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Diesel Systems

The diesel engine as a sign of the times

and on its way to new horizons

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2 | Diesel Systems

No diesels
without Bosch

When, in 1927, Robert Bosch manufactured the worlds first diesel

injection system capable of series production followed only four
years later by the marketing of the first diesel system consisting of
pump, injection nozzles, fuel lines, fuel filter, nozzle holders and
glow plugs, even he probably had no idea of how successful the
onward march of the diesel engine would prove to be in the decades
that followed. Yet he had achieved something unique. For his devel
opment provided the basis for diesel engines that were small and
powerful enough to drive an automobile.
The trailblazing inventions of the founder of our company insepara
bly link the name Bosch to that of Diesel. An inseparable partnership
that has been further extended and consolidated over the past de
cades right up to the present day in an unbroken line and which will
also continue into the future.

Since 1927, Bosch has registered

over 10,000 patents for diesel
components and sold over
180,000,000 injection systems
worldwide to date. Today we have
around 225 diesel customers in
32 countries.

There is no challenge, however remotely

connected to diesels, that we have not
successfully taken up.
We are proud of the fact that, for more than
80 years, every decisive further development
of diesel technology, from fuel injection via
electronic control right up to exhaust-gas
treatment, has been thought up, co-developed
and brought to series maturity by our engineers.
The last two decades in particular have been
especially exciting, decisively advancing diesel
progress. Thanks to our developments, the
sturdy, thrifty but rather sluggish diesel engine
of yesteryear has blossomed into a highperformance power unit that has lost none of
its sturdiness yet can now bear any comparison
with other propulsion units with regards to fuel
economy, environmental friendliness and sporty
Unique anywhere in the world: our offerings
for and our commitment to diesels
At 36 locations around the world, over 50,000
diesel specialists are working on making diesel
engines even more economical, cleaner, quieter
and more powerful. No other company employs
so many diesel experts so close to you wherever
in the world you are located. And no other
company develops, manufactures and applies
so many diesel components and systems for
practically every diesel engine, no matter what
its planned usage may be.

You can rely on us throughout your diesel

engines entire life: alongside the workshops of
vehicle manufacturers, 14,000 Bosch Service
locations worldwide provide a comprehensive
network of specialized workshops. Our Bosch
eXchange program, whereby used diesel
components are refurbished in Bosch factories,
is an active contribution to husbanding
resources and protecting the environment.
In addition, the more favorable prices benefit
both you and your customers. Our Automotive
Tradition experts are always available to advise
and assist all lovers of historic diesel vehicles.
The future needs the past
We know where our roots are and we know that
we will be accompanying diesels far into the
future with developments that we are bringing
to series maturity today. And we look forward
to doing so with your help so you can depend
on us!

First series-mature
diesel injection
First complete
diesel system
First distributor
First electronic
diesel control unit
First diesel direct
First unit injector
First common rail
First common rail
system with piezo

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4 | Diesel Systems

Bosch and
for diesels

The Audi R15 TDI dovetails into the

success story of its predecessor, the
Audi R10 TDI. In 2006 the Audi R10
TDI, with a Common Rail System
jointly developed by Audi Sport and
Bosch, was the first diesel vehicle to
win the Le Mans 24-hour race. And it
won again in 2007. And yet again in

The enthusiasm and know-how with which we throw ourselves

since 1990 due to
innovations from
Bosch for diesel
engines in cars:

into the challenge of making diesels ever better is best shown by

looking at the past twenty years or so. Because this is precisely the
time when our innovations particularly the Common Rail System
in 1997 made a decisive contribution to the unique diesel success

98 percent
lower particulate

story. And now, at this present point in time, old prejudices among
end users are being swept away by ever more economical, even
thriftier, quieter yet at the same time considerably more sporty diesel
So it is no wonder that nowadays virtually every second newly regis
tered passenger car in Europe is a diesel, and that in total almost a
quarter of all vehicles worldwide are driven by a modern compressionignition engine. Globally, we predict that the share of diesel vehicles
will continue to rise over the years to come. Because the victorious
march of the most economical diesel engines of all time is meanwhile
conquering even markets where tough opposition had previously been
encountered: for instance in the USA, or in Asia.

19902009: Diesels compared to diesels

Since the early 1990s we have succeeded in
drastically reducing the pollutant emissions of
diesel engines: in passenger cars, for example,
nitrous-oxide emissions have been reduced by
96 percent; particulate emissions have fallen by
as much as 98 percent. Parallel to this develop
ment, the fuel consumption, and thus the CO2
output of diesel vehicles, has been considerably
The most important milestone here has undoubt
edly been our Common Rail System, meanwhile
performing service in over 50 million diesel
engines and operating, depending on the version
involved, at pressures from 2,200 bar in passen
ger cars up to 2,500 bar in commercial vehicles.
These high pressures and the possibility to
individually adapt the injection rate by separating pressure production, pressure storage
and fuel injection have led, on the one hand,

to optimized fuel distribution and combustion

and thus, on the other hand, to massive reductions in untreated emissions while at the same
time increasing the dynamic performance of
diesel engines.
In addition, further fundamental improvements
in combustion behavior such as higher turbocharger pressures together with higher exhaustgas recirculation rates under part load conditions have gradually made diesel engines even
To supplement measures inside the engine, it
was our ideas for efficient exhaust-gas treatment systems which ensured that modern diesel
engines have always been and still are one step
or rather several years ahead of the evermore-demanding emissions legislation. How we
foresee the progress of the next twenty years is
set out on pages 14 and 15.

96 percent
reduction in
nitrous oxide
including hydro
carbon emissions
98 percent
drop in carbon
monoxide emissions
And for diesel
engines in commercial vehicles:
97 percent
lower particulate
86 percent
reduction in
nitrous oxide
including hydrocarbon emissions
87 percent
drop in carbon
monoxide emissions

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6 | Diesel Systems

Bosch for the most

economical diesel
of all times

A 40-tonne diesel traveling

1,000 kilometers consumes
about a tablespoon of fuel
for every kilogram of goods

In the old days, diesels were bought almost exclusively for their fuel

between a modern
diesel and a comparable gasoline
passenger car:

economy and sturdiness. Nobody would have thought of describing

a diesel as clean, never mind sporty. How times have changed!
How more and better technology and maximum fuel economy can
be combined to harmonize with environmental compatibility and dy

Over 30 percent
lower fuel

namic performance is proven today by every modern diesel engine,

no matter what its planned utilization may be.

About 40 percent
greater range

Private motorists and commercial-vehicle customers benefit to the

same extent from this fuel economy. Economic parameters are enor
mously important particularly for transport companies and other
fleet operators for whom every cent per kilometer saved is a decisive
factor for competitiveness in their bottom-line financial calculations.
Low fuel consumption combined with a high degree of dependability,
and thus shorter down times, add up to the ideal price-to-performance
ratio of todays diesels.

Economy meets ecology

Our developments contribute not only to
maximum cost efficiency but are, at the same
time, the foundation for meeting the ever-moredemanding standards and threshold values of
global emission legislation. Thanks to innovations from Bosch it is already technically
possible today to meet the strict regulations of
the EU6 standard that will probably come into
force in 2014. By comparison with a technically
equivalent gasoline vehicle, a diesel car of
today consumes over 30 percent less fuel, thus
emitting about 25 percent less CO2 while being
able to travel around 40 percent farther. In
addition, it has roughly 50 percent higher
torque. And despite commonly-held opinions,
a diesel passenger car is often an economical
proposition even if the annual mileage is less
than 10,000 kilometers. Check it out for
yourself at

Keeping up with the times

Getting better all the time is, for us, both a
challenge and reality. So we never rest on our
laurels, but are working day by day on new
technical approaches such as solutions for
further significant downsizing of engines.
With our ideas we provide our colleagues at
the vehicle manufacturers with new tools to
enable ever smaller and ever more economical
engines to be constructed without any loss of
We are diligently working for you to globalize
diesels and are at your disposal on the spot all
over the world whenever engine and vehicle
concepts have to be designed for a particular
region, a particular market, a particular demand.
And of course this service extends from the
prototype right up to large-series production
and far beyond that.

Some 25 percent
lower CO2
Around 50 percent
higher torque
A diesel passenger
car is frequently
an economical
proposition even
if the annual mileage is less than
10,000 kilometers

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8 | Diesel Systems

Bosch and diesels

for town, country
and the sea

We supply individual components

and complete systems for passenger
cars and light commercial vehicles
with engine capacities from 0.4 to
6.7 liters; for heavy trucks from 3.3
to 19 liters; for large diesel engines
from 1.5 to 110 liters per cylinder.

What do fruit from South America, shoes from Italy, tea from India,

Diesel engines
with components
and systems from
Bosch are not
only found in cars
and commercial

machines from Germany, computers from the USA and televisions

from Asia all have in common? The answer is as logical as it is simple:
no matter where we live in the world, all these goods and products
are brought to us by diesels. Whether from near or far a diesel is
always part of the equation.

Additional fields
of application
include, among

And thus so is Bosch. Because from the smallest to the largest

engine application, from cars, light commercial vehicles and gigantic
trucks right up to container ships, from stationary single-cylinder
engines right up to big dumper trucks and many other off-highway
applications, we develop and manufacture individual components
and complete systems for diesel injection as series products. So
thanks to our worldwide presence we are able to offer you local and
global solutions from a single supplier.

Tailor-made system competence

We develop our diesel components specifically
for integration in a system and tailored to every
model range, every vehicle type and every engine
From engine management via air management
right up to exhaust-gas management we offer
you an integrated system solution with co
ordinated interfaces for every application. For
only the perfect interplay of all system components, from starter systems, control units, injectors, sensors, nozzles and injection pumps,
can guarantee maximum performance and, at
the same time, minimized fuel-consumption and
emission values.

All these components and systems and many,

many others are developed, applied and manu
factured by us for you.
Additionally, we undertake intensive fundamental research into and development of materials
and production processes in order to always
have the best possible solution ready for you in
keeping with the differing requirements of
global markets with regard to technology and

Stationary diesel
for example emergency generators

such as tractors
or combine harvesters
such as bulldozers
and dump trucks

Rail vehicles:
such as railcars
and diesel loco
ranging from yachts
to ocean giants

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10 | Diesel Systems

Bosch for a
diesels entire
working life

Annual savings achieved by series

refurbishment: approx. 500 tonnes
of steel, 180 tonnes of aluminum,
2,750 tonnes of CO2 and an energy
saving of 7,000,000 kilowatt hours
(corresponds to the energy requirements of a small town for two

We stand by our products. And we stand by the products of our

Full service from

Bosch for diesels:

customers! Right from the start and throughout all development

stages we offer you our specialists and engineering services such


as items in the field of tailor-made functions and software for diesel

engine control units. Here we can guarantee to be close to you or
if you wish even right inside your factory.
Our developments and applications match your very individual
requirements and wishes for large-series production, projects in
volving a small number of items right down to special versions.
At our technical test centers worldwide we carry out standardized
tests and measurements for you and, last but not least, we manufac
ture your product to the highest possible quality and in accordance
with strict ecological guidelines that even exceed the legal require
ments long before they become applicable.

Bosch is there for you any time

and any place
We are there for you and your customers
throughout a diesels long working life. Even
when developing our products we place great
importance on rapid and precise diagnostic
capabilities. Our sophisticated logistics concept permits us to make spares quickly avail-

able and to keep workshop times at all service

centers worldwide as short as possible. In addition, we ensure that repairs carried out reflect
the age value of the item and are ecologically
sensible whether by the use of new parts,
through the Bosch eXchange program of seriesrefurbished products or by means of expert
repairs at our specialized Bosch Diesel Centers.
And all this throughout the entire long life of
the vehicle.
Full service as we understand it
We even support lovers of classic vehicles via
out Bosch Automotive Tradition division by
stocking and sourcing rare spare parts or even
having them specially made. As the original
manufacturer we are, after all, the only ones
with the necessary know-how and complete

Test centers
Bosch service network in all regions

Bosch eXchange

Bosch automotive

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12 | Diesel Systems

Bosch puts its trust

in diesels put your
trust in us

We do not constantly redefine our

strategy, but stick to it even in
constantly changing circumstances.
(Franz Fehrenbach, Chairman of
the Board of Management of Robert
Bosch GmbH)

The Workshop for Precision Mechanics founded by Robert Bosch in

Investment in
research and
development in

1886 has developed in the course of over 120 years into the worlds
largest automobile components supplier and the technological
leader especially for diesels. Its is the hard work of each individual,
their willingness to take a long-term approach, accept mistakes and
overcome setbacks which has permitted Bosch to build up a company
culture rich in tradition and experience yet always oriented toward the
future. For us the past is not a comfortable chair to simply rest upon,
it is always a springboard to the future true to the philosophy of
the founder of our company, Robert Bosch, who once said: Those
who have ceased to be better have ceased to be good!
Even today we owe our independence to his foresightedness. This
is why we at Bosch still think and act with a view to the long term
without looking for short-term gain and financing our growth from
our own profits. To allow this to succeed, our internal obligation is
to constantly use our new ideas and innovations to set market-ori
ented trends in the motor-vehicle sector in general and on the diesel
market in particular, trends that we drive forward until we achieve
success. With this aim in mind we also participate strongly on the
international level on numerous technical boards and committees.

It is better to lose money than peoples

At Bosch, corporate culture is not just a
phrase. It is, rather, the result of the trust
which we have built up for ourselves over decades of contact with you. Long-term cooperation among partners is the foundation of the
relationship between our customers and ourselves. The above quote from Robert Bosch is
our guiding star, the maxim which we will continue to follow without compromise and which
is mirrored both in the way we treat each other
and in our claim to supply you exclusively with
nothing but top quality.

Invented for life 3,850 times

With firm decision we continuously invest more
money in research and development than any
other player in the market. In Automotive Technology, the most research-intensive sector of
our company, investments of some 3.25 billion
euros in 2008 amounted to around 12 percent of
turnover and thus some 12 percent more than in
2007. With more than 3,850 inventions, about
15 patents per working day, the Bosch Group
was the biggest patent applicant in Germany in
2008. Around 45 percent of these patents help
to conserve the environment and our natural
But money alone cannot generate innovations
these only mature in creative brains. At the
start of 2009 our research and development
departments had a staff of at least 32,500, over
10,000 of them outside Europe, over 7,000 in
Asia alone. For a long time now, our innovations
have been the results of international networking.

Bosch Group:
3.9 billion euros
around 9 percent
more than in the
previous year and
some 9 percent of
our total turnover
Worldwide, the
Bosch Group employs a staff of over
32,500 in research
and development,
18,300 of them in
A total of over
3,850 patents.
Around 45 percent
of these help to
conserve the environment and our
natural resources
Automotive Technology Division:
3.25 billion euros
12 percent more
than in the previous year and some
12 percent of our
total turnover

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14 | Diesel Systems

Bosch and the

diesels of the

If the share of diesel vehicles on

the German car market rose by only
1 percent, around 90 million liters
of fuel or about 210,000 tonnes of
CO2 could be saved. This corresponds to the CO2 output of 65,000
vehicles with an annual mileage of
20,000 kilometers.

The future of automobile traffic is electric. Most experts and research

Diesels on the
way to the future:

institutes are in agreement here. At first it is assumed that only very

small numbers will be involved. The probable forecast for 2015 is
around 500,000 new vehicle registrations worldwide. A good start,
but still far too few to sustainably help the automobile industry to
meet the stricter CO2 regulations applicable to the fleet of new cars
required for Europe. Therefore, it is all the more important to continue
to consistently reduce the fuel consumption of internal combustion
We at Bosch assume that internal combustion engines will continue
to play a dominant role for the next 20 to 30 years. Consequently we
are continuing to develop our diesel systems as a top priority so
successfully indeed that we can forecast further reductions in fuel
consumption for diesel engines of up to 30 percent over the next few
Parallel to this, we are pushing ahead with the electrification of the
powertrain. With our partner Samsung, for instance, we have com
menced a joint venture to develop to market maturity the lithium-ion
batteries of the future.

Even better diesels will be here tomorrow

In a few years, a mid-range compression-ignition car will only need 3 liters of fuel for 100
kilometers with a CO2 output of less than
100 grams per kilometer. And we predict that
this can also be achieved for lower vehicle segments even for future exhaust-gas standards
without additional costs.
The technical potential for this already exists.
Further increases in injection pressures and
turbocharging, improvements which we are
working on in our joint project with Mahle, will
permit an even more pronounced downsizing
of engines. This development will lead to a reduction in the number of cylinders. It is certain
that more 3-cylinder engines will be developed
and built in the very near future.
An important role will also be given to down
speeding. Specially designed transmissions
will reduce engine revolutions, resulting in
lower frictional losses in the engine and thus
greater efficiency.
Further measures such as improvements in
thermal management which will permit the
cooling system to adapt to the requirements of
operating conditions, or the Start/Stop System
which automatically switches off the engine
when the vehicle is stationary and re-starts it
when needed, offer a great deal of potential for

And the diesel hybrid will be here the day

after tomorrow
Nothing can disguise the fact that our oil reserves will one day dry up.
So a company with a long-term orientation like
Bosch adjusts at an early stage to fundamental developments. This is why we have been
involved in the subject of hybrids for over 30
years and now possess comprehensive knowhow on the management of batteries, electric
drives and brakes as well as engine and transmission control.
At our Hybrid Project House, hundreds of
specialists are working outside the confines of
our individual Divisions to develop systems and
components for hybrid and electric vehicles.
So we are developing both the car of tomorrow
and that of the day after tomorrow.

Higher injection

Improved turbocharging





Diesel hybrid

Robert Bosch GmbH

Diesel Systems
Postfach 30 02 20
70442 Stuttgart
Fax: +49 711 811-45090
Printed in Germany