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# 2011 Student Design Competition

## 1. Title: Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Study Heat

Exchanger.
2. Prior Concept:
Heat Exchanger, Its working, Types of heat exchangers
3. New Concepts:
Heat Exchanger Effectiveness, Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference
3.1 Concept structure:

## Heat Exchanger Effectiveness,

Fig. 4.1: Heat Exchanger
4. Learning Objectives:
4.1: Intellectual Skills:
a. To find the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference
b. To know how to measure the performance of the Heat Exchanger
c. To know how to find out the effectiveness of the heat exchanger
d. To find the overall heat transfer coefficient

## 4.2: Motor Skills:

a. To measure the temperatures of the hot and cold fluid at inlet and outlet.
b. To measure the mass flow rate of the hot and cold fluid.

## College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

5. Apparatus:
a. Heat Exchanger
b. Flow meter
c. Temperature measurement equipments
6. Practical Set Up:

## Fig. 4.2: Schematic Arrangement of Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger

7. Theory:
Heat Exchanger:
A Heat Exchanger may be defined as equipment which transfers the energy from a
hot fluid to a cold fluid, with maximum rate and minimum investment and running costs.
In heat exchangers the temperature of each fluid changes as it passes through the
exchangers, and hence the temperature of the dividing wall between the fluids also changes
along the length of the Heat exchanger.
Examples of heat exchangers:
1. Intercoolers and preheaters
2. Condensers and boilers in steam plant
3. Automobile radiators
4. Oil coolers of heat engine
5. Milk chillers etc.

## Log Mean Temperature Difference Method (LMTD):

Logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) is defined as that temperature
difference which, if constant, would give the same rate of heat transfer as actually occurs
under variable conditions of temperature difference.
Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference for Parallel-flow :

## Fig. 4.3: Parallel Flow Heat Exchanger with Temperature Distribution

Figure 4.3 shows the flow arrangement and distribution of temperature in a single
pass parallel flow heat exchanger.
Let,
Th1 = Inlet temperature of Hot Fluid
Th2 = Outlet temperature of Hot Fluid
Tc1 = Inlet temperature of Cold Fluid
Tc2 = Outlet temperature of Cold Fluid
1

= Th1 - Th2

= Tc1 - Tc2
= Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

.. (1)

## Fig. 4.4: Counter Flow Heat Exchanger with Temperature Distribution

Above figure shows the flow arrangement and temperature distribution in a single
pass counter flow heat exchanger.
Let,
Th1 = Inlet temperature of Hot Fluid
Th2 = Outlet temperature of Hot Fluid
Tc1 = Inlet temperature of Cold Fluid
Tc2 = Outlet temperature of Cold Fluid
1

= Th1 - Tc2

= Th2 Tc1
= Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)
.. (2)
(LMTD) for a counter flow unit is always greater than that for a parallel flow unit,

hence counter flow heat exchanger can transfer more heat than parallel flow one, in other
words a counter flow heat exchanger needs a smaller heating surface for the same rate of
heat transfer. For this reason, the counter flow arrangement is used.
Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Study Heat Exchanger

## Heat Exchanger Effectiveness ( ):

Effectiveness is a measure of thermal performance of a heat exchanger. It is defined
as the ratio of actual heat transfer to the maximum possible heat transfer, thus
.. (3)
The actual heat transfer rate Q can be determined by writing an energy balance over
either side of the heat exchanger.
Q=

............. (4)

*
Or

Q=

...... (5)

The product of mass flow rate and the specific heat, as a matter of convenience, is
defined as the fluid capacity rate C:
*

## = The minimum fluid capacity rate (

= The maximum fluid capacity rate (

The maximum rate of heat transfer for parallel flow or counter flow heat exchangers
would occur if the outer temperature of the fluid with smaller value of

or

i.e.,

were to be equal to the inlet temperature of the other fluid. The maximum possible
temperature change can be achieved by only one of fluid, depending upon their heat
capacity rates. This maximum change cannot be obtained by both the fluids except in the
very special case of equal heat capacity rates.
Thus:
or
is the minimum of these two values, i.e.
)

## College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

... (6)

Once the effectiveness is known, the heat transfer rate can be very easily calculated
by using the equation

Q=

..... (7)

## Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U:

From the following equation,

Q = U * A*
If we know the heat transfer rate (Q), Area of the heat exchanger (A), Logarithmic
Mean Temperature Difference (

## with the help of above equation.

.... (8)

Procedure:
1. Observe the set up and all the connected equipments
2. Check the range of Thermometer
3. Check the range of Rota meter
4. Start the supply of cold fluid
5. Start the supply of hot fluid
6. Allow the fluid to flow for 10 min in order to stabilize the flow and temperature
7. Measure the hot fluid inlet temperature
8. Measure the hot fluid outlet temperature
9. Measure the cold fluid inlet temperature
10. Measure the cold fluid outlet temperature
11. Measure the mass flow rate of hot fluid
12. Measure the mass flow rate of cold fluid
13. Note all the readings is the observation table

## College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Observation Table:

Sr. No.

Parameter

Reading

01

02

(C)

03

(C)

04

05

06

07

08

## Specific heat of Cold fluid,

(C)

(C)

(kg/s)
(kg/s)
(kJ/kg C)
(kJ/kg C)

Calculations:
1. Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference,

Where,
= ______________
= ______________
_______C

## 2. The thermal capacity of hot fluid,

=
= ____________ kW

## 3. The thermal capacity of cold fluid,

=
= ____________ kW

and

,
= ____________

## Hence reference fluid is _____________ fluid. (Hot or Cold)

4. Effectiveness of the heat exchanger,
If

= _____________
If
= ____________

## 5. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient U:

From the equation 8, we have

Q = U * A*
*

= __________

D L = ___________
= _____________ W/m2 C

## College Of Engineering, Pune (India)

Example:
A counter flow heat exchanger is employed to cool 0.55 kg/s (Cp = 2.45 kJ/kg C)
of oil from 115C to 40 C by the use of water. The inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling
water are 15C and 75C respectively. Tube Diameter is 30 mm and assume a tube in tube
type heat exchanger. Find the LMTD, Effectiveness and Overall heat transfer coefficient of
the heat exchanger.

Solution:
1. Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference,

Where,
= 115 - 75 = 40
= 40 - 15 = 25
= 31.91 C

=
= 0.55 * 2.45
= 1.347 kW

=
= 0.4 * 4.18
=1.672 kW

Here

is

and

=

## 5. Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient, U

From the heat transfer equation, Q = U * A*
*

= 0.55 * 2.45 * (

= 101.0625

D L = * 0.030 * 1 = 0.09424 m2
=

= 33.607 W/m2 C

Result:
Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) = 31.91 C
The effectiveness of the Heat Exchanger is found to be 0.75
Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) = 33.607 W/m2 C

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