Some Curves with Geometry Expressions

SOME CURVES WITH GEOMETRY EXPRESSIONS........................................................................................ 1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 2
Example 1:
A Circle inside a Circle ............................................................................................................................... 3
Example 2:
Another Circle in a Circle ........................................................................................................................... 4
Example 3:
Rosace a Quatre Branches........................................................................................................................... 6
Example 4:
Lemniscate................................................................................................................................................... 7
Example 5:
Pascal’s Limaçon......................................................................................................................................... 8
Example 6:
Kulp Quartic ................................................................................................................................................ 9
Example 7:
The Witch of Agnesi ................................................................................................................................. 10
Example 8:
Newton’s Strophoid................................................................................................................................... 11
Example 9:
MacLaurin’s Trisectrix and other Such Like ............................................................................................ 12
Example 10:
Trisectrice de Delange............................................................................................................................. 14
Example 11:
“Foglie del Suardi”.................................................................................................................................. 15
Example 12:
A Construction of Diocletian .................................................................................................................. 16
Example 13:
Kappa Curve............................................................................................................................................ 17
Example 14:
Kepler’s Egg............................................................................................................................................ 18
Example 15:
Cruciform Curve...................................................................................................................................... 19

1

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Introduction
Geometry Expressions automatically generates algebraic expressions from geometric
figures.

It also lets you define loci of points and envelopes of lines and circles. Once you have
created such a curve, Geometry Expressions can compute a parametric equation for it.
In some cases, it can also give an implicit equation.
In this article, we’ll look at some examples

2

Example 1:
A Circle inside a Circle
Points D and E are proportion t along the radii AD and AC of the circle centered at the
origin and radius r. The intersection of CD and DE traces a circle.
6

5
C

4

3
E
t

2

F
1

-7

-6

-5

-4

-3

-2

-1

t

θ

A

(0,0)

D
1

2

3

4

(r,0)
5

B
6

7

-1

-2
2

2

⇒ -2·X·r·t+X ·(1+t)+Y ·(1+t)=0
-3

-4

-5

-6

Show that it goes through the origin. What is the center of the circle? What is its radius?

3

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 2:
Another Circle in a Circle
More generally if D is proportion s along AC, we have the following circle:

2

2

2

2

2 2

2

2

2

2 2

2

2 2

2

2 2

⇒ -r ·s +2·r ·s ·t+r ·t -2·r ·s·t +X · 1-2·s·t+s ·t +Y · 1-2·s·t+s ·t +X· -2·r·t+2·r·s·t+2·r·s·t -2·r·s ·t =0

C

E
s
F

θ

A

(0,0)

t
D

(r,0)

B

What is the center of this circle?
Can we find the radius of this – perhaps by copying the expression into an algebra system
and working on it there?

4

Here is one approach, in Maple. First we substitute Y=0., then solve for X to determine
the x intercepts of the circle. The radius can be found by subtracting these and dividing
by 2.
> subs(Y=0,-s^2*r^2+2*t*s^2*r^2+t^2*r^2-2*t^2*s*r^2+(2*t*s+1+t^2*s^2)*X^2+(-2*t*s+1+t^2*s^2)*Y^2+(2*t*r+2*t*s*r+2*t^2*s*r-2*t^2*s^2*r)*X = 0);
-s 2 r 2 + 2 t s 2 r 2 + t 2 r 2 - 2 t 2 s r 2 + (-2 t s + 1 + t 2 s 2) X 2 + (-2 t r + 2 t s r + 2 t 2 s r - 2 t 2 s 2 r ) X = 0

> solve(%,X);
r (-t + s) r (-t - s + 2 t s)
,
ts-1
ts-1

> (r*(-t+s)/(t*s-1)- r*(-t-s+2*t*s)/(t*s-1))/2;
r (-t + s) r (-t - s + 2 t s)
2 (t s - 1)
2 (t s - 1)

> simplify(%);
-

r s (-1 + t)
ts-1

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S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 3:
Rosace a Quatre Branches
This example comes from the September 2003 edition of the Casio France newsletter.
A line segment of length a has its ends on the x and y axes. We create the locus of the
orthogonal projection of the origin onto this segment. Apparently this curve was studied
in 1723-1728 by Guido Grandi.

C

(0,t)

a
6

4 2 6

2 2

2

-x -3·x ·y -y +x ·y · a -3·y

2

=0

E

A

D

B
(4,0)

(0,0)

6

Example 4:
Lemniscate
Given foci at (-a,0) and (a,0), the lemniscate is the locus of points the product of whose
distance from the foci is a^2:

4

2 2 4

2

2

-x -2·x ·y -y +a · 2·x -2·y

2

=0
2

a

t

C

t

B

A
(a,0)

(-a,0)

7

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 5:
Pascal’s Limaçon
Named after Etienne Pascal (1588-1651), father of Blaise.
2 2

3

4 2 2

4

2 2

-a ·b -2·b·x +x -a ·y +y +2·b·x· a -y

2

2

2

+x · -a +b +2·y

2

=0

C
D
a
t
F

(0,0)
A
b

8

(3,0)

E

Example 6:
Kulp Quartic
Studied by, you guessed it – Kulp, in 1868:

4

2 2

C

2 2

E

-r +r ·y +x ·y =0
B
(0,1)

F

G
r

t
A
(0,0)

9

D

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 7:
The Witch of Agnesi
Named after Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1748)
t
C

G

E

B
(0,1)

F

H
3

2

2

4·r -4·r ·y+x ·(-r-y)=0
r

A (0,0)

D

10

Example 8:

Newton’s Strophoid

2 3

1
A

(0,-1)

t
D

(2,0)

(0,0)

F

C

11

2

-y -y +x ·(1-y)=0

E

B

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 9:
MacLaurin’s Trisectrix and other Such Like
A cubic derived from the intersection of two lines rotating at different speeds

B

2

3

2

3·t
t
A

2

3·a·x -x -a·y -x·y =0

C
(2·a,0)

(0,0)

12

A similar construction can give a range of other curves. For example, a hyperbola:

B

2·t
t
A

C

(0,0)

(a,0)
2

2

2·a·x-3·x +y =0

13

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 10: Trisectrice de Delange
4

2 2

4

2

2

4·a -4·a ·y +y +x · -4·a +y

B

2

=0

D

t
2·t
A

C
a

(0,0)

14

(2,0)

E

Example 11: “Foglie del Suardi”
Here is a cubic which can be drawn by a mechanism consisting of intersecting a particular
radius with a particular chord of a circle.

D

C
a
E
a
A

B
(0,0)

(-a,0)
2

2 3

2

2

t

-a ·x-2·a·x -x -2·a·y -x·y =0

15

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 12: A Construction of Diocletian
⇒ x=
⇒ y=

3

2·t

2

4+t
t

2

3

4+t

E

2

2

2

⇒ -X +2·Y -X·Y =0
G
t
F
B

C

0

1

0

0 A

0

D

Segment CF is defined to be congruent to GE. Diocletian used this construction to
define a cubic curve.

16

Example 13: Kappa Curve
Studied by Gutschoven in 1662, the locus of the intersection between a circle and its
tangent through the origin as the circle slides up the y-axis:

C

r

E
4 2 2

2 2

x -r ·y +x ·y =0

t

(0,0)

D
(2,0)

A

17

S O M E

C U R V E S

W I T H

G E O M E T R Y

E X P R E S S I O N S

Example 14: Kepler’s Egg
An egg shape defined by projecting B onto AC, then back onto AB then back onto AC:

C
3 4

2 2 4

a·x -x -2·x ·y -y =0

E

t
A

D

(0,0)

18

(a,0) B

Example 15: Cruciform Curve

2

2

-y +x · -1+y

2

=0

D

F

(0,t)
B

1

(0,0)
A

this curve can be rewritten in the form:

E

1
1
+ 2 =1
2
x
y

19

(b,0) C