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Exchanger.

2. Prior Concept:

Heat Exchanger, Its working, Types of heat exchangers

3. New Concepts:

Heat Exchanger Effectiveness, Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

3.1 Concept structure:

Fig. 4.1: Heat Exchanger

4. Learning Objectives:

4.1: Intellectual Skills:

a. To find the Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference

b. To know how to measure the performance of the Heat Exchanger

c. To know how to find out the effectiveness of the heat exchanger

d. To find the overall heat transfer coefficient

a. To measure the temperatures of the hot and cold fluid at inlet and outlet.

b. To measure the mass flow rate of the hot and cold fluid.

5. Apparatus:

a. Heat Exchanger

b. Flow meter

c. Temperature measurement equipments

6. Practical Set Up:

7. Theory:

Heat Exchanger:

A Heat Exchanger may be defined as equipment which transfers the energy from a

hot fluid to a cold fluid, with maximum rate and minimum investment and running costs.

In heat exchangers the temperature of each fluid changes as it passes through the

exchangers, and hence the temperature of the dividing wall between the fluids also changes

along the length of the Heat exchanger.

Examples of heat exchangers:

1. Intercoolers and preheaters

2. Condensers and boilers in steam plant

3. Automobile radiators

4. Oil coolers of heat engine

5. Milk chillers etc.

Logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) is defined as that temperature

difference which, if constant, would give the same rate of heat transfer as actually occurs

under variable conditions of temperature difference.

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference for Parallel-flow :

Figure 4.3 shows the flow arrangement and distribution of temperature in a single

pass parallel flow heat exchanger.

Let,

Th1 = Inlet temperature of Hot Fluid

Th2 = Outlet temperature of Hot Fluid

Tc1 = Inlet temperature of Cold Fluid

Tc2 = Outlet temperature of Cold Fluid

1

= Th1 - Th2

= Tc1 - Tc2

= Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

.. (1)

Above figure shows the flow arrangement and temperature distribution in a single

pass counter flow heat exchanger.

Let,

Th1 = Inlet temperature of Hot Fluid

Th2 = Outlet temperature of Hot Fluid

Tc1 = Inlet temperature of Cold Fluid

Tc2 = Outlet temperature of Cold Fluid

1

= Th1 - Tc2

= Th2 Tc1

= Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD)

.. (2)

(LMTD) for a counter flow unit is always greater than that for a parallel flow unit,

hence counter flow heat exchanger can transfer more heat than parallel flow one, in other

words a counter flow heat exchanger needs a smaller heating surface for the same rate of

heat transfer. For this reason, the counter flow arrangement is used.

Design and Development of Virtual Experimental Set-up to Study Heat Exchanger

Effectiveness is a measure of thermal performance of a heat exchanger. It is defined

as the ratio of actual heat transfer to the maximum possible heat transfer, thus

.. (3)

The actual heat transfer rate Q can be determined by writing an energy balance over

either side of the heat exchanger.

Q=

............. (4)

*

Or

Q=

...... (5)

The product of mass flow rate and the specific heat, as a matter of convenience, is

defined as the fluid capacity rate C:

*

= The maximum fluid capacity rate (

The maximum rate of heat transfer for parallel flow or counter flow heat exchangers

would occur if the outer temperature of the fluid with smaller value of

or

i.e.,

were to be equal to the inlet temperature of the other fluid. The maximum possible

temperature change can be achieved by only one of fluid, depending upon their heat

capacity rates. This maximum change cannot be obtained by both the fluids except in the

very special case of equal heat capacity rates.

Thus:

or

is the minimum of these two values, i.e.

)

... (6)

Once the effectiveness is known, the heat transfer rate can be very easily calculated

by using the equation

Q=

..... (7)

From the following equation,

Q = U * A*

If we know the heat transfer rate (Q), Area of the heat exchanger (A), Logarithmic

Mean Temperature Difference (

.... (8)

Procedure:

1. Observe the set up and all the connected equipments

2. Check the range of Thermometer

3. Check the range of Rota meter

4. Start the supply of cold fluid

5. Start the supply of hot fluid

6. Allow the fluid to flow for 10 min in order to stabilize the flow and temperature

7. Measure the hot fluid inlet temperature

8. Measure the hot fluid outlet temperature

9. Measure the cold fluid inlet temperature

10. Measure the cold fluid outlet temperature

11. Measure the mass flow rate of hot fluid

12. Measure the mass flow rate of cold fluid

13. Note all the readings is the observation table

Observation Table:

Sr. No.

Parameter

Reading

01

02

(C)

03

(C)

04

05

06

07

08

(C)

(C)

(kg/s)

(kg/s)

(kJ/kg C)

(kJ/kg C)

Calculations:

1. Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference,

Where,

= ______________

= ______________

_______C

=

= ____________ kW

=

= ____________ kW

and

,

= ____________

4. Effectiveness of the heat exchanger,

If

= _____________

If

= ____________

From the equation 8, we have

Q = U * A*

*

= __________

D L = ___________

= _____________ W/m2 C

Example:

A counter flow heat exchanger is employed to cool 0.55 kg/s (Cp = 2.45 kJ/kg C)

of oil from 115C to 40 C by the use of water. The inlet and outlet temperatures of cooling

water are 15C and 75C respectively. Tube Diameter is 30 mm and assume a tube in tube

type heat exchanger. Find the LMTD, Effectiveness and Overall heat transfer coefficient of

the heat exchanger.

Solution:

1. Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference,

Where,

= 115 - 75 = 40

= 40 - 15 = 25

= 31.91 C

=

= 0.55 * 2.45

= 1.347 kW

=

= 0.4 * 4.18

=1.672 kW

Here

is

and

=

From the heat transfer equation, Q = U * A*

*

= 0.55 * 2.45 * (

= 101.0625

D L = * 0.030 * 1 = 0.09424 m2

=

= 33.607 W/m2 C

Result:

Logarithmic Mean Temperature Difference (LMTD) = 31.91 C

The effectiveness of the Heat Exchanger is found to be 0.75

Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient (U) = 33.607 W/m2 C

10

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