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:

Math 131

Solution Set 2

Dustin Cartwright

February 11, 2003

**T1 = the standard topology,
**

T2 = the topology of RK ,

T3 = the finite complement topology,

**13 1 Let X be topological space; let A be a subset of X.
**

Suppose that for each x ∈ A there is an open set U

containing x such that U ⊂ A. Show that A is open in

X. (5 points)

**T4 = the upper limit topology
**

T5 = the topology generated by all (−∞, a)

Determine, for each of these topologies, which of the

others it contains. (5 points)

**For each x ∈ A, let Ux be the open set such that x ∈ Ux ⊂
**

S

A. By the second axiom of topological spaces, x∈A Ux is

S

open, and I claim that x∈A Ux = A. Each Ux is contained

in A, so the union must also be contained in A. On the

other hand, for any x ∈ A, x ∈ Ux , so A is also contained

S

S

in the union x∈A Ux . Therefore, A = x∈A Ux is an open

set.

T1 contains: T3 , T5

T2 contains: T1 , T3 , T5

T3 contains none of the other topolgogies

T4 contains: T1 , T2 , T3 , T5

T5 contains none of the other topologies

13 4(c) If X = {a, b, c}, let

T1 = {0,

/ X, {a}, {a, b}} and

**The only one slightly tricky one is T4 ⊃ T2 . This is
**

because

T2 = {0,

/ X, {a}, {b, c}}

Find the smallest topology containing T1 and T2 ,

and the largest topology contained in T1 and T2 . (5

points)

R − K = (−∞, 0] ∪

∞

[

n=1

(

The smallest topology containing T1 and T2 is:

1 1

, ) ∪ (1, ∞)

n+1 n

**is the union of opens in T4 , and thus open. Any open set
**

in T2 is either already open in the standard R topology,

or U − K = U ∩ (R − K), where U is open in the standard topology. In either case, because T4 contains both

the standard topology and R − K, the open set is open in

T4 .

{0,

/ X, {a}, {b}, {a, b}, {b, c}}

The largest topology contained in T1 and T2 is:

{0,

/ X, {a}}

13 8(a) Apply Lemma 13.2 to show that the countable collection

13 6 Show that the topologies of R` and RK are not comparable. (10 points)

B = {(a, b) | a < b, a and b rational}

**To do this it is necessary to give an open set in each
**

which is not open in the other.

I claim that [3, 4) is open in R` , but not in RK . Clearly,

the former is true, since [3, 4) is a basis element. The latter

is true because there is no basis element B for RK such that

3 ∈ B ⊂ [3, 4). This is because if B contains 3, whether it

is of the form (a, b), or (a, b) − K, a must be less than 3,

so there must be an x such that max(a, 2) < x < 3. Thus,

x 6∈ K, so x is in the basis element B, but x is not in [3, 4).

I claim that A := (−1, 1) − K is open in RK , but not in

R` . Again, the former is obvious, because the set is a basis

element for RK . In the latter case, we want to show that

there is no basis element B for R` such that 0 ∈ B ⊂ A.

Let B = [a, b) be a basis element which contains 0. Then

a ≤ 0, and b > 0. Pick any integer n such that n > 1/b.

Then 1/n ∈ B, but 1/n is in K, and thus it is not in A, so

B 6⊂ A.

**is a basis that generates the standard topology on R.
**

(5 points)

Lemma: If x and y are points in R such that x < y, then

there exists a rational number z such that x < z < y.

Proof: Let n be an integer larger than 1/(y − x). Thus,

n(y − x) = ny − nx > 1, and so there exists an integer

strictly between the the two, i.e. m such that nx < m < ny.

Let z = mn , so that, dividing the inequality by n, we get

x < z < y.

Now, let U be an open subset of R, and x any element of

U. Let B = (a, b) denote the basis element in U containing

x. As given by the lemma, choose rational a0 , b0 , such that

a < a0 < x < b0 < b. Then x ∈ (a0 , b0 ) ⊂ B ⊂ U. By Lemma

13.2, B is therefore a basis for R.

1

suppose U is an open set in Rd × R. Now consider L in R` × R` . U is open in Rd × R.(b) Show that the collection sides of the rectangle B. Let x × y be any point in U. ) n+1 n so it is the union of sets which are open in both Y and R. where Rd denotes R in the discrete topology. Thus. Which of the following sets are open in Y ? Which are open in R? (5 points) A = {x | 12 < |x| < 1} B = {x | 12 < |x| ≤ 1} C = {x | 12 ≤ |x| < 1} D = {x | 12 ≤ |x| ≤ 1} E = {x | 0 < |x| < 1 and 1/x 6∈ Z+ } ax × ay ≤ x × cy < x × y < x × dy ≤ bx × by so that. Again there are two cases: L is vertical or has non-negative slope. dy ) ⊂ U. so U is open in R × R with the dictionary order topology. In the former case. because the intersection with B is always of the form (c. We can shrink this interval such that the first coordinates are all x: Pick any cy < y if ax < x. but a is irrational. and x × y any point in U. and this is in T because C ∈ C . A. b) × [c. 0) ∪ [ n∈Z+ ( 1 1 . U = [a. which contains a ∈ U. If arbitrary points are open in L. d). the line has the standard topology. say π. This generates the lower limit limit topology on L ≡ R` . meaning that L has a basis consisting of half-open intervals. and cy = ay if ax = x. Let B = [a0 . The result is. (5 points) Let a be your favorite irrational number. For any point (x. B. There are two cases: L is vertical. so a0 must be strictly less than a. (10 points) Let U be an open set in the dictionary order topology on R × R. a and b rational} is a basis that generates a topology different from the lower limit topology on R. and dy = by otherwise. Conversely. 1] as a subspace of R. x + 1) × [y. 16 8 If L is a straight line in the plane. 2 . y + 1) is an open set in R` × R` . Compare this topology with the standard topology on R2 . and L is not vertical. since L passes through at most one of the left and bottom T = {X −C | C ∈ C } is a topology on X. pick dy > y if bx > x. the line has the discrete topology. In the latter case. Similarly. or the open interval if not. x × y ∈ {x} × (cy . The point x × y is contained in some open interval. Here a basis is all sets of the form B = [a. Show that the collection First consider L in R` × R. so U is not open in the topology generated by C. B = [x. B is not contained within U. then L must have the discrete topology. b0 ) be any basis element in C . and E are open in Y . Therefore x × y ∈ (x × a. A and E are open in R. (5 points) The set T contains both 0/ = X − X and X = X − 0. where W is open in R. Because the discrete topology is finer than the standard topology on R. and that finite unions and arbitrary intersections of elements of C are in C . d). and L has negative slope. E is open because E = (−1. which is contained in U. In the latter case. there is some interval (a. b) ⊂ W ⊂ R. and less than or equal to a. b) such that y ∈ (a. 16 9 Show that the dictionary order topology on the set R × R is the same as the product topology Rd × R. Thus. (10 points) 17 1 Let C be a collection of subsets of the set X. which is open in Rd × R. y). In the former case. describe the topology L inherits as a subspace of R` × R and as a subspace of R` × R` . Suppose that 0/ and X are in C . b) is open in R` . say ax ×ay < x×y < bx × by . x × y is contained in some V × W . / If {X −Cα }α∈J is an arbitrary collection of elements of T . By the definition of the product topology. then [ \ X −Cα = X − Cα α∈J α∈J by De Morgan’s laws. but not in the topology generated by C . the intersection of L with B can be either a half-open interval if L intersects the left side of B. Then a0 must be rational. x × b) ∈ U. C = {[a. A basis for this topology is of the form B = [a. b) | a < b. the product topology Rd × R is finer than the standard topology R2 = R × R. the line has the R` topology. In each case it is a familiar topology. 16 3 Consider the set Y = [−1. d). Thus. b) × (c. and b any number greater than a. but the intersection of this set with L is just the point (x. y) on the line.

Show that (a. 3 . ∞). The case when x > b is similar. b) = [a. and call this c.2. If x is the smallest element in X. then A is closed in X. if b has an immediate predecessor. but not (a. Conversely. b) are the points a and b themselves. say d. Suppose that x < a. Assume that (a. it is necessary to give some condition which talks about X as an ordered set. if (X −C1 ). Therefore. 17 5 Let X be an ordered set in the order topology. But then A is the intersection of two sets. then pick y < x. / or. a ∈ (a. Under what conditions does equality hold? (5 points) This follows because [a. so A is closed in X. which is disjoint from [a. which is disjoint from [a. which does not meet (a. A must equal B ∩ Y for some closed set B in X. d) is an open interval containing a. so that x ∈ (y. which contradicts hypothesis. b]. a). Equality holds iff a has no immediate successor and b has no immediate predecessor.Similarly. Suppose a has an immediate successor. a). suppose x is a point outside of [a. b]. by Theorem 17. (5 points) Since A is closed in Y . Assume that (c. b]. b). Similarly. both closed in X. Thus. (X −Cn ) is a finite set of elements of T . in other words. The only points in [a. Note that it is not sufficient to answer the last question by saying a and b have to be limit points of (a. then n \ i=1 X −Ci = X − n [ Ci = X −C i=1 and this is in T because C ∈ C . which does not meet (a. b ∈ (a. b] is a closed set in the order topology. Since X is presented as an ordered set. then x ∈ [x. b). d) = 0. b). b). a is not in (a. b) ⊂ [a. 17 2 Show that if A is closed in Y and Y is closed in X. so the equality holds. c) is an open set which contains a. and (a. then b is contained in the open set (d. d is the immediate successor of a. . In particular. If x is not the smallest element. b]. b]. b). Then (−∞. Similarly. b). b) or something similar. . b]. since b does not have an immediate predecessor. . Thus d > a. suppose that a has no immediate successor and b has no immediate predecessor. . Thus. but does not meet (a. a cannot have an immediate successor and b cannot have an immediate predecessor.

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