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SOME CURVES WITH GEOMETRY EXPRESSIONS........................................................................................ 1
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 2
Example 1:
A Circle inside a Circle ............................................................................................................................... 3
Example 2:
Another Circle in a Circle ........................................................................................................................... 4
Example 3:
Rosace a Quatre Branches........................................................................................................................... 6
Example 4:
Lemniscate................................................................................................................................................... 7
Example 5:
Pascal’s Limaçon......................................................................................................................................... 8
Example 6:
Kulp Quartic ................................................................................................................................................ 9
Example 7:
The Witch of Agnesi ................................................................................................................................. 10
Example 8:
Newton’s Strophoid................................................................................................................................... 11
Example 9:
MacLaurin’s Trisectrix and other Such Like ............................................................................................ 12
Example 10:
Trisectrice de Delange............................................................................................................................. 14
Example 11:
“Foglie del Suardi”.................................................................................................................................. 15
Example 12:
A Construction of Diocletian .................................................................................................................. 16
Example 13:
Kappa Curve............................................................................................................................................ 17
Example 14:
Kepler’s Egg............................................................................................................................................ 18
Example 15:
Cruciform Curve...................................................................................................................................... 19
1
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Introduction
Geometry Expressions automatically generates algebraic expressions from geometric
figures.
It also lets you define loci of points and envelopes of lines and circles. Once you have
created such a curve, Geometry Expressions can compute a parametric equation for it.
In some cases, it can also give an implicit equation.
In this article, we’ll look at some examples
2
Example 1:
A Circle inside a Circle
Points D and E are proportion t along the radii AD and AC of the circle centered at the
origin and radius r. The intersection of CD and DE traces a circle.
6
5
C
4
3
E
t
2
F
1
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
t
θ
A
(0,0)
D
1
2
3
4
(r,0)
5
B
6
7
1
2
2
2
⇒ 2·X·r·t+X ·(1+t)+Y ·(1+t)=0
3
4
5
6
Show that it goes through the origin. What is the center of the circle? What is its radius?
3
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 2:
Another Circle in a Circle
More generally if D is proportion s along AC, we have the following circle:
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
⇒ r ·s +2·r ·s ·t+r ·t 2·r ·s·t +X · 12·s·t+s ·t +Y · 12·s·t+s ·t +X· 2·r·t+2·r·s·t+2·r·s·t 2·r·s ·t =0
C
E
s
F
θ
A
(0,0)
t
D
(r,0)
B
What is the center of this circle?
Can we find the radius of this – perhaps by copying the expression into an algebra system
and working on it there?
4
Here is one approach, in Maple. First we substitute Y=0., then solve for X to determine
the x intercepts of the circle. The radius can be found by subtracting these and dividing
by 2.
> subs(Y=0,s^2*r^2+2*t*s^2*r^2+t^2*r^22*t^2*s*r^2+(2*t*s+1+t^2*s^2)*X^2+(2*t*s+1+t^2*s^2)*Y^2+(2*t*r+2*t*s*r+2*t^2*s*r2*t^2*s^2*r)*X = 0);
s 2 r 2 + 2 t s 2 r 2 + t 2 r 2  2 t 2 s r 2 + (2 t s + 1 + t 2 s 2) X 2 + (2 t r + 2 t s r + 2 t 2 s r  2 t 2 s 2 r ) X = 0
> solve(%,X);
r (t + s) r (t  s + 2 t s)
,
ts1
ts1
> (r*(t+s)/(t*s1) r*(ts+2*t*s)/(t*s1))/2;
r (t + s) r (t  s + 2 t s)
2 (t s  1)
2 (t s  1)
> simplify(%);

r s (1 + t)
ts1
5
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 3:
Rosace a Quatre Branches
This example comes from the September 2003 edition of the Casio France newsletter.
A line segment of length a has its ends on the x and y axes. We create the locus of the
orthogonal projection of the origin onto this segment. Apparently this curve was studied
in 17231728 by Guido Grandi.
C
(0,t)
a
6
4 2 6
2 2
2
x 3·x ·y y +x ·y · a 3·y
2
=0
E
A
D
B
(4,0)
(0,0)
6
Example 4:
Lemniscate
Given foci at (a,0) and (a,0), the lemniscate is the locus of points the product of whose
distance from the foci is a^2:
4
2 2 4
2
2
x 2·x ·y y +a · 2·x 2·y
2
=0
2
a
t
C
t
B
A
(a,0)
(a,0)
7
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 5:
Pascal’s Limaçon
Named after Etienne Pascal (15881651), father of Blaise.
2 2
3
4 2 2
4
2 2
a ·b 2·b·x +x a ·y +y +2·b·x· a y
2
2
2
+x · a +b +2·y
2
=0
C
D
a
t
F
(0,0)
A
b
8
(3,0)
E
Example 6:
Kulp Quartic
Studied by, you guessed it – Kulp, in 1868:
4
2 2
C
2 2
E
r +r ·y +x ·y =0
B
(0,1)
F
G
r
t
A
(0,0)
9
D
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 7:
The Witch of Agnesi
Named after Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1748)
t
C
G
E
B
(0,1)
F
H
3
2
2
4·r 4·r ·y+x ·(ry)=0
r
A (0,0)
D
10
Example 8:
Newton’s Strophoid
2 3
1
A
(0,1)
t
D
(2,0)
(0,0)
F
C
11
2
y y +x ·(1y)=0
E
B
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 9:
MacLaurin’s Trisectrix and other Such Like
A cubic derived from the intersection of two lines rotating at different speeds
B
2
3
2
3·t
t
A
2
3·a·x x a·y x·y =0
C
(2·a,0)
(0,0)
12
A similar construction can give a range of other curves. For example, a hyperbola:
B
2·t
t
A
C
(0,0)
(a,0)
2
2
2·a·x3·x +y =0
13
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 10: Trisectrice de Delange
4
2 2
4
2
2
4·a 4·a ·y +y +x · 4·a +y
B
2
=0
D
t
2·t
A
C
a
(0,0)
14
(2,0)
E
Example 11: “Foglie del Suardi”
Here is a cubic which can be drawn by a mechanism consisting of intersecting a particular
radius with a particular chord of a circle.
D
C
a
E
a
A
B
(0,0)
(a,0)
2
2 3
2
2
t
a ·x2·a·x x 2·a·y x·y =0
15
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 12: A Construction of Diocletian
⇒ x=
⇒ y=
3
2·t
2
4+t
t
2
3
4+t
E
2
2
2
⇒ X +2·Y X·Y =0
G
t
F
B
C
0
1
0
0 A
0
D
Segment CF is defined to be congruent to GE. Diocletian used this construction to
define a cubic curve.
16
Example 13: Kappa Curve
Studied by Gutschoven in 1662, the locus of the intersection between a circle and its
tangent through the origin as the circle slides up the yaxis:
C
r
E
4 2 2
2 2
x r ·y +x ·y =0
t
(0,0)
D
(2,0)
A
17
S O M E
C U R V E S
W I T H
G E O M E T R Y
E X P R E S S I O N S
Example 14: Kepler’s Egg
An egg shape defined by projecting B onto AC, then back onto AB then back onto AC:
C
3 4
2 2 4
a·x x 2·x ·y y =0
E
t
A
D
(0,0)
18
(a,0) B
Example 15: Cruciform Curve
2
2
y +x · 1+y
2
=0
D
F
(0,t)
B
1
(0,0)
A
this curve can be rewritten in the form:
E
1
1
+ 2 =1
2
x
y
19
(b,0) C
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