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# Fig. 5.

1
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3

## Silo and bunker pressure calculations

shaft pressures
hopper pressures
wall thickness of concrete and metal sheet silos

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.1

Fig. 5.2
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

ph

pv

silo height H

## height level of flattened

free bulk surface

## silo pressures pv and ph

pv

ph

intersection between
shaft and hopper

ph
pv

filling
discharging
height level of
discharge opening

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.2

Fig. 5.3
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.3

Fig. 5.4
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.4

Fig. 5.5
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

## Active and Passive Rankine's Stress State Limits

given: pv = 1 = b.g y
c, i

active

passive
x

pv

ph,a

i
+
4 2

cohesion c

of

po
siti
on

## Yield locus: = tani +c = tani ( + Z)

or R = sin i (M + Z)
of

pa
ssi
ve

us
loc
d
l
yie

po
siti
on

ph,p

pla
ne
she
ar

active

R,a i

i
tensile
strength Z

act
ive

shear stress

- i
4 2

pv

pv
ph,a

pv

she
ar

R,p

pla
ne

passive

1,p - 2,p
2
p =

2a
ph,a
2,a

a=

i
+
4
2

pv
1,a
2,p

M,p =

principal stresses

ph,a
pv

1,p

passive

1 - sin i
1 + sin i

= a =

ph,p

normal stress

1+

2 cos i
c
1 + sini

1,p =

lateral or
horizontal
stress ratio

i
4 2

1,p + 2,p
2

active
2,a =

ph,p

1 - sin i
1 + sin i

1 + sin i
1 - sin i

2,p+

2 cos i
1 - sini

## upper limit for c = 0

= tan2 (

i
4 2

ph,p
pv

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

1 + sin i

i
= tan2 ( +
4 2
1 - sin i
Figure 5.5

Fig. 5.6
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.6

Fig. 5.7
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.7

Fig. 5.8
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.8

Fig. 5.9
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

## Wall Normal Pressures ph, pn of Wheat

measurements according to Scholz
wall normal pressures ph, pn in kPa
0

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

ph
D = 2,4 m

## mass flow (MF)

silo
G 807

2
23

pn

3 core flow
(CF)
c
=
1.8
3
30
4
height H, H' in m

flow
bondary

TGL 32274/09

## mass flow, switch load pn = b g (H or D),

DIN 1055 part 6

measured, filling
measured, discharging
calculated, filling
calculated, discharging,
load factors c1 = 1,4, c4 = 3,0
calculated, DIN 1055 part 6

storage time tL = 22 h
mFill
= 11,5 t
b
= 0,8 t/m3
e
= 33
w
= 23 steel sheet (CF)
w
= 18 steel sheet (MF)

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.9

Fig. 5.10
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering
Maximum Vertical Pressures (Filling) versus
Wall Friction Angle

## Maximum Vertical Pressures (Filling) versus Effektive

Angle of Internal Friction
w= 10
= 10 mass flow
A =0,725
U
H = 2,414
D

11

20

7
6

50

5 w
4 =10
3
2

10 20 30 40 50 60
e in deg

13

11

12

w= 10

30

4
3
2

w=10

max

0,4
0,3

e=30
0,7

-10
-50

1,5

boundaries
rough wall

max

max

40

0,6
0,5
0,4

4050
20
w=10

0,2
0,5

2,5

0,3

30
40

20

40
50
60

boundaries
rough wall

1,5
e=
30

50

30

0,1

10 20 30 40 50 60
w in deg

e=30

60

boundaries
rough wall

40
50
60

## Maximum Wall Friction Loads (Discharging) versus

Wall Friction Angle

20

p*w,

0,5

p*w,

0,6

2,5

30
40
50
60

## Maximum Wall Friction Loads (Discharging)

versus Effective Angle of Internal Friction

0,7

10 20 30 40 50 60
e in deg

p*h shaft
p*n hopper

p*n hopper

4 =30
3

40
50
60 boundaries
rough wall

20
30 40 50

max

20

9
8

max,

p*h,

p*h shaft

10

p*n,

p*n hopper

p*h,

max

p*n,
max,

## Maximum Normal Pressures (Discharging)

versus Wall Friction Angle

11
p*h shaft

10 20 30 40 50 60
w in deg

14

12

50

## Maximum Normal Pressures (Discharging) versus

Effective Angle of Internal Friction

e=30 40

shaft
hopper

10

60

40 50

30

boundary
rough wall

boundary
rough wall

p*w,

7
6
5

20

isostatic pressure

10

40
p*v, max

p*v, max

11

30

10

shaft
hopper

12

max

13
12

14
13

p* = p. U
b. g .A

p*w,

14

60
40

50

0,2
p*w shaft
p*w hopper

0,5
0,1

10
0

0
0

10 20 30 40 50 60
e in deg

0
0

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

10 20 30 40 50 60
w in deg
Figure 5.10

Fig. 5.11
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering
Maximum Vertical Pressures (Filling) versus Effektive
Angle of Internal Friction
w= 10
= 30 core flow
A =0,725
U
H = 2,414
D

10
9

30
40

7
p*v, max

11

50

6
5 w
4 =10

7
6
5

boundary
rough wall

20

30

40

20 30 40 50
e in deg

60

e=30

shaft
hopper
10

boundary
rough wall

50

1
0

isistatic pressure

60

## Maximum Normal Pressures (Discharging) versus

Effective Angle of Internal Friction
p*h shaft

11

p*n, max

p*h shaft

20
30
40

p*n hopper

50

5
4
2
1

1,0

max

=30 40 50
60

10

20 30 40 50
w in deg

60

## Maximum Wall Friction Loads (Discharging)

versus Wall Friction Angle

3
0,8
e=30 40

2,5

0,5

1,5
0,4
1

boundaries
rough wall

2
60

1,5

0,2

40

20

30

w=10

0,5
0,1

20
10

10

20 30 40 50
e in deg

50
0,3

30

60

50
60

0,6

50
0,3

boundaries
rough wall

0,9

0,7
e=60
boundaries
rough wall
10

=30
40
50
60
0

2,5

p*w,

max

Ip*w,

0,4

p*n hopper

7
6

## Maximum Wall Friction Loads (Discharging)

versus Effective Angle of Internal Friction

0,8

0,5

max,

60
boundaries
30
rough wall
40
50 60
20 30 40 50 60
e in deg

0,6

20

0,9

0,7

p*h shaft

max

1,0

p*h,

20
30
40
50

5
w
4 =10

10

60

Ip*w,

max

p*n,
p*h,

max,

7
6

20 30 40 50
w in deg

10

10

11

shaft
hopper

## Maximum Normal Pressures (Discharging)

versus Wall Friction Angle

w= 10

p*n hopper

10

40

50

max

20

p*w,

10

12

p* = p. U
b. g .A

p*v, max

11

## Maximum Vertical Pressures (Filling)

versus Wall Friction Angle

13

e =
30

0,2

40
p*h shaft

0,5

p*n hopper

0,1
0

0
0

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

10

20 30 40 50
w in deg

60

Figure 5.11

Fig. 5.12
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

## Necessary Steel Reinforcement of Concrete ASt

Di,1

pn

pn

Di

ASt =

Di,1 + Di,2
2

Di,2

ASt

F=0=p

Di =

H Di / cos 2 ASt H

(1)

p n Di s c j

(2)

2 F,St cos

b g Di2 s c j

ASt =
1 exp 4 F tan w
8 tan w F,St
D i

(3)

## load factors according to TGL 32 274/09

c j = 1 + c 3or 4 c1 cos
cj = c1 or c3 or c4
with c1 = 1,2 ... 1,6
c3 = 1,7 ... 2,1
c4 = 2,1 ... 4,0

hopper

(4)

shaft
discharging
core flow
mass flow

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.12

Fig. 5.13
Prof. Dr. J. Tomas, chair of Mechanical Process Engineering

Fig_SFPS_5 Storage and Flow of Particulate Solids Silo pressure calculations Prof. Dr. J. Tomas 05.05.2014

Figure 5.13