigger on exit: set(color(i),coloryellow)
The general results of the simulation are found in the following
report:
summary report
content
name current average
throughput
input output
stay time
average
Source1
0.397
695
694
16.439
Accumulating Co
8.888
694
685
368.858
Robot3
0.670
1370
1369
14.089
Server4
0.238
685
685
10.000
Accumulating Co
0.166
684
684
7.000
Sink6
0.000
684
684
0.000
Product
0.000
0.000
Model start time
Wednesday, 17:28:35
Model end time
Thursday, 01:28:35
Runlength (seconds) 28800.00
End of report.
It is determined that the system could not undertake all 1152
semiproducts. Only 685 semiproducts have been processed in the
system. 684 finished pieces have been carried off.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
In figures 5.5, 5.6, 5.7 and 5.8, are presented graphs representing
information regarding the performance of the system elements,
performance highlighted through simulation.
Therefore, the working machine has had a loading degree of 24%
(Fig. 5.5).
From figure 5.6, regarding the industrial robot, the following data
results:
The industrial robot has moved loaded 19% of the respective
time;
The industrial robot has moved without a working object 9% of
the respective time;
The industrial robot has apprehended (has loaded) 24% of the
time;
The industrial robot has unloaded 24% of the time;
The industrial robot was free 24% of the time.
Due to the fact that the entry flow could not be undertaken by the
other system components, conveyor 1 has been blocked (loaded at
maximum capacity) 95% of the time (Fig. 5.7). Regarding the length of
the semiproduct series from conveyor 1, this is 90% of the time of 9
pieces (Fig. 5.8).
Performance parameters of the machine
Fig. 5.5. Loading degree of the machine
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Performance parameters of the robot
Fig. 5.6. Industrial robot
Conveyor 1
Fig. 5.7. Loading of Conveyor 1
The length of the series conveyor 1
The length of the queueing
Fig. 5.8. Stay queueing  Conveyor 1
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
In order to process the entire flow of semiproducts which enters
the system a supply of the system modules is submitted.
Application 2.
In the configuration resulted the system consists of two industrial
robots (IR1 and IR2) and two working machines (WM1 and WM2). The
layout of the system is presented in figure 5.9.
WM1
ML 1
OL
SA
IA
Cv1
RIIR
1
Cv2
IE
EI
RIIR
2
OL
ML 22
WM
Fig. 5.9. Manufacturing system with two working machines and two
industrial robots
The solving of the following issues is aimed:
Modeling the system using the Taylor ED 2000 program;
The change regarding the state of the working object will be
modeled: its passing from the semiproduct state, before
processing, to the processed piece state, after processing.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems. Laboratory handbook
Fig. 5.10. 2D model of the system from figure 5.9
Fig. 5.11. 2D model of the system from figure 5.9
The evaluation of the system performance through the simulation
of its performance in the following periods of time: 8 hours, 16
hours, 72 hours; 1 week.
Taking in consideration the possibility of failure of the working
machines and of the industrial robots;
The 2D model of the manufacturing system is presented in figure
5.10, the channels connecting the system components being also
highlighted. The 3D model is presented in figure 5.11.
55
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
APPLICATION 6
6. THE MOVEMENT SIMULATION OF THE VIRTUAL
PROTOTYPE
6.1. The purpose
In this work will ma made the analysis of an assemblys
movement in the application Motion Simulation.
6.2. Theoretical notions
The virtual prototype simulation movement is a design tool used in
animation and motion analysis kinematic and dynamic models, to
determine the critical positions, forces, velocities and accelerations.
The virtual prototype simulation of motion is an application
software CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) used to model and analyze
the performance of moving parts in a mechanism located in the virtual
environment. Simulation of the movement is directed towards solving
problems from the rigid body mechanics (eg statics and dynamics).
Motion simulation reproduces a master set (original) previously
modeled and sets it in motion by means of simulations, without altering
the whole master (original). Once the optimal motion simulation,
assembly master can be updated to reflect the new optimal design.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
The simulation of the movement of a virtual prototype behavior
may provide a mechanism before its actual implementation. These
predictions are based on advanced math and physics and engineering
principles. Although these mathematical principles, physical and
engineering are currently applied in the software, results should always
be assessed to the puncture of engineering: if the result is expected and
if it is feasible.
The motion simulation can analyze the mechanism by examining
interference, distances traveled, speeds, accelerations, movement and
reactive forces, torsion moments, etc.. Motion simulation analysis results
generally indicate the need for design changes in track geometry
(elongation / shortening elements levers, cams shape modification,
adjustment multiplier reports, etc.), Or material piece (easier, harder,
etc.). Design modifications can then be applied given set of simulation
duplicate and reanalyzed. Once the optimal motion simulation is
determined, design changes can be incorporated into all master.
A mechanism is considered as a collection of kinematic elements
related by kinematic joints and other constraints to make a move.
Simulation of motion can be created by following steps:
 Step 1: Create kinematic elements
Kinematic elements are solid bodies or assemblies of rigid bodies
without relative movement between them. Are defined to represent the
moving parts in the mechanism.
 Step 2: Creating joints and kinematic constraints. Kinematic
couplings constrain movement of kinematic elements. In some cases,
you can create other elements of coercion, such as springs, dampers,
bearings (bushings) or contacts.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
 Step 3: Defining actuators (motion driver).
3. The development of the application
1. Open the file named Ansamblu3.prt from the gripping device
link directory. In the Assembly Navigator can be seen all constraints
applied under Constraints node (Fig. 6.1).
Fig. 6.1 Assembly3.prt file
2. It is started the motion simulation application using Start
Motion Simulation (Fig. 6.2)
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
Fig. 6.2. Motion simulation application
3. Creating a new simulation
In the Motion Navigator areas right clicks on the node
represented by a whole and choose New Simulation (only by the way).
In the Environment window select the type of analysis by option
Dynamics.
Fig. 6.3. Creating a new simulation
60
Fig. 6.4. Choosing the type of
analysis
Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
4. Defining a kinematic element
Creating kinematic elements can be done with the command link
which can be accessed as follows:

The button on the toolbar at Motion, right click on the node
running the simulation of Motion Navigator, then choose
option New Link (Fig. 6.5.a);
From the developing menu: Insert  Link (Fig. 6.5. b);
From the menu bar by enabling the Link button (Fig. 6.5.c).
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 6.5. Creating a kinematic element
After the command is activated, the window Select Object we
already have an active region (highlighted in red). Select the
component to be defined as a kinematic element. The gripping device,
it is the rod (Fig. 6.6).
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
Fig. 6.6. Defining the kinematic element The Rod
5. Creating kinematic joints
Creating kinematic joints is achieved by activating joint command.
This can be done as follows:
 The button on the toolbar at Motion, right click on the node
running the simulation of Motion Navigator, then choosing New Joint
(Fig. 6.7.a);
 Developong menu: Insert  Joint (Fig. 6.7. b);
 From the menu button by activating joint (Fig. 6.7.c).
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig. 6.7. Creating a kinematic joint
For the case study, the park's clothing following steps define the
joint rod is slider of cylinder (Fig. 6.8):
1. In the Joint window the kinematic coupling type is selected: Slider
(translational joint)
2. Select the kinematic element rod, activating option Select Link,
Joint window.
3. To specify the orientation and origin, with the active region
Specify Orientation.
4. Select an item based kinematic (Base Link). In this case study, the
kinematic element is Corp_cilindru.
If the kinematic elements are not in proper position
(disassembled), we can assemble the Snap Links ticking box, then
selecting active regions as in the first link.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
Fig. 6.8. Defining the kinematic joint
6. Creating a solution:
The Solution button is activated (or run right click and choose
New Solution motion_1 node )
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
Fig. 6.9. Creating solutions
In the Solution window we have to choose Run Normal type
solution and the type of analysis Kinematics / Dynamics.
In the Time field is introduced value 1, and in Steps, 50 (we
consider mechanisms for one second during the 50 intermediate
steps).
Select the box Solve with OK and then activates the OK button to
confirm and to calculate the solution.
The above steps are repeated for all the kinematic and for all
couplings in the Appliance shaped grip.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
6. Animation of the mechanism
The Animation button is activated. Press the Play button in the
Animation window, order to the trigger mechanism. If you want going
through step by step, click Step Forward and Step Backward buttons.
Fig. 6.10. Animation
For a continuous advance motion  Retrace back button is
pressed. Confirm with OK the Animation window.
The file is closed. (File Close All Parts).
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
APPLICATION 7
7. FUZZY CONTROL SYSTEMS  THE WASHING MACHINE
7.1. Introduction
One of the important practical applications of fuzzy logic systems is
their use as process control systems. Using fuzzy logic systems as
controllers enjoy a solid theoretical basis, there are currently many
commercial applications incorporating a fuzzy control system.
When using a washing machine, the user typically selects the time of
washing the clothes depending on the amount and the type and degree
of their dirt. To automate the process of washing, the detection sensors
can be used for the volume of clothes, and the type and degree of dirt.
Based on these data, it will be chosen a washing time.
Unfortunately, we cannot define a precise mathematical relationship
between input quantities (the volume of clothing, type and degree of
dirt) and output size (washing time). Thus, the washing time is set
manually by the user, based on their experience and repeated attempts.
Making a washing machine with a selfdetermined washing time
involves the construction of two subsystems (Fig. 7.1):
 Sensor system  provides input signals of the washing machine, taken
from the outside (clothes from the machine)
 Control unit  based on information programming from the sensor
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
system, will decide on the time of washing, as a control output. Because
you cannot formulate a precise mathematical relationship between
input and output control unit will use a fuzzy logic control system.
Fig. 7.1. The fuzzy washing machine
7.2. Implementing the fuzzy control system
The implementation of control system based on fuzzy sets of the
type of cleaning involves the following steps:
A. Definition of input size into the automatic controller. The input
values are:
1. The Degree of Dirt of clothes: DD
2. Type of Dirt: TD
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
B. Definition of linguistic terms associated with each input quantity
The linguistic terms associated to the linguistic input variable
Degree of Dirt are:
DD : LTDD = {s ,Md ,L}
(7.1)
where: ssmall: Md Medium; L Large.
The linguistic terms associated to the linguistic variable Type of
Dirt are:
TD : LTTD = {NG ,Md ,G}
(7.2)
where: NGNot Greasy, M Medium, G Greasy.
C. The determination of membership functions associated with each
linguistic term corresponding to the input quantities
In the case of variable input quantities associated to Degree of
dirt and Type of dirt, to all linguistic terms are corresponding
membership functions of triangular type. (Fig. 7.2.)
Fig. 7.2. The inputs
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
D. Defining the output size of the decisional process. The output size is
the washing time. The linguistic variable is associated with the output
quantity of washing time.
The linguistic terms associated to the output size are:
WT : LTWT = {Vs ,s ,Md ,L,VL}
(7.3)
where: TsfVery Short, TS Short, TMd Medium, TL Long, TFLVery Long.
E. Determination of membership functions associated with each
linguistic term corresponding to the output size
In the case of output variable size associated to Washing time, to
the linguistic terms are corresponding triangular type membership
functions (Fig.7.3).
Fig.7.3. The Output
F. Setting the method for connecting the various values of membership
functions
The multitude of linguistic variables and linguistic terms, which
were associated membership functions, characterize "vaguely" the
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
strong values the input sizes, and output sizes respectively. The
connection is made by the MINMAX method, resulting 9 inference rules
of the form:
1. If (DD is s) and (TD is NG) then (WT is Vs)
2. If (DD is s) and (TD is Md) then (WT is s)
3. If (DD is s) and (TD is L) then (WT is Md)
4. If (DD is Md) and (TD is NG) then (WT is s)
5. If (DD is Md) and (TD is Md) then (WT is Md)
6. If (DD is Md) and (TD is L) then (WT is L)
7. If (DD is L) and (TD is NG) then (WT is Md)
8. If (DD is L) and (TD is Md) then (WT is L)
9. If (DD is L) and (TD is L) then (WT is VL)
The decisional system implemented in Matlab Fuzzy Logic Toolbox is
presented in figure 7.4.
Fig. 7.4 The Fuzzy system
The dependence of the variable output of the input variables can
be highlighted also by the means of surface representation of variation
(Fig. 5).
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
Fig. 7.5. Surface of variation of the Washing time variation in relation to
the degree of soiling and type of soiling
Fig. 8.6. Inference Rules
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
An example of the fuzzy system's functioning for two strong
values of the inputs is shown in Figure 6, in which the rules are put in
evidence the inference rules. Thus, for the degree of soiling = 75 and for
the type of dirt = 90, type of washing = 170 minutes.
3. Carrying out the work
It will be implemented the fuzzy system described in the Fuzzy
Toolbox of Matlab.
It will be determined the type of wash for different values of the
type of dirt and soil.
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Modelling and simulation of mechatronic systems laboratory handbook
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