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1.Fundamental of heat exchanger

2.Principles of heat exchanger
3.Types of heat exchanger
4. Case Study: Shell and tube heat
6.CD (contains AUTOCAD

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A heat exchanger is a device that is used for transfer of thermal energy (enthalpy) between
two or more fluids, between a solid surface and a fluid, or between solid particulates and a,
at differing temperatures and in thermal contact, usually without external heat and work
interactions. The fluids may be single compounds or mixtures. Typical applications involve
heating or cooling of a fluid stream of concern, evaporation or condensation of a single or
multi component fluid stream, and heat recovery or heat rejection from a system. In other
applications, the objective may be to sterilize, pasteurize, fractionate, distill, concentrate,
crystallize, or control process fluid. In some heat exchangers, the fluids exchanging heat are
in direct contact. In other heat exchangers, heat transfer between fluids takes place through
a separating wall or into and out of a wall in a transient manner.
In most heat exchangers, the fluids are separated by a heat transfer surface, and ideally
they do not mix. Such exchangers are referred to as the direct transfer type, or simply
recuperators. In contrast, exchangers in which there is an intermittent heat exchange fluid
between the hot and cold fluids via thermal energy storage and rejection through the
exchanger surface or matrixare referred to as the indirect transfer type or storage type,
or simply regenerators. Such exchangers usually have leakage and fluid carryover from one
stream to the other. Heat exchangers may be classified according to transfer process,
construction, flow arrangement, surface compactness, number of fluids and heat transfer
mechanisms or according to process functions.


Heat exchangers work because heat naturally flows from higher temperature to lower
temperatures. Therefore if a hot fluid and a cold fluid are separated by a heat conducting
surface heat can be transferred from the hot fluid to the cold fluid. Two fluids of different
temperatures are brought into close contact but are prevented from mixing by a physical
barrier. The temperature of the two fluids will tend to equalize. By arranging countercurrent flow it is possible for the temperature at the out let of each fluid to approach the
temperature at the inlet of the other. The heat content are simply exchanged from one fluid
to the other and vice versa. No energy is added or removed.

2.1 The heat transfer mainly depends on

Figure 1:A model of Heat exchanger

Type of the material between fluids

Thickness of material
Surface Area of material
Type of fluid
Gravity of fluid
Flow rate of fluid

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2.2 The Basic Equation defining the Heat Exchanger Principle:

Q= U A T lm
WHEREQ=the rate of heat transfer between the two fluids in the heat exchanger
U=the overall heat transfer coefficient

A=the heat transfer surface area

Tlm= the log mean temperature difference in Fahrenheit, calculated from the inlet and outlet .

Figure 2: flow regimens and associated temperature profiles in a heat exchanger

3.Types of heat exchanger

There are several types of heat exchanger has been used in this era, such as

Shell and tube heat exchanger

Plate heat exchanger
Plate and shell heat exchanger
Adiabatic wheel heat exchanger
Plate fin heat exchanger
Pillow plate heat exchanger
Fluid heat exchangers
Waste heat recovery units
Dynamic scraped surface heat exchanger
Phase-change heat exchangers

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But The Shell and Tube, the Air Cooled and the Plate-type Exchanger are the three most
commonly used types of exchangers in the chemical and process industries. With
increasing effort in recent years to reduce weight and size and increase efficiency, other
types of exchangers are increasingly used. However the mechanical and thermal design of
these alternative exchangers tends to be of a proprietary nature which may explain why
many clients prefer the tried-and-tested shell and tube exchanger type which still
predominates in most plants.

3.1.Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers are one of the most popular types of exchanger due to the
flexibility the designer has to allow for a wide range of pressures and temperatures. More
detail explanation about shell and tube heat engine will be discussed in next section of this

3.2.Air Cooled Heat Exchanger(ACHE)

An air cooled heat exchanger, or ACHE, is simply a pressure vessel which cools a circulating
fluid within finned tubes by forcing ambient air over the exterior of the tubes. A common
example of an air cooler is a cars radiator. Air cooled heat exchangers are used for two
primary reasons:
They increase plant efficiency
They are a "green" solution as compared to cooling towers and shell and tube heat
exchangers because they do not require an auxiliary water supply (water lost due to
drift and evaporation, plus no water treatment chemicals are required).

Figure shows a type of Air Cooled Heat Exchanger

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3.3.Plate Heat Exchanger

Plate Heat Exchangers are an alternate type of heat exchanger which utilizes a quantity of
identical corrugated metal plates arranged in a parallel pattern separated by gaskets. Like
Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers they transfer heat between two flowing fluids. Plate Heat
Exchangers provide higher thermal rate efficiencies than shell and tube heat exchangers in
most applications. This type of Exchanger is commonly used in lower temperature and
pressure applications as they are limited by the temperature and pressure rating Of the

Figure shows the plate type of heat

exchanger where its material are made up
by using stainless steel and titanium

4.Case Study: Shell and tube heat exchanger

Shell and tube heat exchangers are comprised of multiple tubes through which liquid flows.
The tubes are divided into two sets: the first set contains the liquid to be heated or cooled.
The second set contains the liquid responsible for triggering the heat exchange, and either
removes heat from the first set of tubes by absorbing and transmitting heat awayin
essence, cooling the liquidor warms the set by transmitting its own heat to the liquid
inside. When designing this type of exchanger, care must be taken in determining the
correct tube wall thickness as well as tube diameter, to allow optimum heat exchange. In
terms of flow, shell and tube heat exchangers can assume any of three flow path patterns.

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There are many variations on the shell and tube design present nowadays. Typically, the
ends of each tube are connected to plenums (sometimes called water boxes) through holes
in tube sheets. The tubes may be straight or bent in the shape of a U, called U-tubes. The Utubes permit unlimited thermal expansion, the tube bundle can be removed for cleaning
and small bundle to shell clearances can be achieved. However, since internal cleaning of
the tubes by mechanical means is difficult, it is normal only to use this type where the tube
side fluids are clean.
U-tube heat exchanger
Straight tube exchanger (one pass tube-side )
Straight tube exchanger (two pass tube-side)
(The drawing of the designs stated are attached in CD at last page..)


1. Shell.

Floating Head Flange.

Shell Channel.
Shell Cover End Flange.
Shell Nozzle.

8. Floating Head Flange.

15. Transverse Baffles.

9. Channel Partition
10. Stationary Tube Sheet.
11. Channel.
12. Channel Cover.

16. Impingement Baffle

17. Vent Connection.]
18. Drain Connection.
19. Test Connection.

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6. Floating Tube Sheet.

7. Floating Head.

13. Channel Nozzles.

14. Tie Rods and Spacers

20. Support Saddles.

21. Lifting Ring


Two fluids, of different starting temperatures, flow through the heat exchanger. One flows
through the tubes and the other flows outside the tubes but inside the shell . Heat is
transferred from one fluid to the other through the tube walls, either from tube side to shell
side or vice versa. The fluids can be either liquids or gases on either the shell or the tube
side. In order to transfer heat efficiently, a large heat transfer area should be used, leading
to the use of many tubes. In this way, waste heat can be put to use. This is an efficient way
to conserve energy.
Heat exchangers with only one phase (liquid or gas) on each side can be called one-phase
or single-phase heat exchangers. Two-phase heat exchangers can be used to heat a liquid to
boil it into a gas (vapor), sometimes called boilers, or cool a vapor to condense it into a
liquid (called condensers), with the phase change usually occurring on the shell side.
Boilers in steam engine locomotives are typically large, usually cylindrically-shaped shelland-tube heat exchangers. In large power plants with steam-driven turbines, shell-andtube surface condensers are used to condense the exhaust steam exiting the turbine into
condensate water which is recycled back to be turned into steam in the steam generator.
They are extensively used as process heat exchangers in the petroleum-refining and
chemical industries; as steam generators, condensers, boiler feed water heaters and oil
coolers in power plants; as condensers and evaporators in some air-conditioning and
refrigeration applications; in waste heat recovery applications with heat recovery from
liquids and condensing fluids; and in environmental control.

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4.5.1 Shell and tube heat exchanger

4.5.2 U-tube heat exchanger

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Heat Exchanger.Retrived November 19,2012 from
Heat Exchanger and The Principles Wikipedia. Retrived November 19,2012 from
Shell and Tube heat Exchanger. Retrived November 21,2012 from
Ramesh K. Shah, Dusan P. Sekulic.(2003) Fundamentals of Heat Exchanger
Design.New Delhi,India.
Atkins,P.(2005) Physical Chemistry(9 thed):Working principles of heat engine.

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